Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.) Roxb.

DeFilipps, Robert A. & Krupnick, Gary A., 2018, The medicinal plants of Myanmar, PhytoKeys 102, pp. 1-341: 51

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Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.) Roxb.


Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.) Roxb. 


Myanmar: kya-su, hpan-kha-ngai. English: black chuglam, citrine myrobalan.


From India to the Philippines. Found growing naturally all over Myanmar, especially in Taninthayi.


Fruit: Of its five tastes - sour, astringent, bitter, savory, and hot - astringency is the strongest. Eaten raw, it stimulates bowel movements and can cause diarrhea; eaten boiled, it can cause constipation. The juice is consumed to promote longevity; it is also used for treating sore eyes and is considered good for the voice. A mixture of powder made from the fruit and honey is licked to cure gas. Pounded it is smoked in a pipe as a remedy for asthma; consumed in a blanc mange-like confection, it alleviates intermittent diarrhea and diarrhea caused by indigestion. For burns, a mixture of ground fruit, water, honey and sesame seed oil is applied topically. The powder can be used as a toothpaste to whiten teeth and cure tooth diseases. Liquid from boiling the fruit with sha-zay (resin from Acacia catechu  ) is used as a mouthwash to strengthen the teeth; liquid from boiling it in water until the water is reduced to one-fifth the starting volume is given with honey to for various disorders of the mouth and palate; and liquid from fruit boiled with water and reduced to one-fifth the starting volume is used to wash flesh-eroding sores. Crushed fruit is applied to the head for migraine headaches. Liquid from soaking it in water overnight is used the following day as a rinse to cool the eyes and strengthen vision. Fruit powder is rolled with juice from mu-yar gyi ( Adhatoda vasica  = Justicia adhatoda  ) leaves to form seven pellets, which are dried in the sun; the pellets are then rolled in honey and licked to stop vomiting and bleeding. The powder licked with honey, or rolled together with jaggery into pellets, is taken as a remedy for acid stomach. Boiled in cow urine, fruit is given as a cure for anemia and other debilitating diseases.


In Indonesia a decoction made from this species and “adaspoelasari” is taken as a treatment for abdominal illness; in the Philippines, the fruit is considered an astringent, and a decoction is used in treating thrush and obstinate diarrhea ( Perry 1980).


Agricultural Corporation (1980).