Schizosairhynchus Gustafsson & Bush,

Bush, Sarah E., 2017, Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueelia - complex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key, Zootaxa 4313 (1), pp. 1-443: 277-278

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4313.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A5Fdfba5-F992-44A8-84C2-1756C943C19B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/832187E9-FE9E-FED6-FF74-6024FB5BF8EF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Schizosairhynchus Gustafsson & Bush
status

new genus

Schizosairhynchus Gustafsson & Bush  , new genus

Sturnidoecus Eichler, 1944: 81  (in partim).

Type species. Schizosairhynchus erysichthoni  new species

Diagnosis. Members of the genus Schizosairhynchus  n. gen. ( Figs 463–476View FIGURES 463 – 464View FIGURES 465 – 469View FIGURES 470 – 471View FIGURES 472 – 476) share the following characters with Bizarrifrons  ( Figs 477–478View FIGURES 477 – 478) and Manucodicola  n. gen. ( Figs 451–462View FIGURES 451 – 452View FIGURES 453 – 456View FIGURES 459 – 462): marginal carina widely interrupted medianly ( Figs 453View FIGURES 453 – 456, 459View FIGURES 459 – 462, 465View FIGURES 465 – 469, 472View FIGURES 472 – 476, 477View FIGURES 477 – 478); premarginal carina and as3 absent; frons hyaline posteriorly to site of as1 ( Figs 453View FIGURES 453 – 456, 459View FIGURES 459 – 462, 465View FIGURES 465 – 469, 472View FIGURES 472 – 476, 477View FIGURES 477 – 478); male subgenital plate widens distally ( Figs 451View FIGURES 451 – 452, 457, 463, 470, 477); male genitalia prominent, bulky ( Figs 455View FIGURES 453 – 456, 461View FIGURES 459 – 462, 466View FIGURES 465 – 469, 473View FIGURES 472 – 476, 478View FIGURES 477 – 478); vss numerous, long ( Figs 456View FIGURES 453 – 456, 462View FIGURES 459 – 462, 469View FIGURES 465 – 469, 476View FIGURES 472 – 476); psps and aps  absent on tergopleurites II –III in both sexes ( Figs 45 1–452View FIGURES 44 – 48View FIGURES 1 – 9View FIGURES 10 – 18View FIGURES 19 – 20View FIGURES 21 – 24View FIGURES 25View FIGURE 26View FIGURES 27 – 30View FIGURES 31 – 34View FIGURES 35 – 38View FIGURES 39 – 41View FIGURES 42 – 43View FIGURES 49 – 50View FIGURES 51 – 55View FIGURES 56 – 57View FIGURES 58 – 62View FIGURES 63 – 64View FIGURES 65 – 69View FIGURES 70 – 74View FIGURES 75 – 76View FIGURES 77 – 82View FIGURES 83 – 84View FIGURES 85 – 89View FIGURES 90 – 91View FIGURES 92 – 97View FIGURES 98 – 99View FIGURES 100 – 105View FIGURES 106 – 107View FIGURES 108 – 113View FIGURES 114 – 115View FIGURES 116 – 121View FIGURES 122 – 123View FIGURES 124 – 129View FIGURES 130 – 131View FIGURES 132 – 137View FIGURES 138 – 139View FIGURES 140 – 145View FIGURES 146 – 147View FIGURES 148 – 152View FIGURES 153 – 154View FIGURES 155 – 160View FIGURES 161 – 162View FIGURES 163 – 167View FIGURES 168 – 169View FIGURES 170 – 174View FIGURES 175 – 176View FIGURES 177 – 181View FIGURES 182 – 183View FIGURES 184 – 188View FIGURES 189 – 190View FIGURES 191 – 195View FIGURES 196 – 197View FIGURES 198 – 202View FIGURES 203 – 204View FIGURES 210 – 211View FIGURES 212 – 216View FIGURES 217 – 218View FIGURES 219 – 223View FIGURES 224 – 225View FIGURES 226 – 230View FIGURES 231 – 232View FIGURES 233 – 237View FIGURES 238 – 239View FIGURES 240 – 245View FIGURES 246 – 247View FIGURES 248 – 252View FIGURES 253 – 254View FIGURES 260 – 262View FIGURES 263 – 264View FIGURES 265 – 269View FIGURES 270 – 271View FIGURES 272 – 276View FIGURES 277 – 278View FIGURES 279 – 284View FIGURES 285 – 286View FIGURES 287 – 291View FIGURES 292 – 293View FIGURES 294 – 299View FIGURES 300 – 301View FIGURES 302 – 306View FIGURES 307 – 308View FIGURES 309 – 314View FIGURES 315 – 318View FIGURES 319 – 320View FIGURES 321 – 326View FIGURES 327 – 328View FIGURES 334 – 337View FIGURES 338 – 339View FIGURES 340 – 345View FIGURES 346 – 347View FIGURES 348 – 353View FIGURES 354 – 355View FIGURES 356 – 360View FIGURES 361 – 364View FIGURES 365 – 369View FIGURES 370 – 371View FIGURES 372 – 376View FIGURES 377 – 378View FIGURES 379 – 383View FIGURES 384 – 389View FIGURES 390 – 395View FIGURES 396 – 398View FIGURES 399 – 400View FIGURES 401 – 405View FIGURES 406 – 407View FIGURES 408 – 412View FIGURES 413 – 414View FIGURES 415 – 419View FIGURES 420 – 421View FIGURES 422 – 426View FIGURES 427 – 428View FIGURES 429 – 430View FIGURES 431 – 436View FIGURES 437 – 438View FIGURES 439 – 440View FIGURES 441 – 450View FIGURES 451 – 452, 457–458, 463–464, 470–471, 477). Unlike Schizosairhynchus  , the otherwise similar genera Sturnidoecus  ( Figs 377–426View FIGURES 377 – 378View FIGURES 379 – 383View FIGURES 384 – 389View FIGURES 390 – 395View FIGURES 396 – 398View FIGURES 399 – 400View FIGURES 401 – 405View FIGURES 406 – 407View FIGURES 408 – 412View FIGURES 413 – 414View FIGURES 415 – 419View FIGURES 420 – 421View FIGURES 422 – 426), Rostrinirmus  ( Figs 437–450View FIGURES 437 – 438View FIGURES 439 – 440View FIGURES 441 – 450) and Buphagoecus  n. gen. ( Figs 427–436View FIGURES 427 – 428View FIGURES 429 – 430View FIGURES 431 – 436) have the following characters: premarginal carina present; frons hyaline only median to the premarginal carina; psps or aps  present on at least tergopleurite III in males (also occurring on other tergopleurites and on female tergopleurite III in some species; see the entries for these genera for details).

Schizosairhynchus  is separated from Manucodicola  and Bizarrifrons  by the following characters: preantennal area asymmetrical in Bizarrifrons  ( Fig. 477View FIGURES 477 – 478) and Manucodicola  ( Figs 454View FIGURES 453 – 456, 460View FIGURES 459 – 462), but symmetrical in Schizosairhynchus  ( Figs 465View FIGURES 465 – 469, 472View FIGURES 472 – 476); dorsal anterior plate connected to main head plate in Bizarrifrons  ( Fig. 377View FIGURES 377 – 378) and Manucodicola  ( Figs 453View FIGURES 453 – 456, 459View FIGURES 459 – 462), but completely separated from main head plate and extended posteriorly into a pointed horn that overlaps with main head plate in Schizosairhynchus  ( Figs 465View FIGURES 465 – 469, 472View FIGURES 472 – 476); ppss of Schizosairhynchus  located on the medio-posterior margin of prothorax ( Figs 463–464View FIGURES 463 – 464, 470–471View FIGURES 470 – 471), but on the postero-lateral corners in Bizarrifrons  ( Fig. 477View FIGURES 477 – 478) and Manucodicola  ( Figs 451–452View FIGURES 451 – 452, 457–458); posterior margin of pterothorax with median indentation in Schizosairhynchus  ( Figs 463–464View FIGURES 463 – 464, 470–471View FIGURES 470 – 471), but without such indentation in Manucodicola  ( Figs 451–452View FIGURES 451 – 452, 457–458) and Bizarrifrons  ( Fig. 477View FIGURES 477 – 478); sternal plate II extended laterally in Schizosairhynchus  ( Figs 463– 464View FIGURES 463 – 464, 470–471View FIGURES 470 – 471), but not in Manucodicola  ( Figs 451–452View FIGURES 451 – 452, 457–458) or Bizarrifrons  ( Fig. 477View FIGURES 477 – 478). The proximal mesosome substantially overlaps with basal apodeme in Schizosairhynchus  ( Figs 466View FIGURES 465 – 469, 473View FIGURES 472 – 476) and Bizarrifrons  ( Fig. 477View FIGURES 477 – 478), but this is not the case in Manucodicola  ( Figs 455View FIGURES 453 – 456, 461View FIGURES 459 – 462). However, like in Manucodicola  ( Figs 455View FIGURES 453 – 456, 461View FIGURES 459 – 462), the gonopore is located ventrally and the mesosomal lobes are fused distally in Schizosairhynchus  ( Figs 467View FIGURES 465 – 469, 474View FIGURES 472 – 476); in contrast, the gonopore is terminal and the mesosomal lobes are not fused distally in Bizarrifrons  ( Fig. 378View FIGURES 377 – 378). Rugose nodi and a ventral sclerite are present in Schizosairhynchus  ( Figs 467View FIGURES 465 – 469, 474View FIGURES 472 – 476), but absent in the two other genera ( Figs 455View FIGURES 453 – 456, 461View FIGURES 459 – 462, 478View FIGURES 477 – 478). Female Schizosairhynchus  ( Figs 469View FIGURES 465 – 469, 476View FIGURES 472 – 476) have vos located on subgenital plate, whereas the vos of almost all other genera treated here, including Manucodicola  ( Figs 456View FIGURES 453 – 456, 462View FIGURES 459 – 462) and Bizarrifrons  (not illustrated) are located lateral to the subgenital plate.

Description. Both sexes. Head bulb-shaped ( Figs 465View FIGURES 465 – 469, 472View FIGURES 472 – 476), preantennal area narrow. Frons deeply concave, hyaline. Hyaline margin present laterally, continuous with anterior fleshy lobes. Marginal carina widely interrupted medianly. Premarginal carina absent. Ventral carinae visible to anterior end of head, extending farther anterior than marginal carina. Dorsal preantennal suture continuous with hyaline margin, extending posteriorly to position of ads, and medianly continuous, separating dorsal anterior plate from main head plate. Dorsal anterior plate elongated, anterior margin concave, posterior margin with distinct hardened extension that covers suture and continues posterior to suture, overlapping with main head plate. Ventral anterior plate absent. Head setae as in Fig. 465View FIGURES 465 – 469, 472View FIGURES 472 – 476; as3 absent; ads and dsms often thorn-like; pts and pns sensilla, often hard to see. Coni long, slender, reaching beyond distal margin of scapes. Antennae monomorphic. Temporal carinae visible; mts  3 only macrosetae. Gular plate small, shape varying between species.

Prothorax rounded pentagonal, with posterior margin convergent to blunt median point ( Figs 463–464View FIGURES 463 – 464, 470– 471View FIGURES 470 – 471); ppss on medio-posterior margin. Proepimera with large, blunt median ends. Pterothorax rounded crescentshaped; lateral margins convex, divergent; posterior margin rounded. Posterior margin of pteronotum narrowly indented at midline; indentation more extensive in male than in female and may continue for more than half the length length; mms narrowly interrupted medianly. Meso- and metasterna not fused, very small; 1 seta on posterolateral corner on each side of each plate. Metepisterna slender; median ends blunt. Leg chaetotaxy as in Fig. 25View FIGURES 25, except fI-p2 absent; fII-a3 and fIII-a2 dorsal. Many leg setae long and spike-like.

Abdomen ( Figs 463–464View FIGURES 463 – 464, 470–471View FIGURES 470 – 471) almost circular in male, oblong in female. Tergopleurites triangular, more blunt in females than in males; tergopleurites II –IX+X in male and tergopleurites II –VIII in females moderately divided medianly. Sternal plate II in both sexes large, transversally continuous; sternal plates III –VI in both sexes small, crescent-shaped, medianly continuous; at least some sternal plates with small lateral accessory plates. Pleural incrassations moderate. Tergopleurites moderately extended onto ventral surface. Re-entrant heads large. Male subgenital plate trapezoidal, reaching posterior margin of abdomen and wrapping around to dorsal side; accessory sternal plates present lateral to subgenital plate on segments VII –VIII. Female subgenital plate roughly triangular, reaching vulval margin, either not flaring ( Fig. 476View FIGURES 472 – 476) or flaring into partial cross-piece ( Fig. 469View FIGURES 465 – 469); accessory sternal plates present lateral to subgenital plate on segment VII. Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Table 2, and Figs 463–464View FIGURES 463 – 464, 470–471View FIGURES 470 – 471. Vulval margin (Fig, 469, 476) with few slender vms, numerous thorn-like vss; vos located on and following lateral margins of the subgenital plate; distal vos situated median to vss.

Male genitalia ( Figs 466–468View FIGURES 465 – 469, 473–475View FIGURES 472 – 476) prominent. Basal apodeme trapezoidal ( Fig. 473View FIGURES 472 – 476) or rectangular ( Fig. 466View FIGURES 465 – 469). Proximal mesosome rectangular, overlapping basal apodeme. Anterior margin may be thickened partially ( Fig. 474View FIGURES 472 – 476) or entirely ( Fig. 467View FIGURES 465 – 469) Gonopore small, ventral, open distally ( Figs 467View FIGURES 465 – 469, 474View FIGURES 472 – 476). Mesosomal lobes large, bulging laterally, fused distal to gonopore. Rugose nodi may be present in postero-lateral corners; 2 ames microsetae on each side antero-lateral to gonopore; 2 pmes microsetae laterally on each side on lateral bulges of mesosomal lobes. Parameral heads ( Figs 468View FIGURES 465 – 469, 475View FIGURES 472 – 476) folded, oblique. Parameral blades strongly curved medianly; pst1 sensilla, central; pst2 microsetae, central, near pst1.

Host distribution. Based on the three known species and undescribed material, Schizosairhynchus  is limited to starlings of the genera Aplonis Gould, 1836  , Basilornis Bonaparte, 1850  , Mino Lesson, 1827  , and Sarcops Walden, 1875  . These four host genera are all members of the “South Asian/Pacific Starlings” clade ( Lovette & Rubenstein 2007), and it is likely that Schizosairhynchus  also parasitise other starlings belonging to this clade, such as species of Scissirostrum Lafresnaye, 1845  , Ampeliceps Blyth, 1842  , Streptocitta Bonaparte, 1850  , Enodes Temminck, 1839  , and Gracula Linnaeus, 1758  . Additional collections are required to determine the full host range of Schizosairhynchus  .

Geographical range. South-East Asia and Australasia. 

Etymology. The genus name is derived from Greek “ skhizein ” for “to split”, the Okinawan martial arts weapon the sai, and Greek “ rhunkhos ” for “bill”. A sai consists of a long baton (“ monouchi ”) flanked on both sides with shorter prongs (“ yoku ”), which are often curved and distally pointed. A sai split medianly is reminiscent of the shape of the preantennal area ( Figs 463–464View FIGURES 463 – 464, 470–471View FIGURES 470 – 471) of members of this genus. Gender: masculine.

Remarks. No representative of Schizosairhynchus  was included in the phylogeny of Bush et al. (2016), but structure of the male genitalia suggests Schizosairhynchus  may be most closely related to Manucodicola  and Bizarrifrons  . The collection of fresh, sequenceable material in the future will help clarify the relationships of Schizosairhynchus  within the Brueelia  -complex.

Included species

* Schizosairhynchus erysichthoni  new species

* Schizosairhynchus minovenator  new species

* Schizosairhynchus philippensis ( Tandan & Kumar, 1969: 205)  n. comb. [in Sturnidoecus  ]

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Phthiraptera

Family

Philopteridae

Loc

Schizosairhynchus Gustafsson & Bush

Bush, Sarah E. 2017
2017
Loc

Sturnidoecus

Eichler 1944: 81
Loc

Schizosairhynchus philippensis ( Tandan & Kumar, 1969: 205 )

Tandan 1969: 205