Aphonopelma mareki Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 157-163

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

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persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/22CB089B-6B44-47AC-BAE4-46894A10C02A

taxon LSID

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scientific name

Aphonopelma mareki Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond
status

sp. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma mareki Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond  sp. n. Figures 83, 84, 85, 86, 87; Suppl. material 4

Types.

Male holotype (APH_1615) collected 0.4 miles E Hwy-89 on Stanton Rd, Yavapai Co., Arizona, 34.18203 -112.818862 1, elev. 2852ft., 12.xi.2012, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype female (APH_1590) from Bartlett Dam Rd, Maricopa Co., Arizona, 33.847258 -111.793291 1, elev. 2793ft., 7.xi.2012, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype male (APH_1569) from just outside N boundary of Montezuma Well National Monument, along Beaver Creek Rd, Yavapai Co., Arizona, 34.653811 -111.757497 1, elev. 3596ft., 27.x.2012, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson; deposited in AMNH. Paratype female (APH_0297) from Mazatzal Mtns, Four Peaks, Pigeon Spring Rd. junction, Gila Co., Arizona, 33.72156 -111.33753 1, elev. 5780ft., 6.x.2007, coll. Zach Valois, deposited in AMNH.

Etymology.

The specific epithet is a patronym in recognition of our friend, colleague, and myriapod biologist Paul Marek, who collected several important specimens examined as part of this revision.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma mareki  (Fig. 83) is a member of the paloma  species group and can be distinguished by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear DNA identifies Aphonopelma mareki  as a strongly supported, phylogenetically-distinct monophyletic lineage (Fig. 8) that is a sister lineage to Aphonopelma parvum  sp. n., Aphonopelma saguaro  sp. n., and Aphonopelma superstitionense  sp. n. Aphonopelma mareki  can easily be differentiated from syntopic populations of Aphonopelma chalcodes  and Aphonopelma marxi  by their smaller size, and can be differentiated from other members of the paloma  species group ( Aphonopelma parvum  , Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma prenticei  sp. n. and Aphonopelma saguaro  ) by locality. Aphonopelma mareki  males can possess either a normal or slightly swollen femur III (different from than the swollen femur III in Aphonopelma paloma  and Aphonopelma saguaro  ). The most significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma mareki  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are F1 and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus III. Male Aphonopelma mareki  can be distinguished by possessing a larger F1/M1 (≥1.41; 1.41-1.58) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤1.36; 1.11-1.36) and Aphonopelma prenticei  (≤1.34; 1.25-1.34), and smaller than Aphonopelma marxi  (≥1.69; 1.69-1.94); a larger L3 scopulation extent (50%-56%) than Aphonopelma paloma  (21%-41%), and smaller than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (65%-86%), Aphonopelma parvum  (60%-65%), Aphonopelma prenticei  (60%-73%), and Aphonopelma superstitionense  (40%-48%). There are no significant measurements that separate Aphonopelma mareki  and Aphonopelma saguaro  . The most significant measurements that distinguish female Aphonopelma mareki  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are F1L/W and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma mareki  can be distinguished by possessing a larger F1L/W (≥2.94; 2.94-3.17) than Aphonopelma saguaro  (2.58 ± (only 1 specimen)); a smaller L4 scopulation extent (21%-27%) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (56%-81%), Aphonopelma marxi  (33%-51%), Aphonopelma parvum  (33%-42%), and Aphonopelma prenticei  (27%-38%). There are no significant measurements that separate female Aphonopelma mareki  from Aphonopelma paloma  or Aphonopelma superstitionense  .

Description of male holotype

(APH_1615; Fig. 84). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected wandering and preserved in 80% ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right legs III & IV removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Faded black/brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 6.394 mm long, 5.504 mm wide; densely clothed with faded pubescence, appressed to surface; fringe covered in longer setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises very gradually from foveal groove on a straight plane towards the ocular area; AER very slightly procurved - mostly straight, PER very slightly recurved - mostly straight; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus extends forward on a slight curve; LBl 0.777, LBw 1.16; sternum hirsute, clothed with faded, densely packed, short setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black/brown pubescence with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972) - smaller and distinct from large species. Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in faded pubescence. Metatarsus I curved. F1 6.534; F1w 1.306; P1 2.406; T1 5.473; M1 4.137; A1 3.196; F3 5.046; F3w 1.451; P3 1.869; T3 4.008; M3 4.271; A3 3.358; F4 6.121; F4w 1.268; P4 1.928; T4 5.333; M4 5.494; A4 3.808; femur III is normal - not noticeably swollen or wider than other legs. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 54.1%; leg IV (SC4) = 42.1%. Three ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; four ventral and four retrolateral spinose setae on metatarsus IV; two prolateral spinose setae and two ventral spinose setae on tibia I; one megaspine present on the retrolateral tibia, at the apex of the mating clasper; two megaspines on the apex on the retrolateral branch of the tibial apophyses, one megaspine on the apex of the prolateral branch, and one megaspine on the prolateral base of the prolateral branch of the tibial apophyses. Coxa I: Prolateral surface covered by fine, hair-like setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta at the apical, prolateral femur and two prolateral spinose setae on the palpal tibia; PTl 3.915, PTw 1.416. Palpal bulb is very short and stout. When extended, embolus tapers with a curve to the retrolateral side; embolus slender, no keels; distinct dorsal and ventral transition from bulb to embolus.

Variation (5).Cl 5.41-6.411 (5.981 ± 0.19), Cw 4.751-5.844 (5.348 ± 0.18), LBl 0.711-0.858 (0.78 ± 0.02), LBw 0.857-1.16 (0.981 ± 0.06), F1 6.017-6.875 (6.501 ± 0.14), F1w 1.306-1.622 (1.449 ± 0.05), P1 1.995-2.609 (2.382 ± 0.1), T1 5.392-5.782 (5.62 ± 0.08), M1 4.137-4.531 (4.352 ± 0.07), A1 2.729-3.457 (3.183 ± 0.13), L1 length 20.39-22.933 (22.039 ± 0.47), F3 4.776-5.561 (5.248 ± 0.15), F3w 1.451-1.875 (1.655 ± 0.07), P3 1.726-1.975 (1.86 ± 0.04), T3 3.732-4.434 (4.098 ± 0.12), M3 4.271-5.129 (4.66 ± 0.16), A3 3.092-3.607 (3.39 ± 0.09), L3 length 17.686-20.706 (19.256 ± 0.53), F4 5.849-6.639 (6.296 ± 0.14), F4w 1.268-1.589 (1.399 ± 0.06), P4 1.757-2.207 (2.022 ± 0.08), T4 4.729-5.931 (5.475 ± 0.21), M4 5.494-6.687 (6.158 ± 0.24), A4 3.463-4.148 (3.858 ± 0.12), L4 length 21.575-25.57 (23.808 ± 0.74), PTl 3.542-4.044 (3.793 ± 0.09), PTw 1.285-1.499 (1.392 ± 0.03), SC3 ratio 0.502-0.563 (0.533 ± 0.01), SC4 ratio 0.186-0.421 (0.286 ± 0.04), Coxa I setae = very thin tapered, F3 condition = normal & slightly swollen.

Description of female paratype

(APH_1590; Figs 85-86). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right legs III & IV removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Faded black/brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 7.744 mm long, 6.839 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with short faded black/brown pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in slightly longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER very slightly procurved, PER very slightly recurved; chelicerae robust, clypeus extends on a slight curve; LBl 1.153, LBw 1.364; sternum hirsute, clothed with short faded setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short faded black setae with longer, lighter setae (generally red or orange in situ) focused near the urticating patch; dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972) - smaller and distinct from large species. Spermathecae: Paired and separate, with capitate bulbs, narrow necks widening towards the bases; not fused. Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in short faded black/brown pubescence; F1 6.467; F1w 2.193; P1 3.075; T1 5.425; M1 4.04; A1 3.742; F3 5.576; F3w 1.855; P3 2.736; T3 3.906; M3 3.986; A3 3.504; F4 6.708; F4w 1.959; P4 2.786; T4 5.56; M4 5.788; A4 4.188. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 56.9%; leg IV (SC4) = 25.1%. Four ventral spinose setae and one prolateral spinose seta on metatarsus III; sixteen ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV (though five are clustered near the row of spinose setae that line the margin with the tarsus). Coxa I: Prolateral surface covered by a mix of thin tapered/very thin tapered and fine, hair-like setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur, six prolateral (two at the apical, prolateral border with the tarsus) spinose setae and one ventral spinose seta on the tibia.

Variation (6).Cl 7.315-8.778 (7.717 ± 0.22), Cw 6.021-7.405 (6.649 ± 0.19), LBl 1.012-1.195 (1.116 ± 0.03), LBw 1.171-1.364 (1.281 ± 0.03), F1 5.83-7.175 (6.362 ± 0.18), F1w 1.839-2.276 (2.067 ± 0.07), P1 2.412-3.416 (2.8 ± 0.16), T1 4.712-5.646 (5.159 ± 0.14), M1 3.348-4.089 (3.684 ± 0.13), A1 2.981-3.742 (3.318 ± 0.11), L 1 length 19.528-23.553 (21.323 ± 0.62), F3 4.494-5.928 (5.185 ± 0.21), F3w 1.669-2.058 (1.794 ± 0.06), P3 1.856-2.736 (2.341 ± 0.13), T3 3.194-4.041 (3.647 ± 0.12), M3 3.336-4.525 (3.859 ± 0.16), A3 3.127-3.606 (3.455 ± 0.07), L3 length 16.007-20.751 (18.487 ± 0.66), F4 5.886-7.124 (6.504 ± 0.17), F4w 1.679-2.053 (1.842 ± 0.06), P4 2.285-3.222 (2.617 ± 0.14), T4 4.687-5.565 (5.247 ± 0.14), M4 4.705-5.878 (5.463 ± 0.18), A4 3.636-4.188 (3.958 ± 0.09), L4 length 21.384-25.866 (23.789 ± 0.64), SC3 ratio 0.429-0.617 (0.554 ± 0.03), SC4 ratio 0.218-0.273 (0.241 ± 0.01), Coxa I setae = thin tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 86.

Material examined.

United States: Arizona: Coconino: Schnebly Hill Road, Sedona, 34.86533 -111.753003 5, 4328ft., [AUMS_2272, 15/5/1992, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Gila: 1.1 miles NW AZ-87 on Barnhardt Trail Rd (FR 419), 34.09815 -111.36165 1, 3200ft., [APH_0345, 10/5/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; 1.4 miles E US-87 on Control Rd, 34.35949 -111.40302 1, 5430ft., [APH_0347, 10/5/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; Mazatzal Mtns, Four Peaks, Pigeon Spring Rd. junction, 33.72156 -111.33753 1, 5780ft., [APH_0297, 6/10/2007, 1♀, Zach Valois, AMNH]; Payson, Payson rodeo grounds at southern edge of town, 34.2189 -111.33695 1, 5000ft., [APH_0299, 6/10/2007, 1♀, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; S side of Payson, 34.194017 -111.330517 5, 6000ft., [APH_0941, 2007, 1♀, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; Maricopa: 2.5 miles E North Cave Creek Rd on Bartlett Dam Rd, 33.84746 -111.79369 1, 2700ft., [APH_0343, 9/5/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; [APH_0433-0440, 16/11/2008, 6♀, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Bar tlett Dam Rd, 33.847258 -111.793291 1, 2793ft., [APH_1570, 27/10/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_1588-1593, 7/11/2012, 6♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Bartlett Dam Rd, past Cave Creek ranger station, N of Carefree, Tonto National Forest, 33.84689 -111.79397 1, 2703ft., [APH_3161-3165, 11/11/2013, 4♀, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, Molly Taylor, AUMNH]; Bartlett Dam, Bartlett Dam road, 33.809017 -111.65097 5, 1637ft., [APH_0884, 2007, 1♀, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; Constellation Road near Rodeo Grounds northeast of Wickenburg, 33.980107 -112.71139 5, 2221ft., [APH_2554, 14/2/1982, 1♂, John Rowley, AMNH]; Four Peaks Area, 33.72099 -111.33759 1, 5769ft., [APH_0138, 15/6/2007, 1 juv, Mike Dame, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Mazatzal Mtns, Tonto National Forest, Mount Ord, 33.91131 -111.40861 1, 6735ft., [APH_0190, 6/9/2007, 1♂, Lorenzo Prendini, Jeremy Huff, AUMNH]; Yavapai: 0.4 miles E Hwy-89 on Stanton Rd, 34.18203 -112.818862 1, 2852ft., [APH_1615-1617, 12/11/2012, 1♂, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 5.4 miles NE Hwy 93, 0.6 miles S of cattle guard in Hieroglyphic Mtns., Constellation, 34.008657 -112.646455 4, 2900ft., [AUMS_2572, 1/4/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; 5.4 miles NE Hwy 93, Hieroglyphic Mtns., Constellation, 34.017615 -112.635409 4, 3060ft., [AUMS_2577, 1/4/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; 8 miles S of Sedona, 34.753621 -111.761997 5, 3895ft., [AUMS_2534, 29/10/1983, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AUMNH]; Constellation, 34.065643 -112.581652 5, 3404ft., [AUMS_2573, 24/11/1991, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2574, 10/11/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2575, 17/11/unknown, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2551, 18/3/1995, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Constellation Rd., 5.4 miles NE of Wickenburg, 34.0145 -112.645736 4, 2950ft., [AUMS_2570, 1/4/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2578, 10/11/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Joshua Forest Parkway, ~31 miles N of Wickenburg, 34.199956 -113.094405 5, 2700ft., [AUMS_2565, 19/1/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; just outside N boundary of Montezuma Well National Monument, along Beaver Creek Rd, 34.653811 -111.757497 1, 3596ft., [APH_1569, 27/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AMNH]; Prescott, 34.540024 -112.468502 5, 5394ft., [AUMS_2525, 1999, 1♀, Lee Trout, AUMNH]; Prescott Valley, 34.610024 -112.315721 5, 5005ft., [AUMS_2248, 11/1998, 2♂, Denis Watson, AUMNH]; Prescott, Antelope Villa Circle, 34.647138 -112.434386 2, 5042ft., [APH_1568, 12/10/2012, 1♂, Timothy Tilney, AUMNH]; Prescott, on rock next to Hazy Library at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 34.615964 -112.448841 2, 5170ft., [APH_1618, 9/11/2012, 1♂, Greg Rice, AUMNH]; West Clear Creek Wilderness, 34.53555 -111.67659 1, 3600ft., [APH_1441, 27/10/2011, 1♂, Paul E. Marek, Charity Hall, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma mareki  can be found inhabiting the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains and Sonoran Basin and Range Level III Ecoregions of central Arizona (Fig. 87). This species is syntopic with Aphonopelma chalcodes  and Aphonopelma marxi  , and flanks the distributions of Aphonopelma prenticei  and Aphonopelma superstitionense  . The breeding season, when mature males abandon their burrows in search of females, occurs during the fall (generally September–November).

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma mareki  is very common throughout its distribution but can be difficult to find due to the cryptic nature of its burrows and small window of activity during the year. The species is secure.

Remarks.

Other important ratios that distinguish Aphonopelma mareki  males: Aphonopelma mareki  possess a larger T1/M1 (≥1.26; 1.26-1.33) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤1.13; 0.99-1.13) and Aphonopelma prenticei  (≤1.16; 1.07-1.16), and smaller than Aphonopelma marxi  (≥1.39; 1.39-1.52); a larger PTl/M1 (≥0.83; 0.83-0.95) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤0.79; 0.67-0.79), Aphonopelma prenticei  (≤0.82; 0.72-0.82), and Aphonopelma superstitionense  (≤0.82; 0.79-0.82); a larger T3/M3 (≥0.85; 0.85-0.94) than Aphonopelma paloma  (≤0.85; 0.79-0.85) and Aphonopelma prenticei  (≤0.85; 0.80-0.85); a smaller PTl/F1 (≤0.61; 0.53-0.61) than Aphonopelma saguaro  (≥0.61; 0.61-0.64). Other important ratios that distinguish Aphonopelma mareki  females: Aphonopelma mareki  possess a larger F3L/W (≥2.66; 2.66-3.00) than Aphonopelma saguaro  (2.41 ± (only 1 specimen)); a larger M3/M4 (≥0.66; 0.66-0.77) than Aphonopelma superstitionense  (0.62 ± (only 1 specimen)); a smaller M4/A4 (≤1.48; 1.23-1.48) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≥1.61; 1.61-1.98); a smaller F1/M3 (≤1.75; 1.58-1.75) than Aphonopelma marxi  (≥1.76; 1.76-1.91). Certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no other are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional two-dimensional PCA morphospace and three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), males of Aphonopelma mareki  separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  and Aphonopelma marxi  along PC1~2, but do not separate from Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma parvum  , Aphonopelma prenticei  , Aphonopelma saguaro  , or Aphonopelma superstitionense  . Male Aphonopelma mareki  separate from all compared species except Aphonopelma parvum  and Aphonopelma saguaro  in three-dimensional morphospace. Female Aphonopelma mareki  separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma marxi  , and Aphonopelma paloma  , but do not separate from Aphonopelma parvum  , Aphonopelma prenticei  , Aphonopelma saguaro  , or Aphonopelma superstitionense  in two-dimensional morphological space, yet when three-dimensional morphospace is plotted, Aphonopelma mareki  separates from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma marxi  , and Aphonopelma parvum  , but not Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma prenticei  , Aphonopelma saguaro  or Aphonopelma superstitionense  . PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥98% of the variation in all analyses.

Mitochondrial DNA (CO1) identifies Aphonopelma mareki  as a polyphyletic group with some members grouping with the Aphonopelma superstitionense  lineage (Fig. 7). Both species were previously identified as putative novel species ( Hamilton et al. 2014). Nuclear DNA identifies what we feel is a more accurate evolutionary history of the Aphonopelma mareki  lineage and highlights how CO1 is not effective at accurately delimiting species boundaries within this group possibly due to mitochondrial introgression.