Fidelia (Fideliopsis) whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann

Jessica R. Litman, Connal D. Eardley & Michael Kuhlmann, 2016, A new species of Fidelia Friese, 1899 (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae), with a key to the species of the genus, European Journal of Taxonomy 174, pp. 1-18: 3-9

publication ID

10.5852/ejt.2016.174

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D0B13968-516F-40C4-9C0B-4C4DCF362D13

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B88E995E-1B96-4DD5-BC76-9E819BE92A4B

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:B88E995E-1B96-4DD5-BC76-9E819BE92A4B

treatment provided by

Donat

scientific name

Fidelia (Fideliopsis) whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann
status

sp. nov.

Fidelia (Fideliopsis) whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:B 88 E 995 E- 1 B 96 - 4 DD 5 -BC 76 - 9 E 819 BE 92 A 4 B

Figs 1 A, C, E, 2 A, C, 3 A, C, E

Diagnosis

Fidelia (Fideliopsis) whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. can be distinguished from members of the subgenera Fidelia  and Fideliana  by the length of the marginal cell of its forewing, which is approximately 0.75 × the distance between the apex of the marginal cell and the distal edge of the wing (length of marginal cell less than half this distance in the subgenera Fidelia  and Fideliana  ).

F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. can be further distinguished from the two members of the subgenus Parafidelia  . It differs from Fidelia (Parafidelia) friesei  by the gentle curve of the female mid-tibial spur (strongly sickle-shaped in female F. friesei  ) and by the unswollen forefemur and forebasitarsus of the male (swollen in F. friesei  ) and from F. pallidula  by the presence of two equalsized mandibular teeth in females (apical and preapical tooth present in female F. pallidula  ) and by the bifid, triangular T 7 of the male ( T 7 long, parallel-sided and rounded at the apex in F. pallidula  ). From other members of the subgenus Fidelia  ( Fideliopsis  ) (except F. hessei  ), F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. can be distinguished by the unmodified forebasitarsus of the male (modified in other members of F. ( Fideliopsis  )), the yellow, convex-sided pygidial plate of the female (black or brown and concave-sided in other members of F. ( Fideliopsis  )) and the shape of the male S 7 and S 8 (see below for details).

Fidelia whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to F. hessei  . F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. is smaller and less broad than F. hessei  . Both females and males of Fidelia whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. exhibit relatively short pilosity on the thorax, metasoma and legs ( Fig. 1 A). In F. hessei  , pilosity is comparatively longer ( Fig. 1 B). In female F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov., hairs on the forebasitarsus are brushy and the tips of hairs are often bent at a sharp angle ( Fig. 1 C); in comparison, the hairs on the forebasitarsus of F. hessei  are shaggy and unmodified ( Fig. 1 D). The posterior margin of the pygidial plate in F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. is evenly rounded and nearly triangular ( Fig. 1 E); in F. hessei  , it is slightly flattened apically ( Fig. 1 F).

A triangular protuberance at the base of the male T 7 in F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. is strongly elevated; when examined in profile, the posterior margin of the protuberance meets the surface of the tergum at a nearly 90 degree angle ( Fig. 2 A). In F. hessei  , the protuberance at the base of T 7 is less pronounced and the angle where the protuberance meets the surface of T 7 is less sharp ( Fig. 2 B). A half-moon shaped protuberance on the male S 2 is present in F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. but is only slightly elevated and often completely hidden by the pilosity of S 2; the length of the protuberance is about a quarter of the length of the sternum ( Fig. 2 C). In F. hessei  , the half-moon shaped protuberance is more strongly elevated and is usually easily visible despite the surrounding pilosity; the length of the protuberance is about one-third of the length of the sternum ( Fig. 2 D).

The most striking differences between F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. and F. hessei  are found in the male hidden sterna and genitalia. In both F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. and F. hessei  , the male S 7 bears two apicolateral processes but in F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. the processes of S 7 are relatively narrower, more weakly sclerotized, less hairy and shorter ( Fig. 3 A) than those of F. hessei  ( Fig. 3 B). The male S 8 of F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. narrows sharply in the posterior third ( Fig. 3 C), while that of F. hessei  narrows more gradually ( Fig. 3 D). The gonostylus of F. whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. is distinctly narrower and the basal outer edge more rounded ( Fig. 3 E) than in F. hessei  ( Fig. 3 F).

Etymology

This species is named for the late Vincent Booth Whitehead (1921–2005), whose extensive collection of fideliine bees deposited at the Iziko South African Museum in Cape Town, South Africa provided the majority of the material for this species description.

Type material

Holotype

NAMIBIA: ♂, Koës, Katzies , 0 9 Mar. 1982, V.B. Whitehead ( SAM), SAM-HYM-B001841.

Paratypes (all specimens deposited in SAM unless otherwise noted)

NAMIBIA: 1 ♂, 10 km N of Kalkrand, 24.03 ° S, 17.57 ° E, 0 7 Mar. 1980;GoogleMaps  2 ♀♀, 15 km S of Stampriet, 24.42 ° S, 18.48 ° E, 13 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 1 ♂, 16 km S of Stampriet , 24.42 °S, 18.48 ° E, 8 Feb. 1984GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, 1 ♂, 18 km S of Aroab , 26.93 °S, 19.55 ° E, 11 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂, 25 km N of Koës, 25.75 °S, 19.25 ° E, 27 Apr. 1981GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 25 km S of Stampriet, 24.25 ° S, 18.53 ° E, 13 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 5 ♀♀, 30 km N of Koës, 25.72 ° S, 19.27 ° E, 12 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♀♀, 30 km S of Gochas , 25.05 °S, 18.98 ° E, 12 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 1 ♂, 30 km S of Leonardville, 23.77 ° S, 18.87 ° E, 15 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 8 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂, 31 km S of Leonardville, 23.77 °S, 18.87 ° E, 15 Apr. 1981GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, 32 km S of Leonardville, 23.77 ° S, 18.87 ° E, 18 Mar. 1979GoogleMaps  ; 4 ♀♀, 33 km E of Gochas , 24.75 ° S, 19.12 ° E, 13 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, 9 ♂♂, 33 km NW of Vorstershoop , 25.63 °S, 22.92 ° E, 29 Feb. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, 34 km N of Koës , 25.7 ° S, 19.32 ° E, 12 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 4 km N of Leonardville , 23.45 ° S, 18.77 ° E, 9 Feb. 1984GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 4 km N of Leonardville , 23.45 °S, 18.77 ° E, 10 Feb. 1984GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 5 km W of Aus , 26.65 ° S, 16.23 ° E, 6 Oct. 1982GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, 1 ♂, 5km W of Klinghardt Mts , 27.38 ° S, 15.63 ° E, 4 Oct. 1982GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♀♀, 5 km W of Leonardville, Farm 206 , 23.57 °S, 18.32 ° E, 15 Oct. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 6 ♀♀, 51 km S of Aroab , 27.15 ° S, 19.48 ° E, 11 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 5 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂, 6 km NW of Leonardville , 23.47 ° S, 18.88 ° E, 15 Apr. 1981GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 6 km W of Leonardville , 23.48 ° S, 18.73 ° E, 15 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 60 km S of Grünau , 28.15 °S, 18.05 ° E, 17 Apr. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 6 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂, 7 km NW of Leonardville , 23.48 ° S, 18.72 ° E, 26 Apr. 1981GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, Cucumis , 24.01 ° S, 18.42 ° E, 11 Feb. 1984GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 3 ♂♂, Diamond Area No. 1, Klinghardt Mts, Spitzkuppe Sud , 26.5 ° S, 15.5 ° E, 19 Oct. 1974GoogleMaps  ; 6 ♀♀, Diamond Area No. 1, Klinghardt Mts, Spitzkuppe Sud , 26.5 °S, 15.5 ° E, 21 Oct. 1974GoogleMaps  ; 4 ♀♀, 1 ♂, Grillental , 27.13 ° S, 15.38 ° E, 29 Sep. 1982GoogleMaps  ; 6 ♀♀, 11 ♂♂, Klinghardt Mts, 27.38 ° S, 15.88 ° E, 1 Oct. 1982GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 2 ♂♂, Klinghardt Mts, 27.38 ° S, 15.88 ° E, 2 Oct. 1982GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂, Koës, Katzies , 9 Mar. 1982  ; 1 ♂, Luderitz, Obib Dunes , 28.17 ° S, 16.8 ° E, 17 Sep. 1973GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, Obib , 28.08 ° S, 16.75 ° E, 29 Oct. 1977GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 3 ♂♂, Stampried 132 , 24.38 ° S, 18.38 ° E, 8 Mar. 1982GoogleMaps  .

SOUTH AFRICA: 1 ♂, NCP, 11 km N of McCarthy’s Rust , 26.2 ° S, 22.57 ° E, 1 Mar. 1980;GoogleMaps  4 ♀♀, NCP, 14 km S of Kenhardt , 29.27 ° S, 21.04 ° E, 27 Nov. 1981;GoogleMaps  1 ♀, NCP, 15 km N of Noenieput , 27.38 ° S, 20.1 ° E, 7 Feb. 1984;GoogleMaps  2 ♀♀, 1 ♂, NCP, 20 km NW of Kenhardt on Kakamas Rd , 29.14 ° S, 21.01 ° E, 27 Nov. 1981GoogleMaps  ; 9 ♀♀, NCP, 40 km N of Kakamas, Biesiepoort , 28.43 °S, 20.6 ° E, 29 Apr. 1981GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, NCP, 40 km SW of Kakamas , 29.05 ° S, 20.27 ° E, 6 Feb. 1984GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, NCP, 40 km W of Van Zylsrus , 27.05 °S, 21.67 ° E, 3 Mar. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, NCP, 50 km S of Vioolsdrift , 29.17 ° S, 17.83 ° E, 20 Oct. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♀♀, NCP, Breekerie Dunes, Vanwyksvlei , 3 May 1985  ; 6 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂, NCP, Breekerie Dunes, Vanwyksvlei , 4 May 1985  ; 4 ♀♀, NCP, Breekerie Dunes, Vanwyksvlei, 5 May 1985  ; 1 ♀, 3 ♂♂, NCP, Jakkalsputs , 28.67 °S, 16.95 ° E, 8 Oct. 1980GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, NCP, Lekkersing, Richtersveld , 29 ° S, 17.1 ° E, 25 Sep. 1982  ; 4 ♀♀, 1 ♂, NCP, Hotazel exit, Rt. 31 , 27° 12.558 ′ S, 22 ° 57.264 ′ E, 1 Feb. 2009 (2 ♀♀, 1 ♂ LPC; 2 ♀♀ MHNN)GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀, NCP, 2 km NW of Hotazel, Rt. 31 , 27° 11.855 ′ S, 22 ° 55.909 ′ E, 3 Feb. 2009 (1 ♀ LPC; 2 ♀♀ OÖLM)GoogleMaps  .

Description

Female

MEASUREMENTS. BL= 10–11 mm; Iw = 3 mm.

HEAD. Broader than long. Integument black. Clypeus basally black, apically yellow, mandible yellow with two red-brown teeth, upper tooth longer than lower. Head covered by dense white pilosity. Pilosity near vertex either white or pale yellow. Clypeus convex, flattened medially. Clypeus densely, minutely, superficially punctate apically; punctation gradually becoming larger and sparser basally, with spaces between punctures reaching the diameter of one-half a puncture, rarely one puncture, at clypeal base. Antennal scape and pedicel dark red-brown to black. Flagellum dorsally red-brown to pale yellow, ventrally most often yellow, although occasionally also yellow-red.

MESOSOMA. Integument dark red-brown to black. Mesosomal disc very densely punctate, almost no spaces between punctures. Pilosity white to pale yellow, dense, generally short but often longer on mesopleuron and scutellum. Wings colorless, venation light brown, papillate beyond veins. Integument of legs red-brown, slightly lighter at apex of foretibia and forebasitarsus. Integument of hind femur lighter in color than that of fore and mid femur. Foretrochanter, forefemur, most of foretibia covered in white hairs. Apex of foretibia and forebasitarsus covered in shorter, golden hairs. Forebasitarsus with brushy, erect hairs, often bent at a 90 degree angle; length of hairs at posterior base of basitarsus shorter than width of basitarsus at its base ( Fig. 1 C). Mid and hind legs covered in long, dense white hairs.

Hind basitarsus with long yellow-brown hairs on dorsal and ventral edges; dorsal hairs longer than ventral hairs.

METASOMA. Integument red-brown to black on tergal discs, tergal margins transparent, light brown to yellow. Pilosity white to yellow. Pilosity on T 1 slightly longer than that of T 2 –T 5. Pilosity on discs of T 2 –T 5 nearly uniform in density and length. Pilosity in longer tufts laterally on T 1 –T 5. Pilosity longest on T 6, both on tergal disc and laterally. Lateral tufts on T 6 seldom reach apex of pygidial plate ( Fig. 1 A). Outline of pygidial plate evenly rounded in dorsal view, nearly triangular in form. Color of pygidial plate variable, from pale white-yellow to dark yellow ( Fig. 1 E). Integument of sterna red-brown. Pilosity of metasomal scopa white.

Male

MEASUREMENTS. BL = 9–11 mm; Iw = 2.5 mm.

Same as for female except as follows:

HEAD. Clypeus uniformly dark red-brown. Pilosity on head uniformly white, even on vertex.

MESOSOMA. Pilosity on mesosoma white. Integument of forecoxa, foretrochanter and forefemur dark brown, that of foretibia and foretarsus yellow. Pilosity on forelegs entirely white. Pilosity on forebasitarsus approximately three times as long as width of basitarsus. On mid and hind legs, all segments dark brown except apex of basitarsus and tarsal segments. Pilosity on mid and hind legs white.

METASOMA. Protuberance at base of T 7 strongly elevated, making a 90 degree angle with surface of tergum. Half-moon shaped protuberance on S 2 weakly elevated, often hidden by pilosity on ventral metasoma ( Fig. 2 C). S 7 with two apicolateral processes; each process narrow, weakly sclerotized and, except at tip of each process, only sparsely hairy ( Fig. 3 A). Length of each process of S 7 approximately two-thirds as long as length of central disc of sternum ( Fig. 3 A). S 8 sharply narrowed in posterior third, such that width of apex approximately one-fifth of width of base of sternum ( Fig. 3 C). S 8 without paraspiculae ( Fig. 3 C). Gonostylus narrow and, in dorsal view, basal outer edge rounded ( Fig. 3 E).

General distribution

Winter rainfall area of northwestern South Africa and southwestern Namibia; summer rainfall area of north-central South Africa and southeastern and south-central Namibia ( Fig. 4).

Floral hosts

Grielum grandillorum  [sic; we interpret this as Grielum grandiflorum  (L.) Druce], Grielum sinuatum  , Grielum  sp., and Neuradopsis  sp. (Whitehead & Eardley 2003).

Seasonal activity

Two periods of activity a year, one from February to May (in summer rainfall area) and the second from September to November (in winter rainfall area) ( Fig. 4).

Remarks

To clearly distinguish Fidelia (Fideliopsis) whiteheadi Litman & Kuhlmann  sp. nov. from Fidelia (Fideliopsis) hessei  , we also provide a description for the latter.

SAM

Australia, South Australia, Adelaide, South Australian Museum

NCP

NCP

LPC

LPC

MHNN

Switzerland, Neuchatel, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

OÖLM

OOLM