Harpactrox Gustafsson & Bush

Bush, Sarah E., 2017, Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueelia - complex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key, Zootaxa 4313 (1), pp. 1-443: 154-155

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4313.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A5Fdfba5-F992-44A8-84C2-1756C943C19B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/832187E9-FF13-FF59-FF74-6389FDF9F95C

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Harpactrox Gustafsson & Bush
status

new genus

Harpactrox Gustafsson & Bush  , new genus

Type species. Harpactrox loeiensis  new species

Diagnosis. No other genus treated here is particularly close to Harpactrox  n. gen. All other genera with medianly folded parameres, proximal mesomeres that overlap with basal apodeme, and visible ames also have aps  on at least some male tergopleurites (with the exception of some Priceiella (Thescelovora)  n. subgen., Figs 300–301View FIGURES 300 – 301), and no other genus in the Brueelia  -complex have the accessory preantennal nodi found in Harpactrox  ( Fig. 248View FIGURES 248 – 252). Only Titanomessor  n. gen. ( Fig. 212View FIGURES 212 – 216) has a medianly continuous dorsal preantennal suture that does not interrupt the marginal carina as in Harpactrox  ( Fig. 248View FIGURES 248 – 252), and only Traihoriella  ( Figs 266–268View FIGURES 265 – 269) have male genitalia similar to those of Harpactrox  ( Figs 250–252View FIGURES 248 – 252, 256–258). Like Harpactrox, Anarchonirmus  n. gen. ( Fig. 116View FIGURES 116 – 121) and Saepocephalum  n. gen. ( Fig. 240View FIGURES 240 – 245) both have a marginal carina that is fused to the ventral anterior plate and is not displaced or interrupted by the clypeo-labral suture. For additional comparisons, see the description of Saepocephalum  (above).

Harpactrox  is separated from Titanomessor  by the following characters: marginal carina displaced at osculum and clypeo-labral suture reaches anterior margin of head in Titanomessor  ( Fig. 212View FIGURES 212 – 216), but not in Harpactrox  ( Figs 248View FIGURES 248 – 252, 255, 260). In Titanomessor mts  3–5 in males and mts  3–4 in females are mesosetae ( Figs 210–211View FIGURES 210 – 211), whereas in Harpactrox  ( Figs 248View FIGURES 248 – 252, 260View FIGURES 260 – 262) all mts  are microsetae in both sexes [except Ha. geminodus  n. sp. (Fig. 255) in which mts  3 is slightly longer than other mts  ]. Parameral heads are blunt and not folded medianly in Titanomessor  ( Fig. 215View FIGURES 212 – 216), but parameral heads are folded medianly in Harpactrox  ( Figs 251View FIGURES 248 – 252, 258). Mesosomal lobes are wide and gonopore is ventral and open both distally and proximally in Titanomessor  ( Fig. 214View FIGURES 212 – 216), whereas in Harpactrox  ( Figs 250View FIGURES 248 – 252, 257) the lobes are slender and the gonopore is terminal, and closed at least proximally.

Harpactrox  and Traihoriella  can be separated by the following non-genitalic characters: aps  present on at least some segments in male Traihoriella  ( Figs 263View FIGURES 263 – 264, 270View FIGURES 270 – 271; Table 2), but never in Harpactrox  ( Figs 246View FIGURES 246 – 247, 253View FIGURES 253 – 254); clypeolabral suture reaches anterior margin of head and marginal carina is displaced dorsally and ventrally at osculum in Traihoriella  ( Figs 265View FIGURES 265 – 269, 272View FIGURES 272 – 276), but not in Harpactrox  ( Figs 248View FIGURES 248 – 252, 255, 260); dorsal preantennal suture is absent in Traihoriella  ( Figs 265View FIGURES 265 – 269, 272View FIGURES 272 – 276), but present in Harpactrox  ( Fig. 184View FIGURES 184 – 188); mts  3 are macrosetae in Traihoriella  ( Fig. 197View FIGURES 196 – 197), but microsetae in Harpactrox  ( Figs 248View FIGURES 248 – 252, 255, 260). Male genitalia of Harpactrox  ( Figs 249–251View FIGURES 248 – 252, 256–258) and Traihoriella  ( Figs 266–268View FIGURES 265 – 269, 273–275View FIGURES 272 – 276) are very similar, and as more species of each genus are discovered, it may be impossible to separate these two genera on male genitalia alone, however they are separable on the following characters: ames microsetae are present in Harpactrox  ( Figs 250View FIGURES 248 – 252, 257), but absent in Traihoriella  ( Figs 267View FIGURES 265 – 269, 274View FIGURES 272 – 276); pst2 microsetae in Harpactrox  ( Figs 251View FIGURES 248 – 252, 258), but sensilla in Traihoriella  ( Figs 268View FIGURES 265 – 269, 275View FIGURES 272 – 276). Neither Traihoriella  ( Figs 269View FIGURES 265 – 269, 276View FIGURES 272 – 276) nor Harpactrox  ( Figs 252View FIGURES 248 – 252, 259, 262) have cross-pieces, and in both genera the vos are at least partly situated on the subgenital plate.

The ventral preantennal structure of Harpactrox  ( Figs 248View FIGURES 248 – 252, 255, 260) is similar to that of Anarchonirmus  ( Fig. 116View FIGURES 116 – 121), but there are few other similarities. Female subgenital plate flares into a medianly displaced cross-piece in Anarchonirmus  ( Fig. 121View FIGURES 116 – 121) but not in Harpactrox  ( Figs 252View FIGURES 248 – 252, 259, 262); antennae are sexually dimorphic and dorsal preantennal suture is absent in Anarchonirmus  ( Figs 115-117View FIGURES 114 – 115View FIGURES 116 – 121), but antennae are monomorphic and suture is present in Harpactrox  ( Figs 248View FIGURES 248 – 252, 255, 260); parameral heads are blunt and parameral blades are slender with a distinct heel distal to mesosome in Anarchonirmus  ( Fig. 120View FIGURES 116 – 121), but parameral heads are folded medianly and parameral blades are broad with no such heel in Harpactrox  ( Figs 251View FIGURES 248 – 252, 258). In both genera the gonopore is terminal, but in Anarchonirmus  ( Fig. 119View FIGURES 116 – 121) the mesosomal lobes are large and serrated, and extend distal to gonopore, whereas in Harpactrox  ( Figs 250View FIGURES 248 – 252, 257) the lobes are small and smooth, and do not extend distal to gonopore. No ames are visible in Anarchonirmus  ( Fig. 119View FIGURES 116 – 121), but these are visible in Harpactrox  ( Figs 250View FIGURES 248 – 252, 257).

Description. Both sexes. Head indented-dome shaped, often broader than long ( Figs 248View FIGURES 248 – 252, 255, 260). Marginal carina not interrupted laterally or medianly, continuous with ventral anterior plate, not displaced at osculum.

Clypeo-labral suture does not reach anterior margin of head. Ventral carinae not clearly continuous with marginal carina in all species. Dorsal preantennal suture transversal, encompassing ads and, in some species, the dsms (Fig. 255). Head setae as in Figs 248View FIGURES 248 – 252, 255, 260; as3 and pns absent. Preantennal nodi very large; small accessory nodus median to the main nodus, only connected ventrally. Coni short. Antennae monomorphic. Eye protruding. Temporal carinae not visible. All mts  of roughly equal size, short. Gular plate large, indistinct.

Prothorax rectangular ( Figs 246–247View FIGURES 246 – 247, 253–254View FIGURES 253 – 254, 261View FIGURES 260 – 262); ppss on postero-lateral corner. Proepimera variable. Pterothorax pentagonal; lateral margins widely divergent; posterior margin convergent to rounded median point; mms widely separated medianly. Meso- and metasterna not fused, nude. Leg chaetotaxy as in Fig. 25View FIGURES 25, except fI-p2 absent.

Abdomen slenderly oval ( Figs 246–247View FIGURES 246 – 247, 253–254View FIGURES 253 – 254, 261View FIGURES 260 – 262). Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Table 2. aps  absent on all segments. Tergopleurites rectangular; tergopleurites II –IX+X in male, and in segments II –VIII in female narrowly to moderately separated medianly. Sternal plates rectangular, not approaching pleurites. Pleural incrassations wide, with ornate anterior ends. Re-entrant heads variable. Male subgenital plate indistinct in Harpactrox geminodus  , but trapezoidal in Ha. loeiensis  n. sp., reaching distal end of abdomen. Female subgenital plate indistinct anteriorly, approaching vulval margin, with no cross-piece. Vulval margin ( Figs 252View FIGURES 248 – 252, 259, 262) with short vms, thorn-like vss; vos located on subgenital plate (in Ha. pontifrons  n. sp. both on and along lateral margin of plate, Fig. 262View FIGURES 260 – 262); distal setae longer, situated median to vss.

Basal apodeme slightly convergent distally ( Figs 249View FIGURES 248 – 252, 256). Proximal mesosome oval to rounded trapezoidal, overlapping basal apodeme. Gonopore ( Figs 250View FIGURES 248 – 252, 257) distinct, different between species, but very broad, dominating the terminal end of the mesosome, closed distally and proximally. Ventral ridges vague. Mesosomal lobes small, triangular; 1–2 ames sensilla submedianly anterior to gonopore; 1–2 pmes submedianly just lateral to gonopore; pmes may be microsetae or sensilla. Parameral heads ( Figs 251View FIGURES 248 – 252, 258) folded medianly. Parameral blades lobe-like; pst1 sensillus, central; pst2 microseta, lateral or sublateral near distal tip.

Host distribution. Known only from two species of Asian trogons of the genus Harpactes Swainson, 1833  . Hosner et al. (2010) showed that Apalharpactes Bonaparte, 1854  is best treated as a separate genus from Harpactes  . We have not seen any material from the two host species in Apalharpactes  , but note that in the phylogeny of Hosner et al. (2010), Apalharpactes  is more closely related to the African Apaloderma Swainson, 1833  , which is parasitised by the louse genus Trogoniella Tendeiro, 1960  , which does not belong to the Brueelia  - complex.

Geographical range. The three species described here occur in Thailand and on the Philippines, but the genus may range throughout the distribution of Harpactes  trogons, which includes most of South-East Asia, Indonesia, and southern India.  

Etymology. Harpactrox  is formed by the host genus of the type species, Harpactes Swainson, 1833  , and the Greek “- trox ” for “gnawer” or “nibbler”. The generic name of the hosts, Harpactes  is derved from Greek “ harpaktes ” for “robber”. Gender: masculine.

Remarks. With the description of Harpactrox  , four different genera of ischnoceran lice have been described from members of the Trogoniformes ( Price et al. 2003)  . Based on their phylogenetic position in Bush et al. (2016), and some aspects of morphology, we here place Brueelia  -complex lice from New World trogons in Guimaraesiella. This placement, however, is tenuous, as there are also morphological similarities between Guimaraesiella from trogons and Harpactrox  , especially in the preantennal area; future studies with additional material may find that these lice are more closely related than is presently assumed.

Included species

* Harpactrox geminodus  new species * Harpactrox loeiensis  new species * Harpactrox pontifrons  new species