Coleoxestia waterhousei (Gounelle, 1909)

Casari, Sônia A. & Albertoni, Fabiano F., 2017, Immatures of Cerambycinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) collected in Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae) in Brazil, Zootaxa 4254 (2), pp. 240-254: 241-247

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Coleoxestia waterhousei (Gounelle, 1909)


Coleoxestia waterhousei (Gounelle, 1909) 

( Figs 1‒28View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10View FIGURES 11 ‒ 15View FIGURES 16 ‒ 23View FIGURES 24 ‒ 25View FIGURES 26 ‒ 28)

Description of larva. Length: 36‒46 mm.

Coloration yellowish cream ( Figs 11‒15View FIGURES 11 ‒ 15). Head yellowish and brown at exposed area and cream at remainder areas; mouth frame from dark reddish-brown to black; mandibles black; maxillae, labium and antennae partially brown. Pubescence long, fine and golden, more concentrate on anterior region of pronotum and laterally on body. Thorax and abdomen with semicircular and spine-shaped asperites.

Head ( Figs 1, 2View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10, 14, 15View FIGURES 11 ‒ 15) extensible, deeply retracted into prothorax, glabrous except for anterior region; prognathous, moderately convex dorsally and flattened ventrally. Head capsule narrowed on anterior third; lateral margins sinuous; posterior margin wide and slightly rounded. Median frontal line and endocarina short, not reaching anterior margin; dorsomedian cranial duplicature longer than a half of cephalic capsule. Epistomal margin ( Figs 1, 7View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10) sinuous, strongly sclerotized, prominent in middle forming one rounded tooth; with one pair of setae on each side. Each epicranial half dorsally with three long lateral setae on mouth frame (except two epistomal), four moderately long setae in a row parallel to lateral margin, three tiny setae near base of mouth frame and two tiny setae (one on right side) near apex of median frontal line. One stemma below each antenna. Occipital foramen very large, divided into two portions: pars minor rounded anteriorly and on hind angles, and pars major as long as wide, with rounded angles. Ventrally, each side of head capsule with three long lateral setae on mouth frame and a row with three tiny setae near hypostomal line; numerous tiny setae dispersed between hypostomal lines (not represented on Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10). Gular line absent. Antennae ( Figs 3, 4View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10, 14, 15View FIGURES 11 ‒ 15) short, extensible, with antennifer long and membranous; with three elongate antennomeres: basal with two laterodorsal campaniform sensilla; median with one laterodorsal campaniform sensillum and four short setae near apex (one dorsal, two ventral and one lateral), and at apex, one short membranous conical sensorium and distal antennomere; distal antennomere narrower and shorter than remainders, with four moderately long and two short and stout setae at apex. Clypeus ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10) membranous, band-shaped and narrow, one third of epistomal margin. Labrum ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10) narrower than clypeus, rounded with band of long and stout setae near margins. Epipharynx ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10) rounded anteriorly, with numerous stout and long setae towards middle, and one pair of long setae and about nine campaniform sensilla in middle; each side with several miscrospines near middle and one basal elongate sclerite. Mandibles ( Figs 16‒23View FIGURES 16 ‒ 23) slightly asymmetrical, varying slightly in size and shape; wide, concave at mesal area with cutting edge widely rounded; one semicircular transverse furrow dorsal and one ventral on distal third, longer and deeper on right ventral mandible; basal margin of groove more prominent; external face microtuberculate near base, with two setae. Maxilla ( Figs 5, 6View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10): partially membranous; stipes with brown, inclined, transversal band near middle and a few long setae, more concentrate near lateral margin; cardines and maxillary articulating areas fused to postmentum; mala wide and rounded with numerous long and stout ventral setae; dorsally, mala margined by microspines and covering lateral margin of labium (separated in Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10); palpifer partially membranous with several long and stout setae near anterior margin, more concentrate internally. Maxillary palpus with three palpomeres: basal, wider than long, ventrally with four setae (one long) and two campaniform sensilla, and dorsally with four campaniform sensilla near base; median palpomere longer than wide, ventrally with one campaniform sensillum and two setae; distal palpomere elongate, narrower and shorter than previous, ventrally with two campaniform sensilla and one seta and several peg-shaped sensilla at apex. Labium ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10): submentum membranous, with two long and stout setae near middle and four or five campaniform sensilla on each side and one in middle; mentum wider than long, trapezoidal, with many long and stout setae on anterior third, and numerous campaniform sensilla dispersed by whole surface; prementum wider than long, with brown basal band, two campaniform sensilla near middle and numerous stout and long setae near anterior margin; ligula narrow, slightly shorter than basal palpomere, with apex narrow and rounded with five long and stout setae and two campaniform sensilla. Labial palpi with two palpomeres: basal almost as long as wide, ventrally with one campaniform sensillum and five stout and long setae near lateroanterior margins (three external and two internal); distal palpomere elongate, narrower than previous with peg-shaped sensilla at apex. Hypopharynx ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10) membranous, bulging, elongate and narrowed apicad; densely microspined on anterior half; several stout setae on microspined area, longer near apex; basal half with a folded microspined membrane with numerous long setae in middle.

Prothorax wider than long, convex dorsally and flat ventrally; median line, lateral furrow and postnotal fold distinct; one large, transverse, irregular yellow dorsal plate each side of median line and one smaller plate near each lateral pronotal furrow; two yellowish patches on mediopresternum and one on each lateropresternum. Basal area of prothorax with coarse subcircular asperites, dispersed in one transverse median band with anterior margin sinuous, below dorsal plates; numerous long setae near anterior and basal margins of yellow patches; ventrally sternellum distinct, with subcircular asperites below yellowish patches, smaller than dorsal; spine-shaped asperites distributed at internal side of yellowish lateral patches; setae long and dense on presternum; sternellum with one pair of legs. Leg ( Figs 10View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10, 12, 13View FIGURES 11 ‒ 15) short, located ventrolaterally on thorax, partially membranous and 4-segmented: coxa wide with one seta and two campaniform sensilla externally; femur slightly longer than wide, with four long and stout setae ventrolateral, one short seta dorsal and two campaniform sensilla near base; tibiotarsus elongate with two long and stout setae lateroexternal and one internal; pretarsus elongate and narrowed apicad, imbricately spinose. Meso- and metathorax short, band-shaped, together shorter than prothorax; each with one ampulla dorsal and one ventral on each side. Mesothorax spiculate (spine-shaped spicules) in three small dorsal areas: one transverse median and two lateroanterior; densely setose laterodorsal and lateroventral; with a large transverse elliptical lateroventral spiracle ( Figs 9View FIGURES 1 ‒ 10, 13View FIGURES 11 ‒ 15); ventrally with a transverse elliptical sparsely spiculate (spine-shaped spicules) band near middle, and one leg on each side near base. Metathorax with one dorsal and one ventral transverse furrow with numerous spine-shaped spicules on each side; numerous setae laterodorsal and lateroventral; one leg on each side, near base of spiculate ventral area.

Abdomen with transversal median dorsal and ventral elliptical ampullae, and small rounded laterodorsal anterior ampullae. Segments I ‒VI increasing in length and decreasing in width; segment VII longest; VII ‒VIII slightly wider than previous; segments I ‒VII each with one wide, elliptical ampulla dorsal and one ventral, weakly furrowed longitudinal-medially; segments I ‒VII with one transverse elliptical area dorsal and one ventral with spine-shaped asperites, wider laterally; asperites disposed in irregular sparse rows of spine-shaped asperites; segments I ‒VIII each with one elliptical lateral spiracle, decreasing in size apicad; segment IX short, slightly narrowed apicad; segment X reduced and rounded, with trilobed apex; anal lobes with few long setae.

Description of pupa ( Figs 24, 25View FIGURES 24 ‒ 25, 28View FIGURES 26 ‒ 28).Length: 30 mm.

Coloration yellowish; thorax and abdomen with brown dorsal microspines, each with one basal seta. Head partially visible dorsally; frons furrowed longitudinal-medially, between eyes.

Pronotum elongate, slightly narrowed anteriad, with one lateromedian rounded lobe on each side; anterior third of discal area with a median rounded tubercle concave on posterior face; anterior margin prominent in middle; lateral margin with triangular projection near middle; hind angles short and rounded; numerous microspines dispersed on whole surface, each with one long basal seta. Mesonotum shorter than metanotum; scutellar area slightly prominent posteriorly. Metanotum with two or three microspines on each side, near middle, each with a long basal seta.

Abdominal segments band-shaped; segments I ‒IV increasing and segments V ‒VIII decreasing in width to apex direction; segment I with transverse, irregular, sparse, dorsal row of microspines, each with a long basal seta; segments II ‒VII, each with two irregular rounded patches of microspines, each with one long basal seta; density and size of microspines increasing apicad; segments I ‒VII with lateral microspines, larger than dorsal; segment VII narrow and longest; segment VIII band-shaped with one row of small spines; segment IX narrow and circular, with five dorsal microspines; segment X reduced, rounded with bilobed apex and surrounded by segment IX; segments I ‒VI with a pair of laterodorsal spiracles; non-functional spiracles absent. Ventrally abdominal segments with two microspines each side.

Material examined. BRAZIL. Paraná: Carlopolis (Fazenda Teolandia), in Litchi chinensis  , 17.XI.2008, Jorge Yooki Ito leg., 5 larvae, 1 pupa and 1 adult fixed (MZSP-10342). 

Remarks. The only species of Sphallotrichina with described larva is Sphallotrichus setosus (Germar, 1824)  [described as Sphallenum setosum  ]. Comparing the larva of Coleoxestia waterhousei  with the description of Sphallotrichus setosus  it was observed that both species present epistomal margin prominent medially into a small subconical tubercle, antennae with three antennomeres and supplementary sensorial process minute, labrum fringed, one pair of stemmata, tibiotarsi imbricately spinose, and thorax and abdomen with sub-circular or spineshaped asperites. The larval differences observed are ( Coleoxestia waterhousei  parenthesized): labrum oval (rounded); pronotum with four orange plates (four yellow plates); pronotum densely covered with sub-circular asperites (partially covered with sub-circular asperites); prosternum asperate posterolaterally (asperate basal and laterally); gular sutures feebly raised (indistinct); legs 3-segmented (4-segmented).

According to Duffy (1960), the larvae of Sphallenum Bates, 1870  [actually Sphallotrichus Fragoso, 1982  ] “are not at all typical of the Cerambycini  , particularly as only a single pair of ocelli [stemmata] is present and the transverse furrows of the ampullae are feebly defined”.