Diasporus pequeno, Batista & Kohler & Mebert & Hertz & Vesely, 2016

Batista, Abel, Kohler, Gunther, Mebert, Konrad, Hertz, Andreas & Vesely, Milan, 2016, An integrative approach to reveal speciation and species richness in the genus Diasporus (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) in eastern Panama, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 178 (2), pp. 267-311 : 285-287

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12411

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/867687D4-E877-FFB6-3ED6-C6A599B0F1DD

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Diasporus pequeno
status

SP. NOV.

DIASPORUS PEQUENO SP. NOV.

FIGS 12 View Figure 12 , 14 E, F View Figure 14

Holotype

SMF 97663 View Materials (original field number AB 857 ), an adult female ( Fig. 12 View Figure 12 ) collected by Abel Batista, Marcial Sabugara, and Amadiel Chaquı at Cerro Pechito Parado, at the Darien mountain range, Rıo Tuquesa , Bajo Peque no~, Cemaco, Comarca Embera Wounaan, Darien, Panama, on 5 November 2012 at 22:35 h (8.47553 N, 77.54883 W; 472 m a.s.l.). GoogleMaps

Paratypes

SMF 97333 View Materials – 34 View Materials , same locality as holotype GoogleMaps ; MHCH 2828 – 31 , SMF 97635 View Materials – 38 View Materials , collected at Cerro Pechito Parado on 7 November 2012 at 19:00 – 00:30 h (8.47911 N, 77.52799 W; 718 m a.s.l.), with same collectors as for holotype GoogleMaps ; MHCH 2826 – 27 collected at Cerro Pechito Parado, on 6 November 2012 at 19:00 – 01:30 h (8.47996 N, 77.51941 W; 858 m a.s.l.), with same collectors as for holotype GoogleMaps .

Diagnosis

Diasporus pequeno sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of characters (see Tables 4 – 6): (1) dorsal and ventral skin texture smooth, with small scattered tubercles, anal warts present; (2) tympanic annulus present, but with only the lower part clearly visible, tympanic membrane absent; (3) snout rounded in dorsal view and in profile; (4) rounded supraocular tubercle present, cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous processes of vomers with between four and six teeth each, straight in outline, near to the frontal border of the orbit; (6) vocal sac well developed ( Fig. 14E, F View Figure 14 ), vocal slits present, situated under the centre of the orbit level, no nuptial pads; (7) finger II longer than finger I; disc pads even broadened; ungual flap expanded, lanceolate, more evident on finger III ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ); (8) no fringes or webbing on fingers; (9) palmar tubercle rounded, flattened, and larger than thenar tubercle; thenar tubercle low and elongate; subarticular tubercles rounded and globular, first tubercle more evident; supernumerary tubercles barely evident, palmar accessory tubercles small and rounded; (10) heel smooth; (11) no fringes or webbing on toes, ungual flap expanded, lanceolate, more evident on toes II – V; (12) plantar tubercle indistinguishable, subarticular tubercles present (one on toes I and II, two on toes III and V, and three on toe IV), first tubercle more evident; small and rounded supernumerary tubercles; inner metatarsal tubercle elongated, outer metatarsal tubercles rounded and smaller than inner; tarsal ridge absent; (13) dorsal ground color in life brown, cream, with dark reticulations, venter translucent (Wolffian duct visible), with a dark speckle and sky-blue spots, vocal sac bright yellow ( Fig. 14E, F View Figure 14 ); (14) SVL 19.3 ƚ 2.38 (16.9 – 24.8, N = 13), males 18.2 ƚ 1.09 (16.9 – 19.9, N = 10), females 22.9 ƚ 1.69 (21.5 – 24.8, N = 3); (15) advertisement call composed of a single, amplitude-modulated short note (0.09 – 0.15 s) with harmonic structure, and with most energy emitted with the first harmonic call (3.44 – 3.48 kHz).

Description of the holotype

An adult female (SVL 22.68) with a slender body; dorsal skin smooth with scattered tubercles, with a small supraciliary tubercle, ventral skin smooth, discoidal fold not evident; eye 1.70 times longer than snout; tympanum of moderate size, ratio TD/ EL 36%, tympanic annulus present, but only the lower part clearly visible, tympanic membrane absent; head as wide as long (HL/HW 0.95), greatest head width between angles of jaw 39% of SVL; snout rounded from above and in profile; nares situated near tip of snout and slightly dorsolaterally directed, visible in frontal view, also visible dorsally but not ventrally; canthus rostralis rounded; loreal region feebly concave; dentigerous processes in front of the orbit of eyes, perpendicular in direction to the centre of roof of mouth, in a straight outline, each with seven teeth; vocal slits absent; tongue long (18% of SVL) and broadening to the tip, first third attached to floor of mouth; hands moderate in size, 18% of SVL; relative lengths of adpressed fingers I <II <IV <III; finger II smaller than finger VI, finger II reaching the disc on finger IV when adpressed; finger III disc 2.16 times wider than distal end of adjacent phalanx; palmar tubercle rounded to ovoid, larger than thenar tubercle; thenar tubercle elongate; subarticular tubercles rounded and globular, first tubercle more evident; supernumerary tubercles rounded and small; palmar and plantar accessory tubercles small and rounded; no nuptial pads; no fringes on fingers; hindlimbs of moderate length, TL 43% of SVL; relative lengths of adpressed toes I <II <III <V <IV; when adpressed, tip of toe I reaches the last third of distal phalanx of toe II; disc of toe IV expanded, 1.73 times wider than distal end of adjacent phalanx; no fringes on toes; subarticular tubercles present (one each on toes I and II, two on toes III and V, and three on toe IV), first subarticular tubercles more evident than the rest; inner metatarsal tubercle ovoid; outer metatarsal tubercles rounded, slightly pointed, and smaller than inner; tarsal ridge absent; hands and feet without webbing; finger and toe discs even broadened; ungual flap expanded, fingers and toes III and IV lanceolated; pads globular in profile ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ).

Coloration of holotype in life

Holotype ( SMF 97663 View Materials ; Fig. 12 View Figure 12 ) recorded as follows: iris geranium (66) with fine sepia (286) reticulations; dorsal ground color walnut brown (27), with sepia (286) blotches, and small sky-blue (192) dots; a flesh ocher (57) interorbital band, bordered posteriorly by a sepia (286) band; groin Pratt’s ruby (68); axilla and venter walnut brown (27) mottled with pale pinkish buff (3), throat suffused with buff (5); fingers and toes with a pale buff (1) band just before the disc cover.

Coloration in preservative

Dorsal ground color drab (19), with a pair of dorsolateral lines light orange yellow (7); groin and

ventral areas light buff (2), with small points sepia (279); ungual flaps cinnamon – drab (50).

Measurements of holotype (mm)

SVL 22.68; HL 8.43; HW 8.89; IOD 2.52; EL 3.33; TD 1.20; FL 8.12; TL 9.75; HAL 4.49; 3FW 0.50; 3FD 1.08; 3TW 0.51; 3TD 0.91; 4TW 0.52; 4TD 0.90; BW 7.81 (see Table 4).

Vocalization

Through call amplification of a recording containing several species (4 – dB amplified; for an explanation, see Material and methods), we were able to extract the calls of three species: Pristimantis sp. (DF 2.76 kHz), D. diastema (DF 2.99 kHz), and D. pequeno sp. nov. (environmental temperature 24 °C; 8 October 2012, 18:17 h). Eleven calls were analysed (because the similarity of the call intervals indicates a single individual), consisting of single, short, monophasic notes that are reminiscent of a ‘tink’ ( Fig. 6 View Figure 6 ). Note duration is 0.09 – 0.15 s, with an interval between calls of 3.51 – 6.85 s and a call rate of 11.61 call/min; the low frequency was 3.20 – 3.23 kHz, the high frequency was 3.63 – 3.67 kHz, and the fundamental frequency is also the dominant frequency at 3.44 – 3.48 kHz.

Natural history

This species is found in the eastern Panamanian montane forest ( Fund & Hogan, 2012) of the Darien mountain range ( Fig. 1 View Figure 1 ). Most specimens were found at 0.2 – 1.0 m above ground, over green leaves, between branches with dry leaves or in bromeliads. At the first location (472 m a.s.l.) the understory was open. The predominant vegetation were palms, vines, and small trees; at the second location above 700 m a.s.l. bromeliads were predominant; D. aff. pequeno sp. nov. was found to be sympatric with D. diastema and D. quidditus , and all species were actively calling.

Etymology

The species name pequeno is derived from the name Bajo Peque no~ (or Bajo Chiquito), the last village at Rıo Tuquesa, where this species was found.

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Amphibia

Order

Anura

Family

Eleutherodactylidae

Genus

Diasporus