Brueelia Kéler, 1936

Bush, Sarah E., 2017, Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueelia - complex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key, Zootaxa 4313 (1), pp. 1-443: 35-41

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4313.1.1

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scientific name

Brueelia Kéler, 1936
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Brueelia Kéler, 1936 

Philopterus Nitzsch, 1818: 288  (in partim). Nirmus Nitzsch, 1818: 291  (in partim).

Degeeriella Neumann, 1906: 60  (in partim). Brueelia Kéler, 1936a: 257  .

Painjunirmus Ansari, 1947: 285  .

Allobrueelia Eichler, 1951b: 36  (in partim). Nigronirmus Złotorzycka, 1964a: 248  .

Spironirmus Złotorzycka, 1964a: 261  .

Serinirmus Soler-Cruz, Rodríguez, Florido-Navío & Muñoz-Parra, 1987: 244  .

Type species. Brueelia rossittensis Kéler, 1936a: 257  [= Nirmus brachythorax Giebel, 1874: 134  ] (by original designation).

Diagnosis. Brueelia  s. str. is part of a group of genera including Acronirmus, Teinomordeus  n. gen., and Mirandofures  n. gen., Sychraella  n. gen., and Anarchonirmus  n. gen., that share the following characters: absence of pns, as3, fII-v2, fIII-v2; parameral heads not folded medianly; absence of ames (except in species from Turdoides  spp.); distal margin of mesosomal lobes at least partially rugose. All known Brueelia  s. str. except Br. phasmasoma  n. sp. ( Fig. 58View FIGURES 58 – 62) and Br. audax  ( Fig. 70View FIGURES 70 – 74) lack a dorsal preantennal suture and have an uninterrupted marginal carina, which separates the genus from the otherwise similar genera Acronirmus ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 85 – 89) and Mirandofures  ( Fig. 92View FIGURES 92 – 97) in all of which the marginal carina is interrupted at least laterally and dorsal preantennal suture is present. Antennae are sexually dimorphic in Teinomordeus  ( Figs 77–78View FIGURES 77 – 82), Mirandofures  ( Figs 92–93View FIGURES 92 – 97), Sychraella  ( Figs 108–109View FIGURES 108 – 113), and Anarchonirmus  ( Figs 116–117View FIGURES 116 – 121), but monomorphic in Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 44View FIGURES 44 – 48) except in species on Turdoides  spp.

Female Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 48View FIGURES 44 – 48) is separated from females of other genera in this group on the structure of the subgenital plate, which always flares into a cross-piece in Brueelia  s. str. In females of Teinomordeus  ( Fig. 82View FIGURES 77 – 82) and Mirandofures  ( Figs 97View FIGURES 92 – 97, 105View FIGURES 100 – 105) there is no cross-piece, even in species where the subgenital plate reaches the vulval margin. Females of both Sychraella  ( Fig. 113View FIGURES 108 – 113) and Anarchonirmus  ( Fig. 121View FIGURES 116 – 121) have cross-pieces, but these are laterally submarginal and not connected to the subgenital plate in Sychraella  , and medianly interrupted in Anarchonirmus  . The subgenital plate of female Acronirmus ( Fig. 89View FIGURES 85 – 89) has a cross-piece as in Brueelia  s. str., but most members of these two genera can be separated by non-genital characters, such as the presence in Acronirmus of a dorsal preantennal suture which is absent in most Brueelia  s. str. In Brueelia  s. str. species like Br. phasmasoma  n. sp. where a dorsal preantennal suture is present, females can be separated from female Acronirmus by the following characters: as2 and pos present in Brueelia  s. str ( Fig. 58View FIGURES 58 – 62), but absent in Acronirmus ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 85 – 89); ss present on tergopleurites VII –VIII in Acronirmus ( Fig. 82View FIGURES 77 – 82), but absent in Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 57View FIGURES 56 – 57).

Description. Both sexes. Head shape variable, often flat-dome ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 9) or convex-dome ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 9), but may be narrow-triangle ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 – 9), drop-shaped ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 1 – 9), pentagonal ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 1 – 9) or trapezoidal ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 1 – 9). Marginal carina uninterrupted (except in Brueelia phasmasoma  , Fig. 58View FIGURES 58 – 62); displaced dorsally and posteriorly at osculum; in some species narrow and translucent at osculum [e.g. Br. acutangulata ( Piaget, 1880)  ; not illustrated]; median section possibly absent in species with a deeply concave frons (e.g. Br. chalcomitrae Najer & Sychra  [in Najer et al.], 2012a; not illustrated). Displaced section in some species extending posteriorly into marginal carinal plate. Dorsal preantennal suture absent (except in Br. phasmasoma  , Fig. 58View FIGURES 58 – 62). Ventral anterior plate present or absent. Ventral carinae typically clearly continuous with marginal carina, but diffuse anteriorly in some species. Finger-like extensions of ventral carina into clypeo-labral suture present in some species (e.g. Br. pseudognatha  n. sp., Fig. 65View FIGURES 65 – 69). Head setae as in Fig. 44View FIGURES 44 – 48: as3 absent or present; pas minute, possibly absent in some species; pns absent; s3 typically absent. Coni small. Antennae monomorphic, except in species parasitising Turdoides  spp. where the males scape is slightly swollen compared to the female scape (not illustrated). Temporal carinae not visible; mts  3 only macrosetae. Gular plate generally triangular.

Prothorax ( Figs 42–43View FIGURES 42 – 43, 49–50View FIGURES 49 – 50, 56–57View FIGURES 56 – 57, 63–64View FIGURES 63 – 64) rectangular; ppss on postero-lateral corner. Median ends of proepimera variable. Pterothorax bell-shaped or pentagonal; lateral margins weakly divergent; posterior margin rounded or convergent to median point; mms widely separated medianly. Meso- and metasterna not fused; one seta on postero-lateral corner on each side of each plate. Median ends of metepisterna variable, in some species associated with sublateral nodi. Leg chaetotaxy as in Fig. 25View FIGURES 25, except cIv 3, fI-d1, fI-p2, fI-v4, fII-v2, fIII-v2 absent; fIm4 absent or present. Brueelia audax  has aberrant leg chaetotaxy for genus (see below).

Abdomen oblong or elongated oval ( Figs 42–43View FIGURES 42 – 43, 49–50View FIGURES 49 – 50, 56–57View FIGURES 56 – 57, 63–64View FIGURES 63 – 64), chaetotaxy as in Table 2 (but see Table 3 for some known exceptions). Tergopleurites rectangular to quadratic; tergopleurites II –IX+X in male and tergopleurites II –VIII in female narrowly to moderately divided medianly. Sternal plates medianly continuous, rectangular, may approach but not reach pleurites. Pleural incrassations slender; re-entrant heads typically long, slender.

Male. Subgenital plate trapezoidal or pentagonal, reaching posterior margin of abdomen. Genitalia ( Figs 45– 47View FIGURES 44 – 48, 52–54View FIGURES 51 – 55, 59–61View FIGURES 58 – 62, 66–68View FIGURES 65 – 69) roughly homogeneous throughout genus. Basal apodeme small, oblong, and constricted along medial-lateral margins. Proximal mesosome small, typically rounded but elongated in some species (not illustrated). Gonopore ( Figs 46View FIGURES 44 – 48, 53View FIGURES 51 – 55, 60View FIGURES 58 – 62, 67View FIGURES 65 – 69) slender to broad, widely open distally; gonopore often comparatively large. Mesosomal lobes small, rounded or angular; distal margin serrated, papillate, fringed, or rugose. Typically 2 pmes on each side on lobes just lateral to gonopore. Parameral heads ( Figs 45View FIGURES 44 – 48, 54View FIGURES 51 – 55, 61View FIGURES 58 – 62, 68View FIGURES 65 – 69) cup-shaped, bifid, or blunt. Parameral blades broadly triangular, may be elongated distally; pst1 sensillus, typically near median margin; pst2 microseta, lateral near distal end.

Female. Subgenital plate pentagonal, reaching vulval margin where it flares into cross-piece (may be absent in Brueelia audax  ; see below). Vulval margin ( Figs 48View FIGURES 44 – 48, 55View FIGURES 51 – 55, 62View FIGURES 58 – 62, 69View FIGURES 65 – 69) with slender vms, thorn-like vss; vos follows lateral margins of subgenital plate; distal vos may be median to vss.

Host distribution. Brueelia  s. str. occurs on a wide range of host families, but some host association patterns are discernable. The genus appears most widely distributed on host families that are largely or wholly Holarctic, or that have widely distributed representatives in the Holarctic area. Conversely, whereas some Brueelia  are known from the tropics, the genus appears to be absent on most host families that are entirely tropical or subtropical. Species of Brueelia  from the tropics are most often found on host families that also occur in the Holarctic. This pattern may be due to sampling bias, however the large material examined by us from museums across the world included many samples from the tropics, and the pattern appears to hold.

Geographical range. Species of Brueelia  sensu  stricto have a world-wide distribution, but are only known from introduced hosts in Australasia, where other genera of the Brueelia  -complex occur.

Remarks. The circumscription of Brueelia  proposed here removes roughly half the species of this genus listed in Price et al. (2003) to other genera, but makes the definition of Brueelia  s. str. more homogeneous. However, the placement of Br. phasmasoma  deep within Brueelia  s. str. in the phylogeny of Bush et al. (2016; specimen #24) indicates that the genus still contains some variety in preantennal structure. Brueelia  s. str. includes an enormous range of intrageneric variation: there is considerable variation in abdominal chaetotaxy, even between closely related species, and the range of pigmentation patterns is unequalled in other genera within the Brueelia  -complex.

Several groups that we include in Brueelia  s. str. may ultimately warrant recognition as subgenera. These include species formerly recognised in the genera Painjunirmus Ansari, 1947  , and Spironirmus Złotorzycka, 1964a  , as well as the Br. ornatissima  species group. Additional morphological and molecular work is needed to determine whether the monophyly of these groups are supported. We do not recognise or propose any new subgenera within Brueelia  s. str. at this time.

We consider the following proposed genera (in totum) as synonyms of Brueelia  s. str.: Painjunirmus Ansari, 1947  , Nigronirmus Złotorzycka, 1964a  , Spironirmus Złotorzycka, 1964a  , and Serinirmus Soler-Cruz, Rodríguez, Florido-Navío & Muñoz Parra 1987  .

Painjunirmus  was erected by Ansari (1947: 285) for the interrupto-fasciata group ( sensu Piaget, 1880  ) of Degeeriella  , and thus repeated the taxonomic acts of Kéler (1936a). The type species of Painjunirmus  , P. pengya Ansari, 1947  , is an atypical Brueelia  s. str., with male genitalia and abdominal chaetotaxy that differs from Br. brachythorax  (see Table 3). Ultimately, with the examination of more material, species previously considered to be Painjunirmus  may form a species group or subgenus within Brueelia  s. str. This group would include the species Br. pengya  , Br. magnini Ansari, 1956a, Br. chilchil Ansari, 1955b  , and Br. brevipennis Ansari, 1956a  .

1 All examined females poorly preserved, and tps  and ss, if present, are not visible.

2 Chaetotaxy taken from original illustrations (Cicchino & Castro 1980). No material examined  . Male unknown. 

Nigronirmus  was erected by Złotorzycka (1964a: 248); inclusion of species in this genus was largely based on pigmentation differences among these and species of Brueelia sensu Złotorzycka (1964a)  . Structurally, these lice are all similar, and given the variability in colour among closely related lice in Brueelia  s. str., we do not presently consider these differences in coloration to be sufficient justification for separating Nigronirmus  from Brueelia  s. str.

Spironirmus  was erected by Złotorzycka (1964a: 261) and it included four species that were vaguely unified by “pleural loops” and male genitalia. Recent molecular data indicates that the type species, Brueelia nebulosa ( Burmeister, 1838)  is nested deeply inside Brueelia  s. str. (Bush et al. 2016), and most morphological characters used to separate Spironirmus  from Brueelia  s. str. are actually within the variation of Brueelia  s. str. as circumscribed here. Thus, we retain Spironirmus  as a synonym of Brueelia  s. str. It should be noted that “pleural loops” are not found in three of the four species Złotorzycka (1964a) included in Spironirmus  .

Serinirmus  was established as a monotypic genus by Soler-Cruz et al. (1987) on the basis that Serinirmus sexytanum Soler-Cruz, Rodríguez, Florido-Navío & Muñoz Parra, 1987  , did not fit any of the five groups of genera proposed by Złotorzycka (1964a). We have not examined any specimens of Serinirmus sexytanum  , but the original description and illustrations of Soler-Cruz et al. (1987) provide no morphological justification for the separation of Serinirmus  from Brueelia  s. str.

Included species

Brueelia abrupta ( Osborn, 1896: 229)  [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia acuminata Cicchino, 1982: 281 

* Brueelia acutangulata ( Piaget, 1880: 156)  [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia elbeli Ansari, 1957b: 185  new synonymy [1]

* Brueelia aguilarae  new species

* Brueelia albida ( Rudow, 1869: 21)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia alexandrii Eichler, 1953: 338 

Brueelia alophoixi Sychra  [in Sychra et al.], 2009: 155

* Brueelia altaica Mey, 1982b: 168 

* Brueelia amazonae Stafford, 1943: 52  [2]

* Brueelia americana Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 21 

* Brueelia anamariae Cicchino, 1980: 5 

* Brueelia angustifrons ( Carriker, 1902: 221)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia antimarginalis Eichler, 1951b: 40  [page given as 12] Brueelia anumbii Cicchino, 1981: 37 

* Brueelia argentina Cicchino, 1981: 31 

Brueelia atricapillae Soler-Cruz, Alcántara-Ibañez & Florido-Navío, 1984: 145  [3] Brueelia paratricapillae Price, Hellenthal & Palma, 2003: 157  new synonymy

* Brueelia audax (Kellogg, 1899: 25)  [in Nirmus  ] [4] Brueelia badia Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 23 

Brueelia balati Kristofík, 1999: 139 

* Brueelia bicurvata ( Piaget, 1880: 159)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia blagovescenskyi Balát, 1955: 504 

Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 7 

* Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 22  Brueelia borini Lunkaschu, 1970: 53 

* Brueelia brachythorax ( Giebel, 1874: 134)  [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia rossittensis Kéler, 1936a: 257  [Ref.: Hopkins & Clay 1952: 61]

* Brueelia breueri Balát, 1955: 505 

* Brueelia brevicolor Ansari, 1956c: 110 

* Brueelia brevipennis Ansari, 1956a: 159 

Brueelia calandrellae Fedorenko, 1975: 46 

Brueelia cambayensis Ansari, 1955b: 54 

Brueelia cantans Sychra  [in Sychra et al.], 2010a: 62

* Brueelia cedrorum ( Piaget, 1880: 151)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia cela Stafford, 1943: 53  [2]

Brueelia chalcomitrae Najer & Sychra  [in Najer et al.], 2012a: 92

* Brueelia chayanh Ansari, 1955b: 55 

* Brueelia chelydensis Hopkins, 1951: 377 

Nirmus vulgatus galapagensis Kellogg & Kuwana, 1902: 474  [Ref.: Hopkins & Clay 1952: 56]

* Brueelia chilchil Ansari, 1955b: 53 

Brueelia chopi Valim & Cicchino, 2015: 509 

* Brueelia chrysomystris ( Blagoveshtchensky, 1940: 60)  [in Degeeriella  ]

* Brueelia clara Gustafsson & Bush 2015: 505 

* Brueelia conocephala ( Blagoveshtchensky, 1940: 87)  [in Degeeriella  ] Brueelia coquimbana Cicchino & González-Acuña, 2008: 302 

* Brueelia corydalla Timmerman, 1950: 5 

* Brueelia coryliventer Gustafsson & Bush 2015: 513 

* Brueelia cruciata ( Burmeister, 1838: 429)  [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia cucullata Cicchino, 1982: 284 

* Brueelia currucae Bechet, 1961: 153 

Brueelia cyanopa Cicchino, 2004: 73 

* Brueelia cyclothorax ( Burmeister, 1838: 429)  [in Nirmus  ] [5] Nirmus subtilis Nitzsch  [in Giebel], 1874: 137 new synonymy Brueelia subtilis obligatus Eichler, 1954: 63  [Ref.: Emerson 1972: 34] Brueelia decumana Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 12 

* Brueelia deficiens ( Piaget, 1885: 23)  [in Nirmus  ]

Nirmus ampullatus Piaget, 1885: 25  [Ref.: Williams 1986: 431]

* Brueelia delicata  (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866: 368) [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia densilimba  (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866: 368) [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia diucae Cicchino & González-Acuña, 2009: 505 

* Brueelia dorsale Williams, 1983: 600 

* Brueelia ductilis ( Kellogg & Chapman, 1899: 89)  [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia embernagrae Cicchino & Castro, 1980: 83  Brueelia emersoni Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 18 

Brueelia exigua  (Nitzsch [in Giebel] 1866: 366) [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia ferianci Balát, 1955: 508 

* Brueelia flinti Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 27 

* Brueelia fulmeki Eichler, 1957: 580 

* Brueelia fuscopleura ( Blagoveshtchensky, 1951: 303)  [in Degeeriella  ] [6] Brueelia gulabitilyar Ansari, 1955a: 54  new synonymy

* Brueelia ginginianus Ansari, 1955b: 55 

* Brueelia glizi Balát, 1955: 509 

* Brueelia gobiensis Mey, 1982b: 170 

* Brueelia goertae Dalgleish, 1971: 141 

* Brueelia guldum Ansari, 1955b: 54 

* Brueelia iliaci ( Denny, 1842: 51)  [in Nirmus  ]

Brueelia inornata Timmermann, 1950: 3  [Ref.: Ansari 1956c: 110] Brueelia iliaci indiensis Ansari, 1956c: 111  [Ref.: Price et al. 2003: 155]

* Brueelia immaculata ( Piaget, 1890: 230)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia imponderabilica Eichler, 1954: 61 

* Brueelia infrequens ( Carriker, 1902: 220)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia infuscata Cicchino, 1979: 92 

* Brueelia intermedia  (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866: 366) [in Nirmus  ] [7]

* Brueelia jacarinae Valim & Palma, 2006: 28 View Cited Treatment  

* Brueelia jacobi Eichler, 1951b: 10 

* Brueelia juno ( Giebel, 1874: 137)  [in Nirmus  ]

Brueelia kalkalichi ( Ansari, 1955b: 58)  [in Philopterus  ] [8]

* Brueelia kistiakowskyi Fedorenko, 1975: 48 

* Brueelia kluzi Balát, 1955: 512 

* Brueelia kratochvili Balát, 1958: 413 

Brueelia latiuscula ( Kellogg & Chapman, 1899: 90)  [in Nirmus  ] [9]

* Brueelia limbata ( Burmeister, 1838: 429)  [in Nirmus  ] Docophorus serenus Rudow, 1869: 16  [Ref.: Hopkins & Clay 1952: 61] Brueelia limnothlypiae Valim & Reiley, 2015: 855 

* Brueelia locustellae Fedorenko, 1975: 49 

Brueelia longifrons Carriker, 1956a: 81 

* Brueelia longipes ( Piaget, 1880: 160)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia lullulae Bechet, 1961: 154 

* Brueelia magnini Ansari, 1956a: 161 

Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 20 

* Brueelia matvejevi Balát, 1981a: 278 

Brueelia mauroi Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 17 

Brueelia mediterranea Cicchino, 1981: 34 

* Brueelia melanocoryphae Bechet, 1966: 79 

Brueelia mimas Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 28 

* Brueelia minor Lunkaschu, 1970: 55 

* Brueelia mirabile Carriker, 1963: 306 

* Brueelia modularis ( Piaget, 1880: 151)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia mongolica Mey, 1982b: 172 

* Brueelia moreli Ansari, 1957b: 182 

* Brueelia museiberolinensis ( Eichler, 1957: 579)  [in Allobrueelia  ]

* Brueelia nebulosa ( Burmeister, 1838: 429)  [in Nirmus  ] Docophorus ochroleucus Nitzsch  [in Giebel], 1874: 90 [Ref.: Hopkins & Clay 1952: 59] Brueelia chitlatilyar Ansari, 1955b: 55  [Ref.: Emerson 1972: 31]

* Brueelia nivalis ( Giebel, 1874: 140)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia ornatissima ( Giebel, 1874: 144)  [in Nirmus  ] Nirmus illustris Kellogg, 1896: 494  [Ref.: Hopkins & Clay 1952: 56] Brueelia oxypyga ( Giebel, 1874: 135)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia pagodarum Ansari, 1955b: 55 

* Brueelia pakistanaise Ansari, 1955b: 52 

* Brueelia parabolocybe ( Carriker, 1903: 137)  [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia paradoxa Valim & Cicchino, 2015: 515 

* Brueelia parae Ansari, 1955b: 57 

* Brueelia parviguttata ( Blagoveshtchensky, 1940: 62)  [in Degeeriella  ]

* Brueelia pelikani Balát, 1958: 414 

* Brueelia pengya ( Ansari, 1947: 285)  [in Painjunirmus  ]

* Brueelia peninsularis (Kellogg, 1899: 21)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia phasmasoma  new species

* Brueelia picturata ( Osborn, 1896: 226)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia piechockii Mey, 1982b: 157 

Brueelia plocea ( Lakshminarayana, 1968: 99)  [in Nigronirmus  ] Brueelia priniae Najer & Sychra  [in Najer et al.], 2012a: 94

* Brueelia propinqua ( Giebel, 1874: 136)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia pseudognatha  new species

* Brueelia pseudopicturata Cicchino, 1986a: 8 

* Brueelia pyrrhularum Eichler, 1954: 62 

* Brueelia quelea Sychra & Barlev  [in Sychra et al.], 2010b: 18

* Brueelia rhipidura ( Thompson, 1941: 533)  [in Degeeriella  ]

* Brueelia rigbyi Gustafsson & Bush 2015: 510 

* Brueelia rosickyi Balát, 1955: 517 

* Brueelia rotundifrons Cicchino, 1981: 38 

Brueelia montana Williams, 1983: 600 

* Brueelia ruficapilla Cicchino, 1990: 22 

Brueelia sallei Carriker, 1963: 307 

Brueelia sayacae Cicchino, 1982: 284 

Brueelia scotocercae ( Blagoveshtchensky, 1951: 304)  [in Degeeriella  ] Brueelia senegala Sychra  [in Sychra et al.], 2010a: 65 Brueelia sexytana (Soler-Cruz, Rodríguez, Florido-Navío & Muñoz Parra, 1987: 244)  [in Serinirmus  ]

* Brueelia sibirica Mey, 1982b: 174 

* Brueelia solitari  a Cicchino, 1990: 22

* Brueelia stadleri Eichler, 1954: 61 

* Brueelia straminea ( Denny, 1842: 53)  [in Nirmus  ] Degeeriella sublucida Blagoveshtchensky, 1940: 58  [Ref.: Hopkins & Clay 1952: 62] Brueelia fixa Złotorzycka, 1964a: 256  [Ref.: Dalgleish 1971: 144] Brueelia tersinae Cicchino, 1982: 279 

Brueelia thilia Cicchino, 2004: 75 

* Brueelia tkachi Gustafsson & Bush 2015: 510 

* Brueelia trinidadensis Cicchino & Castro, 1996: 21  Brueelia trithorax ( Burmeister, 1838: 429)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia vaneki Balát, 1982: 277 

Brueelia virgata (Kellogg, 1899: 19)  [in Nirmus  ]

* Brueelia vulgata ( Kellogg, 1896: 496)  [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia weberi Balát, 1982: 44 

* Brueelia xanthocephali ( Osborn, 1896: 224)  [in Nirmus  ] Brueelia xanthocollis Ansari, 1955b: 56 

Brueelia yal Cicchino & González-Acuña, 2008: 303 

* Brueelia zavattariornis Ansari, 1956b: 387 

* Brueelia zohrae Ansari, 1956b: 389 

[1] There are no apparent differences between Br. acutangulata  and Br. elbeli  in the material we have examined (Appendix III), and the original description of Br. elbeli Ansari 1957b  does not provide sufficient diagnostic characters to separate Br. elbeli  from Br. acutangulata  .

[2] Having examined type material of both species (Appendix III), we agree with the treatment of Br. amazonae  and Br. cela  as separate species following Cicchino & Castro (1996), despite the treatment of these two as conspecific by Hopkins & Clay (1952), Carriker (1955), and Price et al. (2003).

[3] As noted by Martín-Mateo (2009: 340), the difference of a single letter in a species epithet prevents homonymy according to article 57.6 of the I.C.Z.N. (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999); thus, the erection of a new name for this species by Price et al. (2003: 157) was unjustified.

[4] Brueelia audax  is a very aberrant member of Brueelia  s. str. (see below), and most of the material examined (including all females) are poorly preserved. Examinations of future collections of this species may warrant the erection of a new subgenus, or even genus, for this species.

[5] We examined material of Br. subtilis  and Br. s. obligatus  from the two known host species ( Passer montanus  and P. domesticus  ) (Appendix III). These specimens are inseparable from Br. cyclothorax  . Although the poor condition of type material makes direct comparisons difficult, we consider these species to be the same (as in Złotorzycka 1997: 145) despite the treatment of these as separate species by Price et al. (2003: 159).

[6] We consider Br. gulabitilyar  to be a synonym of Br. fuscopleura  , based on the specimens we examined from Pastor roseus  (the type host of Br. gulabitilyar  ; Appendix III). The original description of Br. gulabitilyar Ansari (1955b)  is also inseparable from the vague description of Degeeriella cruciata fuscopleura  by Blagoveshchensky (1951).

[7] We disagree with the synonymization of Br. intermedia  with Br. marginata  by Price et al. (2003). Based on morphology of material examined and the original descriptions, we place Br. intermedia  in Brueelia  s. str., whereas we place Br. marginata in Guimaraesiella. 

[8] We agree with Mey & Barker (2014: 114) that Philopterus kalkalichi  as described by Ansari (1955b, 1958a) and illustrated by Ansari (1958a) is actually a Brueelia  s. str. Ansari later redescribed and illustrated this species ( Ansari 1956d) and in doing so contradicted his earlier work, as the illustration in Ansari (1956d) is a Philopterus  . It seems that Ansari himself confused two different species found on the same host. As the original description ( Ansari 1955b) refers to characters that are not found in Philopterus  but are found in Brueelia  s. str., we disagree with Palma & Price (2006) and Sychra et al. (2011), and consider this species a member of Brueelia  s. str. We agree with Mey & Barker (2014) that Philopterus kalkalichi sensu Ansari (1956d)  needs a new name, but this is outside the scope of this study. Interestingly, no other Brueelia  s. str. are known from the Dicruridae  , and this host association may be a case of straggling.

[9] We disagree with Price et al. (2003) about the synonymy of Br. latiuscula  as Br. ornatissima  . Emerson (1972) treated the two as separate (this was mis-cited in Price et al. 2003, and may be the source of error). Brueelia ornatissima  has dark ventral carinae, whereas the illustrations of Br. latiuscula  has translucent ventral carinae.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Phthiraptera

Family

Philopteridae

Loc

Brueelia Kéler, 1936

Bush, Sarah E. 2017
2017
Loc

Brueelia chalcomitrae

Najer 2012: 92
2012
Loc

Brueelia plocea (

Najer 2012: 94
Lakshminarayana 1968: 99
2012
Loc

Brueelia cantans

Sychra 2010: 62
2010
Loc

Brueelia quelea

Sychra 2010: 18
2010
Loc

Brueelia scotocercae (

Sychra 2010: 65
Blagoveshtchensky 1951: 304
2010
Loc

Brueelia alophoixi

Sychra 2009: 155
2009
Loc

Brueelia yal Cicchino & González-Acuña, 2008 : 303

Cicchino 2008: 303
2008
Loc

Brueelia cyanopa

Cicchino 2004: 73
2004
Loc

Brueelia thilia

Cicchino 2004: 75
2004
Loc

Brueelia balati Kristofík, 1999 : 139

Kristofik 1999: 139
1999
Loc

Brueelia boae

Cicchino 1996: 7
1996
Loc

Brueelia marcoi

Cicchino 1996: 20
1996
Loc

Brueelia mauroi

Cicchino 1996: 17
1996
Loc

Brueelia mimas

Cicchino 1996: 28
1996
Loc

Brueelia solitari

Cicchino 1990: 22
1990
Loc

Nirmus ampullatus Piaget, 1885 : 25

Williams 1986: 431
Piaget 1885: 25
1986
Loc

Brueelia montana

Williams 1983: 600
1983
Loc

Brueelia sayacae

Cicchino 1982: 284
1982
Loc

Brueelia mediterranea

Cicchino 1981: 34
1981
Loc

Brueelia calandrellae

Fedorenko 1975: 46
1975
Loc

Brueelia sallei

Carriker 1963: 307
1963
Loc

Brueelia inornata

Price 2003: 155
Ansari 1956: 110
Ansari 1956: 111
Timmermann 1950: 3
1956
Loc

Brueelia longifrons

Carriker 1956: 81
1956
Loc

Brueelia cambayensis

Ansari 1955: 54
1955
Loc

Brueelia brachythorax (

Hopkins 1952: 61
Keler 1936: 257
Giebel 1874: 134
1952
Loc

Nirmus vulgatus galapagensis

Hopkins 1952: 56
Kellogg 1902: 474
1952
Loc

Brueelia limbata (

Valim 2015: 855
Hopkins 1952: 61
Rudow 1869: 16
Burmeister 1838: 429
1952
Loc

Brueelia ornatissima (

Hopkins 1952: 56
Kellogg 1896: 494
Giebel 1874: 144
Giebel 1874: 135
1952
Loc

Brueelia straminea (

Cicchino 1982: 279
Dalgleish 1971: 144
Zlotorzycka 1964: 256
Hopkins 1952: 62
Blagoveshtchensky 1940: 58
Denny 1842: 53
1952
Loc

Brueelia cyclothorax (

Cicchino 1996: 12
Emerson 1972: 34
Eichler 1954: 63
Giebel 1874: 137
Burmeister 1838: 429
1874
Loc

Brueelia nebulosa (

Emerson 1972: 31
Ansari 1955: 55
Hopkins 1952: 59
Giebel 1874: 90
Burmeister 1838: 429
1874
Loc

Brueelia delicata

Giebel 1866: 368
1866
Loc

Brueelia densilimba

Cicchino 2009: 505
Giebel 1866: 368
1866
Loc

Brueelia exigua

Giebel 1866: 366
1866
Loc

Brueelia intermedia

Giebel 1866: 366
1866
Loc

Philopterus

Nitzsch 1818: 288
Nitzsch 1818: 291
Loc

Degeeriella

Keler 1936: 257
Neumann 1906: 60
Loc

Painjunirmus

Ansari 1947: 285
Loc

Allobrueelia Eichler, 1951b : 36

Zlotorzycka 1964: 248
Eichler 1951: 36
Loc

Spironirmus Złotorzycka, 1964a : 261

Zlotorzycka 1964: 261
Loc

Serinirmus Soler-Cruz, Rodríguez, Florido-Navío & Muñoz-Parra, 1987 : 244

Florido-Navio 1987: 244
Loc

Brueelia abrupta (

Cicchino 1982: 281
Osborn 1896: 229
Loc

Brueelia acutangulata (

Ansari 1957: 185
Piaget 1880: 156
Loc

Brueelia albida (

Rudow 1869: 21
Loc

Brueelia alexandrii

Eichler 1953: 338
Loc

Brueelia altaica

Mey 1982: 168
Loc

Brueelia amazonae

Stafford 1943: 52
Loc

Brueelia americana

Cicchino 1996: 21
Loc

Brueelia angustifrons (

Carriker 1902: 221
Loc

Brueelia antimarginalis

Cicchino 1981: 37
Eichler 1951: 40
Loc

Brueelia argentina

Cicchino 1981: 31
Loc

Brueelia atricapillae Soler-Cruz, Alcántara-Ibañez & Florido-Navío, 1984 : 145

Price 2003: 157
Soler-Cruz 1984: 145
Loc

Brueelia audax (Kellogg, 1899: 25)

Cicchino 1996: 23
Loc

Brueelia bicurvata (

Piaget 1880: 159
Loc

Brueelia blagovescenskyi Balát, 1955 : 504

Balat 1955: 504
Loc

Brueelia bonariensis

Cicchino 1996: 22
Lunkaschu 1970: 53
Loc

Brueelia breueri Balát, 1955 : 505

Balat 1955: 505
Loc

Brueelia brevicolor

Ansari 1956: 110
Loc

Brueelia brevipennis

Ansari 1956: 159
Loc

Brueelia cedrorum (

Piaget 1880: 151
Loc

Brueelia cela

Stafford 1943: 53
Loc

Brueelia chayanh

Ansari 1955: 55
Loc

Brueelia chelydensis

Hopkins 1951: 377
Loc

Brueelia chilchil

Ansari 1955: 53
Loc

Brueelia chrysomystris (

Blagoveshtchensky 1940: 60
Loc

Brueelia conocephala (

Cicchino 2008: 302
Blagoveshtchensky 1940: 87
Loc

Brueelia corydalla Timmerman, 1950 : 5

Timmerman 1950: 5
Loc

Brueelia cruciata (

Cicchino 1982: 284
Burmeister 1838: 429
Loc

Brueelia currucae

Bechet 1961: 153
Loc

Brueelia deficiens (

Piaget 1885: 23
Loc

Brueelia dorsale

Williams 1983: 600
Loc

Brueelia ductilis (

Cicchino 1996: 18
Kellogg 1899: 89
Loc

Brueelia ferianci Balát, 1955 : 508

Balat 1955: 508
Loc

Brueelia flinti

Cicchino 1996: 27
Loc

Brueelia fulmeki

Eichler 1957: 580
Loc

Brueelia fuscopleura (

Ansari 1955: 54
Blagoveshtchensky 1951: 303
Loc

Brueelia ginginianus

Ansari 1955: 55
Loc

Brueelia glizi Balát, 1955 : 509

Balat 1955: 509
Loc

Brueelia gobiensis

Mey 1982: 170
Loc

Brueelia goertae

Dalgleish 1971: 141
Loc

Brueelia guldum

Ansari 1955: 54
Loc

Brueelia iliaci (

Denny 1842: 51
Loc

Brueelia immaculata (

Piaget 1890: 230
Loc

Brueelia imponderabilica

Eichler 1954: 61
Loc

Brueelia infrequens (

Carriker 1902: 220
Loc

Brueelia infuscata

Cicchino 1979: 92
Loc

Brueelia jacarinae

Valim 2006: 28
Loc

Brueelia jacobi

Eichler 1951: 10
Loc

Brueelia juno (

Giebel 1874: 137
Loc

Brueelia kalkalichi ( Ansari, 1955b: 58 )

Ansari 1955: 58
Loc

Brueelia kistiakowskyi

Fedorenko 1975: 48
Loc

Brueelia kluzi Balát, 1955 : 512

Balat 1955: 512
Loc

Brueelia kratochvili Balát, 1958 : 413

Balat 1958: 413
Loc

Brueelia latiuscula (

Kellogg 1899: 90
Loc

Brueelia locustellae

Fedorenko 1975: 49
Loc

Brueelia longipes (

Piaget 1880: 160
Loc

Brueelia lullulae

Bechet 1961: 154
Loc

Brueelia magnini

Ansari 1956: 161
Loc

Brueelia matvejevi Balát, 1981a : 278

Balat 1981: 278
Loc

Brueelia melanocoryphae

Bechet 1966: 79
Loc

Brueelia minor

Lunkaschu 1970: 55
Loc

Brueelia mirabile

Carriker 1963: 306
Loc

Brueelia modularis (

Piaget 1880: 151
Loc

Brueelia mongolica

Mey 1982: 172
Loc

Brueelia moreli

Ansari 1957: 182
Loc

Brueelia museiberolinensis (

Eichler 1957: 579
Loc

Brueelia nivalis (

Giebel 1874: 140
Loc

Brueelia pagodarum

Ansari 1955: 55
Loc

Brueelia pakistanaise

Ansari 1955: 52
Loc

Brueelia parabolocybe (

Carriker 1903: 137
Loc

Brueelia parae

Ansari 1955: 57
Loc

Brueelia parviguttata (

Blagoveshtchensky 1940: 62
Loc

Brueelia pelikani Balát, 1958 : 414

Balat 1958: 414
Loc

Brueelia pengya (

Ansari 1947: 285
Loc

Brueelia picturata (

Osborn 1896: 226
Loc

Brueelia piechockii

Mey 1982: 157
Loc

Brueelia propinqua (

Giebel 1874: 136
Loc

Brueelia pseudopicturata

Cicchino 1986: 8
Loc

Brueelia pyrrhularum

Eichler 1954: 62
Loc

Brueelia rhipidura (

Thompson 1941: 533
Loc

Brueelia rosickyi Balát, 1955 : 517

Balat 1955: 517
Loc

Brueelia rotundifrons

Cicchino 1981: 38
Loc

Brueelia ruficapilla

Cicchino 1990: 22
Loc

Brueelia sibirica

Mey 1982: 174
Loc

Brueelia stadleri

Eichler 1954: 61
Loc

Brueelia trinidadensis

Cicchino 1996: 21
Burmeister 1838: 429
Loc

Brueelia vaneki Balát, 1982 : 277

Balat 1982: 277
Loc

Brueelia vulgata (

Balat 1982: 44
Kellogg 1896: 496
Loc

Brueelia xanthocephali (

Ansari 1955: 56
Osborn 1896: 224
Loc

Brueelia zavattariornis

Ansari 1956: 387
Loc

Brueelia zohrae

Ansari 1956: 389