Halobrecta flavipes Thomson, 1861

Gusarov, Vladimir I., 2004, A revision of the Nearctic species of the genus Halobrecta Thomson, 1858 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) with notes on some Palaearctic species of the genus, Zootaxa 746, pp. 1-25: 13-19

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.158213

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:BC6038C7-C268-461C-A711-FD4EFD3BBE1E

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/856E87A0-2F0F-2233-567F-BA4AF626FE69

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scientific name

Halobrecta flavipes Thomson, 1861
status

 

2. Halobrecta flavipes Thomson, 1861 

( Figs. 37–51View FIGURES 37 – 40View FIGURES 41 – 44View FIGURES 45 – 48View FIGURES 49 – 51)

Halobrectha flavipes Thomson, 1861: 50  .

Homalota maritima Waterhouse, 1863: 138  (nec Mannerheim, 1843: 224) (replacement name for Homalota flavipes ( Thomson, 1861)  , nec Homalota flavipes  (Gravenhorst, 1806 )).

Homalota halobrectha Sharp, 1869: 139  (replacement name for Homalota flavipes ( Thomson, 1861)  , nec Homalota flavipes  (Gravenhorst, 1806 )).

Halobrectha flavipes: Mulsant & Rey, 1875: 45  (as synonym of Ha. anthracina (Fairmaire, 1853 ))  .

Atheta  (s. str.) pocahontas Casey, 1910: 19  , syn. nov.

Atheta  (s. str.) vaticina Casey, 1910: 19  , syn. nov.

Aloconota  (s. str.) incertula Casey, 1910: 84  , syn. nov.

Atheta (Halobrecta) flavipes: Fenyes, 1920: 185  (as valid species).

Atheta (Halobrecta) flavipes: Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz, 1926: 621  (as valid species).

Atheta (Halobrecta) maritima (Waterhouse)  : Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz, 1926: 621 (as synonym of At. flavipes  ).

Atheta (Halobrecta) halobrectha: Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz, 1926: 621  (as synonym of At. flavipes  ).

Atheta  (s. str.) pocahontas: Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz, 1926: 648  (as valid species). Atheta  (s. str.) vaticina: Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz, 1926: 651  (as valid species). Atheta  (s. str.) incertula: Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz, 1926: 644  (as valid species). Atheta (Halobrecta) flavipes: Scheerpeltz, 1934: 1600  (as valid species). Halobrecta flavipes: Benick & Lohse, 1974: 219  (as valid species).

Halobrecta flavipes: Hammond, 2000: 275  (as valid species).

Halobrecta flavipes: Pace, 2000: 376  (ex parte; as valid species).

Type material. Lectotype of Halobrecta flavipes  (here designated): ɗ, "L­a [Lomma, Sweden]" ( MZLUAbout MZLU (Thomson collection)).

Lectotype of Atheta pocahontas  (here designated): ɗ, "Va. [with two black dots under "a", Virginia: Fort Monroe (according to Casey locality code (FitzGerald 1962 ))]", " pocahontas  ­ 3 PARATYPE USNMAbout USNM 39310 " (red label), " CASEY bequest 1925 ". Paralectotypes: Ψ, "Va. [with one black dot under "a", Virginia: Norfolk (FirzGerald 1962)]", " Atheta pocahontas Csy.  ", " TYPE USNMAbout USNM 39310 " (red label), " CASEY bequest 1925 "; ɗ, with missing head, prothorax and elytra, ɗ, "Va. [with two black dots under "a", Virginia: Fort Monroe]", " pocahontas  ­ 2 PARATYPE USNMAbout USNM 39310 " (red label), " CASEY bequest 1925 " ( NMNHAbout NMNH).

Lectotype of Atheta vaticina  (here designated): Ψ, "L.I. [Long Island, New York]", " Atheta vaticina Csy.  ", " TYPE USNMAbout USNM 39311 " (red label), " CASEY bequest 1925 " ( NMNHAbout NMNH).

Lectotype of Aloconota incertula  (here designated): Ψ, "Va. [with two black dots under "a", Virginia: Fort Monroe]", " incertula Csy.  ", " TYPE USNMAbout USNM 39076 " (red label), " CASEY bequest 1925 " ( NMNHAbout NMNH).

Additional material. CHILE: Llanquihue Prov.: 2 ɗɗ, 2 ΨΨ, 6 specimens (sex undetermined), Puerto Montt, Pilluco, sifting beach drift, 24.xii. 1984 (S. & J.Peck); ɗ, Ψ, 1 specimen (sex undetermined), Lenca, 34 km SE Puerto Montt, beach drift, 25.xii. 1984 (S. & J.Peck) ( FMNHAbout FMNH); GERMANY: Ψ, N Friesen Islands, Spekeroog Island, 20.v – 16.vi. 1992 (B.W.Johanning) ( KSEM); SWEDEN: ɗ, Ψ, Oskarshamn, 10.vi. 1941 (H.Bachlund) ( KSEM); UNITED KINGDOM: ɗ, Aldeburgh, 15.viii. 1925 (C.J.Saunders) ( BMNH).

Diagnosis. Halobrecta flavipes  is closely related to Ha. algophila  , but differs in having the body size smaller on average; and the spatuliform apex of the median lobe larger (in parameral view), the apex is 1.4–1.5 times as wide as the median lobe measured subapically at its narrowest point (1.1 times in Ha. algophila  ) ( Figs. 41–44View FIGURES 41 – 44; 22 –23, 26– 27).

Halobrecta flavipes  differs from the Mediterranean species tentatively identified as Ha. halensis  (see Discussion for Halobrecta  ) in having the median lobe of the aedeagus narrower (in parameral view) ( Figs. 41–44View FIGURES 41 – 44; 64).

Halobrecta flavipes  differs from the Palaearctic Ha. algae  and Ha. princeps  by having the posterior margin of the male tergum 8 rounded and not crenulate ( Fig. 37View FIGURES 37 – 40) (in Ha. algae  and Ha. princeps  the posterior margin is straight and may be slightly crenulate ( Fig. 52View FIGURES 52 – 55)), and by the apex of the median lobe broader ( Figs. 41–44View FIGURES 41 – 44; 56–57).

Halobrecta flavipes  differs from the Oriental Ha. cingulata  in having a different shape of the median lobe (in lateral view) ( Figs. 45–48View FIGURES 45 – 48 in this paper; Fig. 9View FIGURES 6 – 12, G in Sawada 1985). Halobrecta flavipes  differs from the Neotropical Ha. discipula  in having a different shape of the median lobe (in parameral view) ( Figs. 41–44View FIGURES 41 – 44: this paper; Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 5: Pace 1999). Description. Length 2.9–3.2 mm. Pronotal width 0.53–0.61 mm, length 0.43–0.51 mm. Elytra 1.3–1.5 times as long as pronotum.

In all character states very similar to Ha. algophila  , but differs in the shape of the median lobe as described in the diagnosis.

Aedeagus as in Figs. 41–50View FIGURES 41 – 44View FIGURES 45 – 48View FIGURES 49 – 51. Spermatheca as in Fig. 51View FIGURES 49 – 51.

Discussion. The male types of At. pocahontas  are similar in external characters to the lectotype of Ha. flavipes  , as well as in the shape of the aedeagus. These names are deemed to be synonyms.

The only existing type of Al. incertula  is a female but it was collected in the same locality as the male lectotype of At. pocahontas  . Since the type of Al. incertula  is similar to examined specimens of Ha. flavipes  , the first name is placed in synonymy with the second.

The single existing type of At. vaticina  is a female but it is similar in external characters to the examined specimens of Ha. flavipes  . Considering that all examined males from the East Coast belonged to Ha. flavipes  , I synonymize At. vaticina  with that species.

It seems appropriate to discuss the status of the names listed as synonyms of Ha. flavipes  by Fenyes (1920) and Bernhauer and Scheerpeltz (1926). Unfortunately, these authors sometimes did not distinguish between newly proposed names and subsequent usage of these names. This practice, followed by some recent authors (e. g., Klimaszewski et al. 2002), is very confusing. The entries for " elongatula Stephens, 1832  ", " atricilla Scriba, 1866  " and " puncticeps Mulsant & Rey, 1875  " (see Fenyes 1920, p. 185; Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz 1926, p. 621; Klimaszewski et al. 2002, p. 483) in fact refer to subsequent citations of the names proposed by Gravenhorst (1802, as Aleochara elongatula  ); Erichson, (1839, as Homalota atricilla  ) and Thomson (1852, as Homalota puncticeps  ). Stephens (1832, p. 127), Scriba (1866, p. 290) and Mulsant and Rey (1875, p. 38) clearly did not intend to describe new species and referred to original papers of Gravenhorst, Erichson and Thomson. Even if Stephens, Scriba and Mulsant and Rey applied the same species names in a different sense, their usage did not create new nominal taxa but instead represents misidentifications.

Despite the fact that Thomson described Ha. flavipes  as a member of the genus Halobrecta  , this taxon was not accepted as a genus separate from Atheta  by some of his colleagues (e.g., Waterhouse 1863; Sharp 1869; Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz 1926). Since Waterhouse (1863) placed Halobrecta flavipes Thomson  in Homalota  , together with Aleochara flavipes Gravenhorst, 1806  (now considered a member of Notothecta Thomson, 1858  ), he had to introduce ( Waterhouse 1863, p. 138) a new name ( Homalota maritima  ) to replace the resulting secondary junior homonym Homalota flavipes (Thomson)  . Unfortunately, the name proposed by Waterhouse is preoccupied and Sharp (1869) had to propose a different replacement name for Homalota flavipes (Thomson)  . Now that Halobrecta flavipes Thomson, 1861  is a member of the genus Halobrecta  and Aleochara flavipes Gravenhorst, 1806  is a member of Notothecta  , the replacement names Homalota maritima Waterhouse  and Ho. halobrectha Sharp  are unnecessary and become objective synonyms of Ha. flavipes  .

Homalota atricilla Erichson, 1839  , described from Sardinia, is usually considered a member of Halobrecta  (e.g., Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz 1926). If this is true then Ho. atricilla  is the oldest name in the genus Halobrecta  . However the description of this species, particularly the shape of the antennal segments 4–10 does not fit any of the five species of Halobrecta  examined by me. According to Kraatz (1857) and Scriba (1866) the single type of Ho. atricilla  (deposited in the museum of Turin) is an immature poorly pigmented specimen. Scriba (1866) considered Ho. atricilla  to be conspecific with Ha. flavipes  but Sharp (1869) did not agree with this opinion because Erichson's description did not fit Sharp's specimens of Ha. flavipes  (which he referred to as Ho. halobrectha  ). In my opinion, Ho. atricilla  may not even belong to Halobrecta  . Reexamination of the type of this species is necessary to clarify the status of this name.

Two species of Halobrecta  were described from the Channel coasts of northern France: Ha. pubes (Mulsant & Rey, 1873)  from Normandy and Ha. anthracina Fairmaire, 1853  ) from the embouchure of the River Somme. One species, Halobrecta halensis Mulsant & Rey, 1873  , was described from the Mediterranean coasts of France (Languedoc) and may be conspecific with the specimen from Italy illustrated in Figs. 64–65View FIGURES 62 – 65 (See Discussion in Halobrecta  ). Examination of types is necessary to clarify the status of these three species.

The examined specimens from Chaiten, Chile, listed by Pace (2000) as Ha. flavipes  belong in fact to Ha. algophila  .

Distribution. Halobrecta flavipes  is known from the Atlantic coast of North America (Virginia and New York), from Chile and Europe.

Natural History. Halobrecta flavipes  is a marine littoral species.

MZLU

Lund University

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

NMNH

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Staphylinidae

Genus

Halobrecta

Loc

Halobrecta flavipes Thomson, 1861

Gusarov, Vladimir I. 2004
2004
Loc

Atheta (Halobrecta) maritima

Bernhauer 1926: 621
1926
Loc

Homalota maritima

Waterhouse 1863: 138
Mannerheim 1843: 224
1843
Loc

Halobrectha flavipes

Thomson 1861: 50
Loc

Homalota halobrectha

Sharp 1869: 139
Loc

Halobrectha flavipes: Mulsant & Rey, 1875 : 45

Rey 1875: 45
Loc

Atheta

Casey 1910: 19
Loc

Atheta

Casey 1910: 19
Loc

Aloconota

Casey 1910: 84
Loc

Atheta (Halobrecta) flavipes:

Fenyes 1920: 185
Loc

Atheta (Halobrecta) flavipes:

Bernhauer 1926: 621
Loc

Atheta (Halobrecta) halobrectha:

Bernhauer 1926: 621
Loc

Atheta

Benick 1974: 219
Bernhauer 1926: 648
Bernhauer 1926: 651
Bernhauer 1926: 644
Loc

Halobrecta flavipes:

Hammond 2000: 275
Loc

Halobrecta flavipes:

Pace 2000: 376