Turdinirmus Eichler, 1951,

Bush, Sarah E., 2017, Morphological revision of the hyperdiverse Brueelia - complex (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) with new taxa, checklists and generic key, Zootaxa 4313 (1), pp. 1-443: 117-119

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Turdinirmus Eichler, 1951


Turdinirmus Eichler, 1951 

Nirmus Nitzsch, 1818: 291  (in partim). Brueelia Kéler, 1936a: 257  (in partim). Turdinirmus Eichler, 1951b: 41  .

Turdinirmus Eichler, 1952: 78  .

Type species. Nirmus merulensis Denny, 1842: 51  , by original designation.

Diagnosis. Turdinirmus  is superficially similar to Turdinirmoides  n. gen. in general habitus and preantennal structure, but Turdinirmoides  ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 177 – 181) lacks pos and pns, which are present in Turdinirmus  ( Figs 184View FIGURES 184 – 188, 191View FIGURES 191 – 195). In addition, the marginal carina may be interrupted laterally in Turdinirmus  (not illustrated) where the dorsal preantennal suture reaches the lateral margin of the head, but this is not the case in Turdinirmoides  ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 177 – 181). In Turdinirmoides  there is no displaced section of the marginal carina at the osculum, whereas in Turdinirmus  ( Figs 184View FIGURES 184 – 188, 191View FIGURES 191 – 195) this is present as a distinct sinuous thickening of the dorsal anterior plate, similar to Resartor  n. gen. ( Fig. 163View FIGURES 163 – 167) or Ceratocista  n. gen. ( Fig. 155View FIGURES 155 – 160). Male and female genitalia also differ, as explained in the diagnosis of Turdinirmoides  (see above).

Turdinirmus  is also superficially similar to Maculinirmus  , and the abdominal chaetotaxy of these two genera ( Table 2) is identical. Other characters shared by Maculinirmus  and Turdinirmus  include: dorsal preantennal sutures reaches the ads in both Turdinirmus  ( Figs 184View FIGURES 184 – 188, 191View FIGURES 191 – 195) and Maculinirmus  ( Figs 198View FIGURES 198 – 202, 205), and reach or nearly reach the dsms and the lateral margin of the head, but does not separate the dorsal anterior plate from the main head plate medianly, and does not entirely interrupt the marginal carina laterally; pos and pns present ( Figs 184View FIGURES 184 – 188, 191View FIGURES 191 – 195, 198View FIGURES 198 – 202, 205); female subgenital plate of both Maculinirmus  ( Figs 202View FIGURES 198 – 202, 209) and Turdinirmus  ( Figs 188View FIGURES 184 – 188, 195View FIGURES 191 – 195) approach, but do not reach, the vulval margin, and in neither genus does it form a cross-piece; fI-v4 is absent in both genera; at least some sternal plates of both sexes have more than one sts on each side ( Figs 182–183View FIGURES 182 – 183, 189–190View FIGURES 189 – 190, 196–197View FIGURES 196 – 197, 203–204View FIGURES 203 – 204). These two genera can be separated by the following characters: the sinuous ridge of the dorsal anterior plate found in Turdinirmus  ( Figs 182View FIGURES 182 – 183, 189View FIGURES 189 – 190) is absent in Maculinirmus  ( Figs 198View FIGURES 198 – 202, 205); the large, angular temples seen in some Turdinirmus  (e.g. Tu. australissimus  n. sp., Fig. 191View FIGURES 191 – 195) are never seen in Maculinirmus  ( Figs 198View FIGURES 198 – 202, 205); marginal temporal carina in Maculinirmus  is always slender ( Figs 198View FIGURES 198 – 202, 205), whereas in Turdinirmus  it is always wide and irregular ( Figs 184View FIGURES 184 – 188, 191View FIGURES 191 – 195); female tergopleurite XI is absent or so small and pale that it cannot be seen in Maculinirmus  ( Figs 197View FIGURES 196 – 197, 204View FIGURES 203 – 204), whereas in Turdinirmus  ( Figs 183View FIGURES 182 – 183, 190View FIGURES 189 – 190) tergopleurite IX+X is fused with tergopleurite XI; parameral heads are folded into U-shapes in Maculinirmus  ( Figs 201View FIGURES 198 – 202, 208), but not in Turdinirmus  ( Figs 187View FIGURES 184 – 188, 194View FIGURES 191 – 195); mesosomal lobes in Maculinirmus  are rounded and marginal thickenings are either vague ( Fig. 199View FIGURES 198 – 202) or absent (Fig. 206), whereas in Turdinirmus  the lobes are more angular with a distinct marginal thickening ( Figs 185View FIGURES 184 – 188, 192View FIGURES 191 – 195).

Description. Both sexes. Head trapezoidal ( Fig. 184View FIGURES 184 – 188) to concave-dome shaped ( Fig. 191View FIGURES 191 – 195). Marginal carina broad, interrupted at least submedianly, but may be interrupted laterally as well (not illustrated). Hyaline margin continuous with dorsal preantennal suture reaching ads and reaching or nearly reaching dsms, extending median to ads but not completely separating dorsal anterior plate from main head plate. Dorsal anterior plate with sinuous thickening near posterior end, which may be displaced section of marginal carina at osculum. Ventral carinae diffuse anterior to pulvinus, and not clearly continuous with marginal carina. Ventral anterior plate present, crescent-shaped. Head setae as in Figs 184View FIGURES 184 – 188, 191View FIGURES 191 – 195. Preantennal nodi distinct. Coni small. Antennae monomorphic; mts  3 only long setae. Temporal carinae not clearly visible. Marginal temporal carina broad. Gular plate triangular with concave margins.

Prothorax ( Figs 182–183View FIGURES 182 – 183, 189–190View FIGURES 189 – 190) rectangular; ppss on postero-lateral corner. Proepimera with hook- or hammer-shaped median ends. Pterothorax pentagonal; lateral margins divergent; posterior margin convergent to broadly rounded median point. Meso- and metasterna not fused; 1 seta on postero-lateral corner on each side of each plate. Metepisterna with large, blunt median ends. mms widely interrupted medianly. Leg chaetotaxy as in Fig. 25View FIGURES 25, except fI-v4, fI-p2 absent.

Abdomen ( Figs 182–183View FIGURES 182 – 183, 189–190View FIGURES 189 – 190) oval. Abdominal chaetotaxy as in Table 2. Tergopleurites rectangular; tergopleurites II –IX+X in male and tergopleurites II –VIII in female narrowly divided medianly; tergopleurite IX+X fused to tergopleurite XI in female. Sternal plates rectangular, not approaching pleurites. Pleural incrassations wide. Re-entrant heads large, elaborate. Male subgenital plate trapezoidal, reaching posterior end of abdomen. Female subgenital plate pentagonal ( Fig. 188View FIGURES 184 – 188) to triangular ( Fig. 195View FIGURES 191 – 195), approaching vulval margin. No cross-piece present. Vulval margin ( Figs 188View FIGURES 184 – 188, 195View FIGURES 191 – 195) with slender vms, numerous thorn-like vss; vos follows lateral margins of subgenital plate; distal vos median to vss.

Basal apodeme trapezoidal ( Fig. 185View FIGURES 184 – 188) to rounded with mid-length constriction ( Fig. 192View FIGURES 191 – 195), distal half with transverse arch. Proximal mesosome flattened, differing in shape among species. Gonopore ( Figs 186View FIGURES 184 – 188, 193View FIGURES 191 – 195) open distally and proximally, as parallel or converging thickenings. Mesosomal lobes wide, short, angular or rounded. Marginal thickenings of lobes follow margin for entire length. Up to 3 pmes visible lateral to gonopore. Parameral heads ( Figs 187View FIGURES 184 – 188, 194View FIGURES 191 – 195) bifid, not folded into horseshoe-shapes. Parameral blades broadly curved; pst1 sensillus, submarginal or central; pst2 microseta, on lateral margin near distal tip.

Host distribution. Turdidae  . 

Geographical range. Throughout Old World.

Remarks. No representative of Turdinirmus  was included in the phylogeny of Bush et al. (2016), but the structure of the preantennal area and the male genitalia suggest that the genus may be close to Maculinirmus  or Turdinirmoides  .

Martín-Mateo (2009: 339) claimed that no description or indication was included when Eichler (1951b) named this genus, making the name unavailable until Złotorzycka (1964a) provided a description. Eichler (1951b: 13) did, however, state that the group (the “ viscivori  - Typ sensu  meo”) have a characteristic head shape and share some other characteristics with the type species, Tu. merulensis  . Under the entry for this species, Eichler (1951b: 15) states that Tu. merulensis  has a characteristic “docophorid” head shape, providing an illustration of the head ( Eichler 1951b: 16, fig. 15) showing the characteristic angular temples, broad carinae, and hints at the dorsal preantennal suture characteristic of the genus. Złotorzycka (1964a: 267) mentions only the habitus, the size (“enormous” for a “Brueeliinae”) and that, like Penenirmus  s. l., Turdinirmus  has an interrupted marginal carina. This does not provide a more definite description than Eichler’s (1951b); we therefore retain Eichler (1951b) as author of Turdinirmus  . As an additional note, Eichler (1952: 78) described the genus as new for a second time, but did not provide any additional characters. It is unclear whether this description is based on the same material or not, as Eichler (1952) does not refer to any specimens.

Złotorzycka (1964a, 1997) disagreed with Hopkins & Clay’s (1952) synonymization of Turdinirmus  with Brueelia  , and Mey (1982b: 179) claimed that the genus was well separated from Brueelia  , and provided some illustrations, but did not list any diagnostic characters. Most recently, Mey & Barker (2014) and Valim & Palma (2015) have considered this genus to be valid, and both recognise Eichler (1951b) as the author, but neither provides additional arguments in support of their taxonomic conclusions.

Species parasitic on Zoothera  spp. have more clearly angular temples than species parasitic on Turdus  spp. (see Tu. merulensis  , Fig. 184View FIGURES 184 – 188, and Tu. australissimus  , Fig. 191View FIGURES 191 – 195), but are otherwise similar, and we do not feel this difference is sufficient to erect different species groups.

Included species

* Turdinirmus australissimus  new species

* Turdinirmus daumae ( Clay, 1936: 910)  [in Degeeriella  ] Turdinirmus eichleri Mey, 1982b: 179 

Brueelia neoeichleri Price, Hellenthal & Palma, 2003: 157  , new synonymy [1] * Turdinirmus merulensis ( Denny, 1842: 51)  [in Nirmus  ]

Nirmus merulae Denny, 1852: 18 

Nirmus mandarinus Giglioli, 1864: 23 

* Turdinirmus stresemanni ( Clay, 1936: 910)  [in Degeeriella  ] * Turdinirmus zootherae ( Clay, 1936: 909)  [in Degeeriella  ]

[1] Turdinirmus merulensis eichleri Mey, 1982b  (= Brueelia neoeichleri Price et al. 2003  ), is homonymous with Brueelia eichleri Lakshminarayana, 1969  , only when the two species are considered to belong to the same genus. However, we regard Brueelia eichleri Lakshminarayana  as a junior synonym of Mirandofures muniae Eichler, 1957  (see Mirandofures  ), hence we do not consider the two homonymous species congeneric. We follow Article 59.4 (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999) and reinstate Turdinirmus eichleri Mey (1982b)  as valid species.












Turdinirmus Eichler, 1951

Bush, Sarah E. 2017

Nirmus mandarinus

Giglioli 1864: 23

Nirmus merulae

Denny 1852: 18


Eichler 1951: 41
Keler 1936: 257
Nitzsch 1818: 291


Eichler 1952: 78

Turdinirmus daumae (

Mey 1982: 179
Clay 1936: 910

Brueelia neoeichleri

Price 2003: 157
Denny 1842: 51

Turdinirmus stresemanni (

Clay 1936: 910
Clay 1936: 909