Psammonirmus Gustafsson & Bush

Bush, Sarah E., 2017, Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueelia - complex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key, Zootaxa 4313 (1), pp. 1-443: 95-97

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4313.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A5Fdfba5-F992-44A8-84C2-1756C943C19B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/832187E9-FFD4-FFA3-FF74-67C6FDB9FC23

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scientific name

Psammonirmus Gustafsson & Bush
status

new genus

Psammonirmus Gustafsson & Bush  , new genus

Type species. Psammonirmus lunatipectus  new species

Diagnosis. Psammonirmus  n. gen. does not appear to be closely related to any other genus treated here. pns is absent in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152) as in Brueelia  s. str ( Fig. 44View FIGURES 44 – 48), and like in Brueelia  s. str. ( Figs 42–43View FIGURES 42 – 43) females of Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 147View FIGURES 146 – 147) have very few abdominal setae, while males ( Fig. 146View FIGURES 146 – 147) have few setae in anterior segments and several tps  in more posterior segments (see Table 2). Moreover, Brueelia  s. str. lack as3 ( Fig. 44View FIGURES 44 – 48), but as3 is present in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152). With the exception of Br. phasmasoma  n. sp. ( Fig. 58View FIGURES 58 – 62), no known Brueelia  s. str. have a dorsal preantennal suture, but this is present in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152), and extends as in some Acronirmus ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 85 – 89). Psammonirmus  is separated from species of Brueelia  s. str. with dorsal preantennal suture and Acronirmus by the following characters: s4 present in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152) but absent in Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 58View FIGURES 58 – 62) and Acronirmus ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 85 – 89); pos absent in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152) and Acronirmus ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 85 – 89) but present in Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 58View FIGURES 58 – 62); female tergopleurites IX+X and XI partially fused in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 147View FIGURES 146 – 147) but not fused in Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 57View FIGURES 56 – 57) and Acronirmus ( Fig. 84View FIGURES 83 – 84); ss present on male tergopleurites II –IV, psps present on male tergopleurite IV, and tps  present on male tergopleurites V –VI in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 146View FIGURES 146 – 147), but all these sets of setae absent in Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 56View FIGURES 56 – 57) and Acronirmus ( Fig. 83View FIGURES 83 – 84); mesosomal lobes extended laterally overlapping with parameres in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 149View FIGURES 148 – 152) but not extended in Brueelia  s. str. ( Fig. 59View FIGURES 58 – 62) or Acronirmus ( Fig. 86View FIGURES 85 – 89).

The male genitalia of Psammonirmus  ( Figs 149–151View FIGURES 148 – 152) are similar only to those of Hecatrishula  n. gen. (e.g. Figs 134–136View FIGURES 132 – 137, 142–144View FIGURES 140 – 145) and Ceratocista  n. gen. ( Figs 157–159View FIGURES 155 – 160). As in Hecatrishula  ( Figs 134–135View FIGURES 132 – 137, 142–143View FIGURES 140 – 145), the mesosomal lobes are extended laterally, overlapping the parameres in Psammornirmus ( Figs 149–150View FIGURES 148 – 152); in both genera the gonopore is slightly elongated distally, the proximal mesosome is small, the parameral heads are at least bifid ( Figs 136View FIGURES 132 – 137, 144View FIGURES 140 – 145, 151View FIGURES 148 – 152), and the lateral margins of the mesosomal lobes are pectinate. However, in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 149View FIGURES 148 – 152) the lateral extensions of the mesosomal lobes are dorsal to the parameres, whereas in Hecatrishula  they are ventral ( Figs 134View FIGURES 132 – 137, 142View FIGURES 140 – 145). In addition, the ventral U- or V-shaped sclerite present in Hecatrishula  ( Figs 135View FIGURES 132 – 137, 143View FIGURES 140 – 145) is absent in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 150View FIGURES 148 – 152), and while the pmes are visible as stout setae positioned on the postero-ventral surface of the lobes in Hecatrishula  ( Figs 135View FIGURES 132 – 137, 143View FIGURES 140 – 145), these are much smaller and positioned on the lobes in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 150View FIGURES 148 – 152). Abdominal chaetotaxy differs between the two genera ( Table 2), with Hecatrishula  having psps and tps  on all segments in both sexes ( Figs 130–131View FIGURES 130 – 131, 138–139View FIGURES 138 – 139), whereas in Psammonirmus  anterior segments of the male ( Fig. 146View FIGURES 146 – 147) have only ss and are entirely nude in female ( Fig. 147View FIGURES 146 – 147). as3 is present in both Hecatrishula  ( Figs 132View FIGURES 132 – 137, 140View FIGURES 140 – 145) and Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152), but pns is present in Hecatrishula  and absent in Psammonirmus  .

Lateral extensions of the mesosomal lobes are found also in Ceratocista  ( Figs 157–158View FIGURES 155 – 160), and in both this genus and Psammonirmus  these extensions are dorsal. The abdominal chaetotaxy is remarkably similar in the two genera ( Table 2). In both Ceratocista  ( Fig. 154View FIGURES 153 – 154) and Psammonirmus  ( Figs 147View FIGURES 146 – 147) female tergopleurites IX+X and XI are partially fused. The female subgenital plates of both genera are also very similar, however the cross-piece is medianly displaced in Ceratocista  ( Fig. 160View FIGURES 155 – 160) but medianly continuous in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 152View FIGURES 148 – 152). Antennae are sexually dimorphic in Ceratocista  ( Figs 155–156View FIGURES 155 – 160) but not in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152), and the preantennal structure is very different in these two genera. In Ceratocista  ( Fig. 155View FIGURES 155 – 160) the frons is sclerotized dorsally as in Resartor  n. gen. ( Fig. 163View FIGURES 163 – 167) or Turdinirmus  ( Fig. 182View FIGURES 182 – 183), but in Psammonirmus  ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152) the frons is hyaline, and the dorsal preantennal suture completely separates the dorsal anterior plate from the main head plate.

Description. Both sexes. Head trapezoidal ( Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152). Marginal carina interrupted submedianly and laterally; absent at osculum. Dorsal preantennal suture continuous with hyaline margin, reaching dsms and ads, posteriorly separating dorsal anterior plate from main head plate. Ventral carinae diffuse anterior to pulvinus, and not clearly continuous with marginal carina. Ventral anterior plate absent. Head setae as in Fig. 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; pos and pns absent. Coni small, pointed. Antennae monomorphic. Temporal carinae not visible; mts  3 only macrosetae. Gular plate broad, pentagonal.

Prothorax rectangular ( Figs 146–147View FIGURES 146 – 147); ppss on postero-lateral corner. Proepimera with hammer-shaped median ends. Pterothorax pentagonal, with posterior margin convergent to rounded median point, differing slightly in shape between sexes; mms widely separated medianly. Meso- and metasterna not fused; 1 seta on postero-lateral corner on each side of each plate. Metepisterna widened medianly. Leg chaetotaxy as in Fig. 25View FIGURES 25, except fI-v4, fI-p2, fII-v2, fIII-v2 absent.

Abdomen ( Figs 146–147View FIGURES 146 – 147) oval in female, more teardrop-shaped in male. Tergopleurites rectangular, but triangular in more posterior tergopleurites in male; tergopleurites II –IX+X in male and tergopleurites II –VIII in female moderately separated medianly. Tergopleurite IX+X and XI fused in female. Sternal plates rectangular, transversally continuous, not approaching pleurites. Pleural incrassatons moderate. Re-entrant heads prominent. Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Table 2 and Figs 146–147View FIGURES 146 – 147; pss cannot be seen in any material examined, and lateralmost seta on all tergopleurites (except pleural setae) here tentatively interpreted as psps with shorter seta median to this in females tentatively interpreted as tps  . Male subgenital plate trapezoidal, reaching posterior margin of abdomen. Female subgenital plate trapezoidal, but diffuse distally. Cross-piece present, but from the material examined it cannot be established whether this is detached or continuous with subgenital plate. Vulval margin ( Fig. 152View FIGURES 148 – 152) with slender vms, numerous thorn-like vss; vos follow lateral margins of subgenital plate; distal setae not approaching vss.

Basal apodeme rounded rectangular ( Fig. 149View FIGURES 148 – 152). Proximal mesosome small, constricted at about midpoint. Gonopore ( Fig. 150View FIGURES 148 – 152) prominent, open distally, with lateral extensions in anterior end. Mesosomal lobes large, wing-like, overlapping with parameres. Distal margin of lobes pectinate; 2 pmes sensilla visible on each side of gonopore ( Fig. 150View FIGURES 148 – 152). Parameral heads bifid ( Fig. 151View FIGURES 148 – 152). Parameral blades slender, tapering; pst1–2 not visible.

Host distribution. Psammonirmus lunatipectus  n. sp. is the first species of Brueelia  -complex described from the Eurylaimides, and is presently know only from the Eurylaimidae  . A pair of specimens (NHML, 1980-40 and 1934-570) from Psarisomus dalhousiae dalhousiae (Jameson, 1835)  belong to this genus, but the male genitalia are too badly distorted to ascertain whether these are Ps. lunatipectus  . Notably, the head shape of the material from P. d. dalhousie varies from that of Ps. lunatipectus  from Serilophus lunatus  .

We have examined material from other Eurylaimidae  , including Eurylaimus steerei mayri Salomonsen, 1954  , Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchus malaccensis Salvadori, 1874  , Corydon sumatranus laoensis Meyer de Schauensee, 1929  , and Calyptomena viridis caudacuta Swainson, 1838  , but all specimens from these hosts belong to Guimaraesiella. We have seen no Brueelia  -complex lice from the other members of Eurylaimides ( Pittidae  , Philepittidae  , Sapayoa Hartert, 1903  ). The two known hosts of Psammonirmus  are nested within the Eurylaimidae  , but are not closely related within that family ( Moyle et al. 2006). It is puzzling that these two hosts, but none of the others, are parasitised by Psammonirmus  ; poor sampling may be a factor.

Geographical range. Southeast Asia. 

Etymology. The genus name is derived from Greek “ psammos ” for “sand”, and refers to the coloration of the only known species. “ Nirmus  ” is a common generic suffix in louse taxonomy, referring to Nitzsch (1818) genus of the same name. Gender: masculine.

Remarks. No representative of Psammonirmus  was included in the phylogeny of Bush et al. (2016), and its relationship to other genera treated here is presently unknown.

Included species

* Psammonirmus lunatipectus  new species