Turdinirmus merulensis ( Denny, 1842 ),

Bush, Sarah E., 2017, Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueelia - complex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key, Zootaxa 4313 (1), pp. 1-443: 119-120

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4313.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A5Fdfba5-F992-44A8-84C2-1756C943C19B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/832187E9-FFFC-FFB4-FF74-6379FEEFF836

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Plazi

scientific name

Turdinirmus merulensis ( Denny, 1842 )
status

 

Turdinirmus merulensis ( Denny, 1842) 

( Figs 182–188View FIGURES 182 – 183View FIGURES 184 – 188)

Nirmus merulensis Denny, 1842: 51  .

Nirmus merulae Denny, 1852: 18  .

Nirmus mandarinus Giglioli, 1864: 23  .

Degeeriella mandarina Giglioli, 1864  ; Harrison, 1916: 117.

Degeeriella merulae Denny, 1852  ; Harrison, 1916: 118 [as junior synonym of D. merulensis  ]. Degeeriella merulensis Denny, 1842  ; Harrison, 1916: 118.

Turdinirmus merulensis (Denny)  ; Eichler, 1951b: 15.

Turdinirmus mandarinus (Giglioli)  ; Eichler, 1951b: 15.

Brueelia mandarina ( Giglioli), 1864  ; Hopkins & Clay, 1952: 58 [as junior synonym of Bl. merulensis  ]. Brueelia merulae ( Denny), 1852  ; Hopkins & Clay, 1952: 58 [as junior synonym of Bl. merulensis  ]. Brueelia merulensis ( Denny), 1842  ; Hopkins & Clay, 1952: 58. Turdinirmus merulensis  s. str. ( Denny, 1842); Złotorzycka, 1997: 176.

Type host. Turdus merula merula Linnaeus, 1758  —Eurasian blackbird.

Type locality. Leeds, United Kingdom. 

Other hosts. Turdus merula aterrimus (Madarasz, 1903)  —Eurasian blackbird [Ref.: Blagoveshchensky 1940]. Turdus merula mandarinus Bonaparte, 1850  —Eurasian blackbird. Turdus merula syriacus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833  —Eurasian blackbird. Turdus pallidus Gmelin, 1789  —pale thrush [Ref.: Eichler 1951: 15].

Description. Both sexes. Head shape, structure, and chaetotaxy as in genus description and Fig. 184View FIGURES 184 – 188. In some specimens dorsal preantennal suture reaches lateral margin of head. Thoracic and abdominal segments as in genus description and Figs 183–184View FIGURES 182 – 183View FIGURES 184 – 188.

Male. Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Table 2 and Fig. 183View FIGURES 182 – 183. Basal apodeme elongated trapezoidal ( Fig. 185View FIGURES 184 – 188). Proximal mesosome flattened trapezoidal, comparatively large for genus. Gonopore ( Fig. 186View FIGURES 184 – 188) as convergent ventral thickenings, open distally and proximally. Mesosomal lobes wide, thickened marginally, with papillate sections submedianly; 2–3 pmes clustered very closely together near distal margin of mesosome, often not visible. Parameral heads ( Fig. 187View FIGURES 184 – 188) bifid, fingers broad and blunt. Parameral blades broad, roughly triangular; pst1–2 as in genus description. Measurements ex Turdus merula merula  (n = 26): TL = 1.78–2.07 (1.96); HL = 0.47–0.52 (0.49); HW = 0.49–0.55 (0.52); PRW = 0.27–0.33 (0.31); PTW = 0.40–0.47 (0.43); AW = 0.52–0.67 (0.60). Ex T. m. syriacus  (n = 3): TL = 1.95–2.07; HL = 0.49–0.51; HW =0.52–0.56; PRW = 0.31–0.32; PTW = 0.40–0.43; AW = 0.52–0.55. Ex T. pallidus  (n = 2): TL = 1.95–1.97; HL = 0.50–0.51; HW = 0.52–0.53; PRW = 0.30–0.31; PTW = 0.43–0.44; AW = 0.59–0.63.

Female. Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Table 2 and Fig. 184View FIGURES 184 – 188. Subgenital plate ( Fig. 188View FIGURES 184 – 188) roughly pentagonal, with wide median section approaching vulval margin. Vulval margin ( Fig. 188View FIGURES 184 – 188) gently rounded, with submarginal fold along most of length; 9–10 short, slender vms on each side, and 9–11 short, thorn-like vss on each side; 4–5 long, slender vos on each side; distal vos median to vss. Measurements ex Turdus merula merula  (n = 32): TL = 1.99–2.54 (2.24); HL = 0.47–0.57 (0.52); HW = 0.51–0.63 (0.56); PRW = 0.28–0.36 (0.33); PTW = 0.41–0.53 (0.46); AW = 0.47–0.75 (0.65). Ex T. m. syriacus  (n = 3): TL = 2.23–2.31; HL = 0.52–0.53; HW = 0.56–0.57; PRW = 0.33–0.34; PTW = 0.45–0.46; AW = 0.55–0.62. Ex T. pallidus  (n = 4): TL = 2.07–2.32; HL = 0.51–0.56; HW = 0.54–0.61; PRW = 0.31–0.35; PTW = 0.44–0.49; AW = 0.62–0.64.

Type material. Ex Turdus merula merula  : Holotype ♂, Leeds, England, Denny Collection, BM 1952-98 ( NHML)  . Paratypes: 11♀, same data as holotype ( NHML)  .

Additional material examined (non-types)

Ex Turdus merula merula  : 6♂, 13♀, Hoy, Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, Oct. 1938 ( OSUS); 10♂, 10♀, same locality as previous, Aug. 1938, G.H.E. Hopkins ( NHML); 3♂, 12♀, Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, Aug. 1936, R. Meinertzhagen, 11644 ( NHML); 26♂, 50♀, same locality as previous, Aug. 1938, R. Meinertzhagen, 11279–80, 11421 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, South Uist, Outer Hebrides, Scotland, United Kingdom, Jan. 1934, R. Meinertzhagen, 89 ( NHML); 4♀, Scotland, United Kingdom, Jun. 1938, P.A. Clancey, BM 1980-40 ( NHML); 4♂, 1♀, Arran, Scotland, United Kingdom, Oct. 1943, R. Meinertzhagen, 14876, 14895 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, Perthshire, Scotland, United Kingdom, Oct. 1935, R. Meinertzhagen, 4330 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, Fair Isle, Shetlands, Scotland, United Kingdom, 27 May 1955, Brit. Mus. 1955-785 ( NHML); 2♂, 1♀, same locality as previous, 18 Jun. 1954, 29693, Brit. Mus. 1954-566 ( NHML); 1♂, Thibisten [?], Shetlands, Scotland, United Kingdom, 20 oct. 1910, J. W[aterston?], BM 1930-232. 1♀, Skokholm, Pembrokeshire, Scotland, United Kingdom, 287 ( NHML); 1♂, 8♀, Llandulas, Denbighshire, Wales, United Kingdom, 6 Apr. 1936, M. Mitchell, BM 1980-40 ( NHML) [marked “compared with type ”]. 1♂, 4♀, Bed Colwyn, Denbighshire, Wales, United Kingdom, 6 Apr. 1936, M. Mitchell, BM 1989-40 ( NHML); 1♀, Bardsey Island, Wales, United Kingdom, 14 Nov. 1952, G.B. T[hompson?], BM- 1980-40 ( NHML); 1♀, same data as previous, except 17 Nov. 1952 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, “Northern Norfolk ”, Norfolk, England, United Kingdom, 30 Jun. 1969, M. Payne, Brit. Mus. 1970-259 ( NHML); 3♂, 1♀, Norfolk, England, United Kingdom, Jan. 1940, R Meinertzhagen, 14040 ( NHML); 8♂, 20♀, Kent, England, United Kingdom, Feb. 1937, R. Meinertzhagen, 8333 ( NHML); 2♀, The Thorn, Baltham[?], Kent, England, United Kingdom, 11 Jul. 1931, G.B. Thompson, BM 1980-40 ( NHML); 5♂, 5♀, Bowan[?], Cambridgeshire, England, United Kingdom, 29 May 1952, G.B. Thompson, BM 1980-40 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, Hereford [Herefordshire], England, United Kingdom, 31 Oct. 1963, Eskgrove Lab, Brit. Mus. 1964-102 ( NHML); 2♂, 6♀, Suffolk, England, United Kingdom, Aug. 1936, R. Meinertzhagen, 4918 ( NHML); 4♀, Suffolk, England, United Kingdom, May 1935, R. Meinertzhagen, 3456 ( NHML); 5♂, 3♀, Gibraltar Point Bird Observatory, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom, 17 Jun. 1950, L. Ottaway, BM 1980-40 ( NHML); 4♀, Somerset, England, United Kingdom, May 1934, R. Meinertzhagen, 910 ( NHML); 2♂, 2♀, Surrey, England, United Kingdom, 16 Jun. 1966, Lasswade Veterinary Lab, Brit. Mus. 1967-154 ( NHML); 4♂, 4♀, Lundy Bird Observatory, England, United Kingdom, 28 Jul. 1952, BM 1980-40 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, Gloucestershire, England, United Kingdom, R.S. George, Brit. Mus. 1957-297 ( NHML); 3♀, Blois [Loir-et-Cher], France, May 1934, R. Meinertzhagen, 1046 ( NHML); 1♂, 2♀, “NE Poland ”, Poland, Aug. 1935, R. Meinertzhagen, 4136 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 30 Oct. 1954, S. Brelih, 1568–70 ( NHML); 1♂, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 5 Aug. 1958, S. Brelih, 424 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, Senj [as “Zengg”], Croatia, 10 Jan. 1912, F. Dobiasch ( NHML); 3♂, 3♀, Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand, 29 Oct. 1962, G.A. Samuelson, 207A, Brit. Mus. 1966-201 ( NHML); 1♂, 1♀, same locality as previous, 24 Dec. 1966, D.S.I.R., N.Z., Brit. Mus. 1968-401 ( NHML); 22♀, Tharandt, Germany [?], 29 May 1948, H. Richter, IN 1296/4/2 ( MFNB) [stomachs of these lice are on a separate slide]. 1♀, Seidelbadsee, Germany [?], 5 Jul. 1952 ( MFNB) [taken from Ornithomyia avicularia  ]. 1♂, 2♀, Kent, England, United Kingdom, May 1937, R. Meinertzhagen, 10689 [Meinertzhagen No.], 930 [Eichler No.] ( MFNB); 1♀, Zelistnewo, Poland, 17 Sep. 1962, Gromadzki, 14/e/33 ( MFNB); 4♂, 5♀, Zawiercie, Poland, 4 Aug. 1955, J. Złotorzycka, 8451, 8453–60 ( PMSL); 1♂, 5♀, Tolmin, Slovenia, 18 Jun. 1958, S. Brelih, 332, 1560–2, 6272–3 ( PMSL); 1♀, Most na Soci, Slovenia, 17 Jun. 1958, S. Brelih, 429 ( PMSL); 2♀, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 30 Oct. 1951, S. Brelih, 426, 1569 ( PMSL); 4♂, 2♀, Dolenjsko, Slovenia, 30 Mar. 1955, S. Brelih, 493–8 ( PMSL); 1♂, Slovenia, 30 May 1955, S. Brelih, 6274 ( PMSL); 1♀, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 1 Feb. 1977, A. Lesinger, 13103 ( PMSL).

Ex Turdus merula mandarinus  : 4♂, 2♀, China, Aug. 1913, R. Meinertzhagen, 3714 ( NHML). 

Ex Turdus merula syriacus  : 3♂, 3♀, “ Eastern Entrance of Tange-eh-Rah ”, Iran, 26 Jun. 1969, 126 ( OSUS)  ; 2♂, 4♀, Palestine, Apr. 1953, R. Meinertzhagen, BM 1953-225 ( NHML)  .

Ex Turdus merula  ssp.: 6♀, unknown locality, marked “ Entomology Mallophaga Louse of Blackbird ”, BM 1980-40 ( NHML)  ; 1♀, unknown locality, 1914 (NHML); 3♂, 6♀, unknown locality, Eichler Collection , 1932 ( MFNB)  ; 1♂, unknown locality, Wolffhügel , IN1278/64 ( MFNB)  .

Ex Turdus philomelos  [as Turdus musicus  ]: 2♂, unknown locality (NHML).

Remarks. Złotorzycka's (1997: 177) illustration of the male genitalia is based on an individual with distorted mesosomal lobes and parameres that are largely hidden behind the mesosome, and are not representative. We tentatively include in Turdinirmus merulensis  the two male lice we examined from Turdus philomelos  , because they are are similar to males from Turdus merula  ssp. but  , unfortunately, the genitalia of both specimens are distorted. Additional material from T. philomelos  is needed to determine more accurately the taxonomic placement of these lice.

NHML

Natural History Museum, Tripoli

OSUS

Oklahoma State University

MFNB

Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale

PMSL

Slovenian Museum of Natural History (Prirodosloveni Muzej Slovenije)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Phthiraptera

Family

Philopteridae

Genus

Turdinirmus

Loc

Turdinirmus merulensis ( Denny, 1842 )

Bush, Sarah E. 2017
2017
Loc

Brueelia mandarina (

Zlotorzycka 1997: 176
Hopkins 1952: 58
Hopkins 1952: 58
Hopkins 1952: 58
1952
Loc

Turdinirmus merulensis

Eichler 1951: 15
1951
Loc

Turdinirmus mandarinus

Eichler 1951: 15
1951
Loc

Degeeriella mandarina

Harrison 1916: 117
1916
Loc

Degeeriella merulae

Harrison 1916: 118
Harrison 1916: 118
1916
Loc

Nirmus mandarinus

Giglioli 1864: 23
1864
Loc

Nirmus merulae

Denny 1852: 18
1852
Loc

Nirmus merulensis

Denny 1842: 51
1842