Scinax muriciensis , Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Nunes, Ivan & Lima, Marcelo Gomes De, 2011

Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Nunes, Ivan & Lima, Marcelo Gomes De, 2011, A new Scinax Wagler belonging to the S. catharinae clade (Anura: Hylidae) from the State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil, Zootaxa 3096, pp. 18-26: 19-23

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.279107

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8219E63D-6D21-3C75-FF22-FB842AC064FA

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Scinax muriciensis
status

sp. nov.

Scinax muriciensis  sp. nov.

Figures 1‒2View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2

Holotype. MNRJAbout MNRJ 60189, adult male ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1), collected at Fazenda Bananeiras (09° 12 ʹS, 35 ° 52 ʹW, 509 m a. s. l.), Municipality of Murici, State of Alagoas, Brazil, on 15‒17 November 2005, by M.G. Lima, G. Skuk, M.C.C. Silva, F.F. Silva, and C.A.G. Cruz.

Paratypes. MNRJAbout MNRJ 60187‒60188 and MUFAL 5856, adult males, collected with the holotype.

Diagnosis. The new species differs from other species in the Scinax catharinae  clade by the following combination of traits: medium size (adult males SVL 27.0‒ 28.9 mm); W-shaped interocular blotch; green flash color in the inguinal region and hidden areas of thigh and shank; mucronate snout in dorsal view; externally distinguished vocal sac; marked canthus rostralis; vomerine teeth in two straight series; non-developed nuptial pad; presence of supernumerary tubercles on feet; absence of externally well developed inguinal glands; foot webbing formulae I – II 1 1 / 2–3 + III 1 1 / 2 – 2 1 / 2 IV 2 1 / 2 – 1 1 / 2 V.

Comparison with other species. Scinax muriciensis  can be distinguished from S. agilis  , S. angrensis  , S. argyreornatus  , S. aromothyella  , S. berthae  , S. carnevallii  , S. centralis  , S. heyeri  , S. luizotavioi  , S. machadoi  , S. ranki  , and S. tripui  by the greater SVL in males (combined SVLs 13.5‒26.5 mm of males in those species; Cruz & Peixoto 1983 “ 1982 ”, Andrade & Cardoso 1987, Peixoto and Weygoldt 1987, Caramaschi & Kisteumacher 1989, Pombal and Bastos 1996, Faivovich 2005, Lourenço et al. 2009, present study), and from S. rizibilis  by the greater SVL, but with slight overlap (SVLs of males 25.0–27.0 mm; B. Lutz 1973). The smaller SVL of males separates S. muriciensis  from S. ariadne  , S. brieni  , and S. catharinae  (combined SVLs 30.4‒38.1 mm of males in these species; Bokermann 1967, Heyer et al. 1990, Lourenço et al. 2009, present study). The W-shaped interocular spot differentiates S. muriciensis  from S. agilis  , S. albicans  , S. argyreornatus  , S. ariadne  , S. aromothyella  , S. berthae  , S. brieni  , S. canastrensis  , S. carnevallii  , S. catharinae  , S. centralis  , S. hiemalis  , S. jureia  , S. longilineus  , S. luizotavioi  , S. machadoi  , S. obtriangulatus  , S. ranki  , S. rizibilis  , and S. skaios  , in which the interocular spot is an inverted triangle and, sometimes, T-shaped, and from S. trapicheiroi  by its very large W-shaped interocular spot. In life, green flash colors in the inguinal region and on the hidden surfaces of thigh and shank distinguish S. muriciensis  from S. argyreornatus  , S. aromothyella  , S. berthae  , S. canastrensis  , S. centralis  , S. flavoguttatus  , S. heyeri  , S. longilineus  , and S. machadoi  (yellow or orange in these species; Faivovich 2005), S. luizotavioi  (brown marbling; Caramaschi & Kisteumacher 1989), S. brieni  ans S. trapicheiroi  (blue; B. Lutz 1973, Lourenço et al. 2009), S. humilis  (pale blue to pallid turquoise; B. Lutz 1954, 1973), and S. obtriangulatus  (grayish violet, Lutz 1973), and, sometimes, S. carnevallii  and S. jureia  (black blotches on a whitish or green background; Caramaschi & Kisteumacher 1989, Pombal and Gordo 1991),. The mucronate snout in dorsal view differentiates S. muriciensis  from the rounded snout of S. ariadne  , S. aromothyella  , S. brieni  , S. catharinae  , S. hiemalis  , S. humilis  , S. jureia  , S. obtriangulatus  , S. ranki  , S. strigilatus  , and S. trapicheiroi  , the sub-elliptical snout of S. angrensis  , S. argyreornatus  , S. canastrensis  , S. centralis  , S. longilineus  , S. luizotavioi  , and S. rizibilis  , the subovoid snout of S. flavoguttatus  , S. heyeri  , S. skaios  , and S. tripui  , and the truncate snout of S. machadoi  . Scinax muriciensis  is distinguished from S. aromothyella  and S. berthae  by the externally distinguished vocal sac. Scinax muriciensis  can be differentiated by its marked canthus rostralis from S. agilis  , S. albicans  , S. angrensis  , S. argyreornatus  , S. ariadne  , S. aromothyella  , S. berthae  , S. canastrensis  , S. carnevallii  , S. centralis  , S. flavoguttatus  , S. hiemalis  , S. humilis  , S. kautskyi  , S. littoralis  , S. longilineus  , S. luizotavioi  , S. rizibilis  , S. skaios  , S. strigilatus  , and S. tripui  (well marked canthus rostralis). Vomerine teeth in two straight series distinguishes S. muriciensis  from S. agilis  , S. angrensis  , S. argyreornatus  , S. ariadne  , S. canastrensis  , S. kautskyi  , S. littoralis  , and S. longilineus  (vomerine teeth oblique in S. agilis  , S. angrensis  , S. argyreornatus  , S. kautskyi  , S. littoralis  , and S. longilineus  ; convex in S. ariadne  and S. canastrensis  ). The presence of a non-developed nuptial pad sets S. muriciensis  apart from S. rizibilis  (developed and hypertrophied nuptial pad) and S. tripui  (developed and non-hypertrophied nuptial pad). Scinax muriciensis  can be differentiated from S. angrensis  , S. luizotavioi  , and S. skaios  by the presence of supernumerary tubercles on the feet (absent in those species). The lack of externally well developed inguinal glands distinguishes S. muriciensis  from S. centralis  and S. hiemalis  . The foot webbing formula of S. muriciensis  (I – II 1 1 / 2–3 + III 1 1 / 2 – 2 1 / 2 IV 2 1 / 2 – 1 1 / 2 V) differentiates this new species from S. aromothyella  (I – II 2–3 + III 2–3 + IV 3 – 2 V), S. skaios  (I – II 1– 3 - III 1– 2 - IV 2 – 1 V), S. strigilatus  (I – II 2 -– 3 - III 1 1 / 2–3 - IV 3 -– 1 1 / 2 V), and S. tripui  (I – II 1 1 / 2 – 2 1 / 2 III 1 1 / 2 – 2 1 / 2 IV 2 1 / 2 – 1 + V). In addition, Scinax muriciensis  can be distinguished from S. strigilatus  , the most morphologically similar species, by the large granules on the forearm, higher and more acuminate snout in profile, and rounded finger discs (scattered small granules on the forearm, lower snout in profile, and elliptical finger discs in S. strigilatus  ).

Description of holotype. Body slender; head longer than wide (head length 39.6 % of SVL, head width 37 % of SVL); snout mucronate in dorsal view, and protruding in profile ( Figs 2View FIGURE 2 A, B); nostrils lateral with elliptical opening, dorsolateral, protruding at a level slightly posterior to tip of snout; internarial distance 77 % of END; canthus rostralis curved with some tubercles dispersed; loreal region slightly concave; eye large (32 % of HL), protruding laterally; interorbital distance 27 % of HW; tympanum large (47 % of ED), rounded, with distinct tympanic ring; and supratympanic fold well defined, granular; tongue cordiform, free posteriorly; choanae large, ovoid, well separated from oneanother; vomerine teeth in two short transverse series between choanae; vocal slits large. Arms and forearms slender; forearm longer than upper arm; hand ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C) lacking nuptial pads; length of fingers I<II<IV<III; webbing basal between Fingers I, II, and III, absent between Fingers III and IV; elliptical finger discs wider than long; single and conical subarticular tubercles; inner metacarpal tubercle large, elliptical; outer metacarpal tubercle divided in three ovoid parts, two anterior and one posterior; supernumerary tubercles small, dispersed on the hand. Legs slender, tibia longer than thigh, sum of thigh and tibia lengths greater than SVL; foot slender ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D), approximately two thirds of the sum of thigh and tibia lengths; length of toes I<II<III<V<IV; webbing formula I ‒ II 1 1 / 2 ‒ 3 + III 1 1 / 2 ‒ 2 1 / 2 IV 2 1 / 2 ‒ 1 1 / 2 V; toe discs elliptical, wider than long; subarticular tubercles single, conical; outer metatarsal tubercle small, rounded; inner metatarsal tubercle medium-sized, elliptical; supernumerary tubercles small, dispersed on the foot. Skin of dorsal surfaces and flanks moderately rugose, covered by tubercles of different sizes; ventral surfaces uniformly granular; inguinal gland not visible.

Measurements of holotype. SVL 27.0, HL 10.7, HW 10.0, IND 2.4, END 3.1, ED 3.4, TD 1.6, UEW 3.0, IOD 2.7, THL 14.3, TL 15.6, FL 19.2.

Color. In life, general pattern pale brown, with a dark brown W-shaped interocular mark ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3); presence of fragmented dark brown stripe from nostril to anterior corner of eye; vertical white stripe from eye to maxilla and another one from eye to shoulder; pair of wide pale brown stripes from the upper eyelids to the inguinal region; pair of fragmented pale brown stripes from the posterior corner of the eye, covering tympanum, extending to midflank, both with narrow, dark brown borders; granules on dorsum and flanks pale brown; scattered dark brown lines and spots on dorsum at midbody and sacral region. White spot in axila; arms pale tan with transverse pale brown bars bordered by dark brown; hands with many small dark brown spots. Legs pale brown with four dark brown transverse bars on anterior and dorsal surfaces; posterior surfaces of thighs almost completely dark brown. Tarsus and feet pale brown with many dark brown. Hidden surfaces of flanks and thighs green. Ventral surfaces white with scattered, dark brown dots on gular region and forelimbs, densely dotted on legs. In preservative, the color pattern is the same, but colors are faded.

Variation. Male specimens are congruent with respect to the morphologic characters. Some specimens have the snout less protruding. The color in preservative could be more or less faded; ventral region of specimens vary in their degree of dotted and/or marbled of dark brown over cream background. Females are unknown. The measurement variation is presented in the Table 1.

Geographical distribution and Natural History. Scinax muriciensis  is known from the Fazenda Bananeira, in the Mata da Bananeira (09° 12 ʹS, 35 ° 52 ʹW, 509 m a. s. l.; Fig. 4View FIGURE 4), a mountainous region characterized by rugged terrain with elevations of 200– 600 m. mostly covered by tropical rain forest. The Mata da Bananeira is located in the Municipality of Murici, about 52 km north from the Municipality of Maceió; is placed in the Serra da Palha and, together with the Serra do Ouro and the Serra das Águas Belas, compose the Estação Ecologica ( ESECAbout ESEC) de Murici, which has an area of 6,116 ha and lies within the municipalities of Murici, Messias, and Flexeiras, State of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. The area has warm, humid climate, with a dry summer and a wet autumn-winter season. The rainy season begins in April and lasts until August, and the highest rainfall occurs between May and July. The period of greatest drought occurs between November and January, December being the driest month. The average annual precipitation and temperature are 2,167 mm and 24 ºC, respectively. Specimens of Scinax muriciensis  were captured near a forest stream, standing upright 1.0‒ 1.5 m above the ground. In this environment were collected adults of Aplastodiscus sibilatus (Cruz, Pimenta and Silvano)  , Chiasmocleis  sp., Crossodactylus dantei (Carcerelli and Caramaschi)  , Hypsiboas semilineatus (Spix)  , H. freicanecae (Carnaval and Peixoto)  , Ischnocnema  aff. ramagi, and tadpoles of Aplastodiscus sibilatus  , Crossodactylus dantei  , Agalychnis granulosa (Cruz)  , Hypsiboas freicanecae  , and Proceratophrys renalis (Miranda-Ribeiro)  .

The Mata da Bananeira is in the “Pernambuco Center of Endemism” (sensu Prance 1982, 1987), which includes forest fragments north of the Rio São Francisco with a high degree of endemism for species of birds, bromeliads, reptiles, and amphibians, that currently are threatened by human activities, mainly by deforestation for the development of sugar-cane plantations, subsistence farming and pastures for cattle.

Etymology. Specific epithet in allusion to the type-locality, the Municipality of Murici, State of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil.

Remarks. The species of the Scinax catharinae  clade are distributed in well preserved environments in Atlantic or Cerrado gallery forests associated with streams ( Pombal et al. 2010). These areas covered a wide geographic distribution, from the Argentina to the State of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, plus the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás in Central Brazil ( Frost 2011). Thus, the new species here described represents the northernmost geographic limit to the S. catharinae  clade.

TABLE 1. Range, mean, and standard deviation (SD) of the measurements (mm) of the type specimens of Scinax muriciensis sp. nov. (n = 4 adult males).


MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

ESEC

Entomological Society of Egypt

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Amphibia

Order

Anura

Family

Hylidae

Genus

Scinax