Zelurus gerevatinga , Ferreira, Marina Izabel Grave, Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes & Gil-Santana, Hélcio R., 2016

Ferreira, Marina Izabel Grave, Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes & Gil-Santana, Hélcio R., 2016, The genus Zelurus Hahn, 1826, in Brazilian caves: description of new species and comments on the potential distribution of the genus in South America, Zootaxa 4170 (2), pp. 250-270: 252-256

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4170.2.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:53095EAD-9FA7-44CE-9777-A9A2F9121B10

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8A0187D0-D70F-FFF2-FF4F-FA6BFE9D2F47

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Zelurus gerevatinga
status

sp. nov.

Zelurus gerevatinga  sp. nov.

( Figs. 1–13View FIGURES 1 – 4View FIGURES 5 – 6View FIGURES 7 – 11View FIGURES 12 – 13)

Diagnosis. This species can be separated from other species of the genus by the following set of characters: general coloration dark brown; apices of femora with a reddish (holotype) to yellowish (paratypes) tinge; hemelytra with a conspicuous suboval pale to yellowish spot on distal half of corium ( Figs. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4, 7View FIGURES 7 – 11). Fore lobe of pronotum with a pair of moderately long spines and short acute prominences laterally ( Figs. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4, 7, 10View FIGURES 7 – 11); a moderately long and strong spine on each humeral angle ( Figs. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4, 7, 10View FIGURES 7 – 11). Scutellum with an apical, moderately long, posteriorly directed spine ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 7 – 11). Fore ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 7 – 11) and mid femora with three thick spines on postero-ventral portion, in which two larger spines lie on distal half and the smaller spine lies basally but near the median portion of the respective femur; a large group, sometimes forming irregular rows, of thin short and acute sclerotized spines on antero-ventral surface of the mid femur; fore tibia with a ventral median row of single denticles on midline, which are absent at extreme base and on the area in which the spongy fossa occur; mid tibia with two median ventral rows of denticles somewhat parallel, which are absent at extreme base and on the area in which the spongy fossa occur. Spongy fossa on ventral portion of apex of fore ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 7 – 11) and mid tibia at approximately 1/3 of the length of fore tibia and 1/4 of mid tibia, respectively. Postero-lateral angles of connexival segments II to V with a small spiny protuberance ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4).

Description. Male. MEASUREMENTS (holotype / paratype): Total length: 18.100/19.188; head: length (excluding collum): 3.268/2.856; width across the eyes: 1.837/2.077; antennal segments length: I: 1.671/2.033; II: 4.750/4.456; III: 3.555/4.016; IV: 1.762/2.698; labial segments length: II (first visible): 1.592/1.655; III: 1.568/1.592; IV: 0.525/0.644. Thorax: pronotum length: 3.556/3.487; maximum width: 5.176/5.405; length of median spine of fore lobe: 0.601/0.765; length of spine of humeral angles: 0.652/1.182; length of scutellar spine:1.143/1.881. Legs length: fore legs: femur: 4.675/4.806; tibia: 4.840/5.728; spongy fossa on apex of tibia: 1.820/1.812; tarsus: 1.263/1.212; middle legs: femur: 4.448/5.276; tibia: 5.549/5.428; spongy fossa on apex of tibia: 1.360/1.416; tarsus: 1.430/1.829; hind legs: femur: 7.827/7.064; tibia: 9.569/8.490; tarsus: 2.534/2.210. Abdomen maximum width: 5.158/5.522. COLORATION: general coloration dark brown, with blackish or light brown areas and pale markings ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4). Head: brownish, clearer on mandibular plates, around eyes on dorsal portion and post-ocular region, on a median longitudinal line of post-ocular region, and on joints of labium. Antenna: first segment brownish, somewhat clearer at base; second segment pale with large subbasal and subapical brownish rings; third and fourth segments pale. Eyes blackish. Thorax: pronotum and pleura blackish; posterior margin of pronotum, above lateral portions of scutellum base and somewhat laterally over clavus base, lightly brownish; posterior border of hind lobe of pronotum clear, almost yellowish; sterna and legs brownish; somewhat paler rounded spots on center of each pleura and on lateral surface of each supracoxal lobe; apices of coxa, trochanters and base of femora somewhat clearer; apices of femora with a reddish (holotype) or yellowish (paratype) tinge; spongy fossa on fore and mid tibia and tarsi somewhat clearer. Hemelytra dark with a conspicuous suboval pale to yellowish spot on distal half of corium ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4); a thin and short light brownish stripe on basal portion of corium adjacent to costal area but below claval suture; another two similar but longer stripes with similar coloration on basal half and lateral area of membrane, running parallel and adjacent to basal half of outer vein of external cell and lateral margin of the membrane. Abdomen: brownish; most of connexival segment II, except its base, and posterior half of remaining segments of connexivum clearer to pale; median portion of sternites somewhat clearer. VESTITURE: Head: anteocular portion with sparse numerous small adpressed pale setae; long fairly stout darkened setae scattered on labium, labrum, clypeus and some on dorsal, lateral and ventral portions of head; these are more numerous on last segment of labium and anterior portion of head adjacent to insertion of the labium; antennifers with few stiff setae laterally; a group of small adpressed golden setae near posterior half of margins of eyes and some scattered ones posteriorly; interocular region, lateral and dorsal portions of post-ocular region almost or completely glabrous. Antenna: first segment glabrous basally, with scattered, somewhat stout and curved red-brownish setae, which are more numerous towards apex; second segment with scattered, short, somewhat curved and stout brownish setae and numerous shorter, thinner yellowish to whitish setae, which are more sparse and a little longer on approximately basal fourth of the segment; about four isolated thin, clear and somewhat longer straight setae on posterior surface; remaining segments covered with numerous thin shorter declivous yellowish to whitish setae, which are somewhat longer towards apex of fourth segment and with somewhat curved and stout brownish setae longer than in preceding segments. Thorax: pronotum mostly glabrous, with numerous very short, thin, whitish setae on anterior margin of collar; scattered few adpressed thin curved yellowish setae on fore and hind lobe; some brownish long thin setae on anterior and lateral portions; numerous short straight thin yellowish setae between posterior margin of pronotum and lateral base of scutellum; long spines of pronotum almost glabrous, with few thin curved short setae. Scutellum: basal portion with numerous small adpressed clear setae, mainly on lateral margins; spine with long fine straight darkened setae on ventral portion and some few curved short clear setae on dorsal and lateral surfaces. Pleurae, lateral portion of mesosternum and posterior half of metasternum almost glabrous, with very sparse thin short clear adpressed setae; some longer setae on propleura and median posterior margin of metasternum; prosternum, median portion of mesosternum and anterior half of metasternum covered with small adpressed clear setae; blunt tubercles on prosternum with a tuft of stout long brownish setae. Legs: coxae with scattered long brownish setae, somewhat more numerous on anterior and lateral surfaces, and thicker on fore coxae. Few scattered stout brownish setae on all trochanters; fore trochanter with two parallel rows of numerous curved moderately stout yellow-brownish setae ventrally; an anterior row of numerous somewhat thinner setae ventrally. Basal extremity of fore femur with two ventral parallel rows of numerous curved moderately stout yellow-brownish setae, with the posterior row denser than the anterior; all femora covered with several stout darkened, brownish to brown reddish long stout setae; stouter, longer, brownish setae scattered on ventral surface of femora, more numerous on fore and mid femora; all tibiae covered with irregular rows of numerous stout darkened somewhat short to long setae, and with tufts of short clearer setae apically; tarsi covered with darkened or clearer setae, more numerous on ventral surface. Hemelytra: corium with scattered short adpressed clear thin setae, somewhat more numerous and long on the costal margin, including the inclined portion at basal portion; membrane glabrous. Abdomen: sternites with scattered long, slender, erect, straight and yellowish setae; some longer setae on posterior and lateral margins of the last sternite ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 4). Genital segments covered with long and somewhat shorter yellowish setae. STRUCTURE: Integument: opaque; moderately shiny on first two antennal segments, long spines of pronotum and scutellum, lateral portions of meso and metasternum and sternites. Head: around 1.5 times as long as wide across eyes, shorter than pronotum, anteocular portion somewhat longer than postocular and strongly declivous; mandibular plate prominent, subacute; maxillary plate with apex rounded. Eyes prominent, projecting laterally. Transverse sulcus shallow. Ocelli large and prominent, the anterior margin just behind transverse sulcus and posterior edge of eyes. Antennifers somewhat elongate. Antenna: first segment somewhat curved, enlarged towards apex, thicker and shorter than other segments; second segment the longest, thinner than the first but thicker than the third and fourth, somewhat curved at median third; segments III and IV the thinnest. Labium curved, thick; segments II and III (first two visible) subequal in length; segment IV somewhat half shorter than the previous segment, tapering. Thorax: Pronotum: anterolateral angles prominent, with apex acute; anterior collar moderately large; fore lobe with a pair of moderately long spines and short acute prominences laterally; transverse sulcus shallow; longitudinal sulcus imperceptible on anterior portion of fore lobe and posterior margin of hind lobe, but linear on posterior portion of fore lobe and anterior 2/3 of hind lobe; anterior portion of disc of hind lobe with thin transverse tortuous striations, which gives a rugous appearance to this area; a pair of sublateral shallow sulci on posterior half of hind lobe; a moderately long and strong spine on each humeral angle ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4). Scutellum triangular, moderately large; disc with a somewhat rugous surface bordered by distinct carina, with an apical, moderately long, posteriorly directed spine. Stridulitrum elongated, occupying the entire median portion of prosternum; a pair of anterior blunt short tubercles beside stridulitrum and anterior to fore acetabula. Legs ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4): long and slender; hind femora and tibia longer than the others; fore femora somewhat thicker than mid femora, which are somewhat thicker than hind femora too; fore and mid femora with three thick spines on posteroventral portion, in which the larger spines lie on distal half and the smaller spine lies basally but near the median portion of the respective femur; few small dark tubercles at base of stronger straight darkened setae on antero-ventral surface of fore femur; irregular rows of thin short and acute sclerotized spines on antero-ventral surface of the mid femur; fore tibia with a ventral median row of denticles on midline, which are absent at extreme base and on the area in which the spongy fossa occurs; mid tibia with two median ventral rows of denticles somewhat parallel, which are absent at extreme base and on the area in which the spongy fossa lies on. Tarsi three-segmented, in which the first segment is much shorter than the others, claws symmetrical and slender. A small comb on mesal surface of apex of fore tibia. Spongy fossa on ventral portion of apex of fore and mid tibia with about 1/3 of the length of fore tibia and 1/ 4 of mid tibia, respectively. Hemelytra surpassing tip of abdomen for approximately 0.5 mm. Abdomen: moderately elongate, suboval. Posterolateral angles of connexival segments II to V with a small spiny protuberance. Posterolateral angles of connexival segment VI with a small blunt protuberance. A median keel on sternites II (first visible) to IV and anterior half of V; sutures between sternites thin, except the thicker suture between sternites II and III. Sternites with fine transverse striations, somewhat more marked on sternite II and around genitalia on sternite VII ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 4). Male genitalia ( Figs. 2–6View FIGURES 1 – 4View FIGURES 5 – 6): pygophore rounded; parameres apices close in resting position ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 4). Median process of pygophore sclerotized, subtriangular, in dorsal view, apex acute ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 4). Parameres symmetrical, elongate, very curved at apical third, with a short apical tooth; numerous moderately long setae on apical half of internal surface; more sparse setae, a few of which are longer than others on apical third of external surface ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 4). Phallus ( Figs. 5View FIGURES 5 – 6, A–B) with articulatory apparatus short, subretangular; basal bridge well developed. Dorsal phallothecal plate ( Figs. 6View FIGURES 5 – 6, A–C) very sclerotized, suboval in shape, apex rounded. Struts ( Figs. 6View FIGURES 5 – 6, A–C) separated, enlarged and somewhat rounded at base, subparallel at basal third; enlarged, sickle-shaped and diverging at middle third; at distal third, half-rimmed and flattened toward apex ( Figs. 6View FIGURES 5 – 6, A–C). In the middle of endosoma there is a pair of somewhat sclerotized processes between which occurs a cupular median process ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 5 – 6, D). The latter has a pointed median process ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 5 – 6, D). Endosoma wall sclerotized with a pair of flat heavily sclerotized subrectangular, lateral lobes on external surface, apically ( Figs. 5View FIGURES 5 – 6, A–B, 6, D).

Female. MEASUREMENTS: Total length: 21.054–21.776; head: length (excluding collum): 2.749–2.826; width across the eyes: 1.925–1.938; antennal segments length: I: 1.515–1.927; II: 3.827–3.973; III: 3.209; IV: 2.165; labial segments length: II [first visible]: 1.757–1.877; III: 1.745–1.579; IV: 0.514–0.558. Thorax: pronotum length: 3.698–3.921; maximum width: 6.002–6.367; length of median spine of fore lobe: 0.805–0.829; length of spine of humeral angles: 0.813–0.865; length of scutellar spine: 1.226–1.344. Legs length: fore legs: femur: 4.314–5.537; tibia: 5.023–5.128; spongy fossa on apex of tibia: 1.751–1.820; tarsus: 1.520–1.664; middle legs: femur: 4.625– 4.687; tibia: 5.140–5.310; spongy fossa on apex of tibia: 1.360–1.416; tarsus: 1.587–1.780; hind legs: femur: 8.292– 8.538; tibia: 9.599–10.180; tarsus: 2.262–2.498. Abdomen maximum width: 5.889–5.915. Similar to male ( Figs. 7– 10View FIGURES 7 – 11). A large group of thin short and acute sclerotized spines occupying most of the antero-ventral surface of the mid femur, much more numerous than in the males examined. On anterior half of sternite VII, a pair of lateral round, low protuberances present, between which the midline portion is somewhat elevated but without forming a distinct keel ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12 – 13, A). Only the posterolateral connexival angle of segment II with a small spiny protuberance. Female genitalia: external genitalia as in Figs. 12View FIGURES 12 – 13, A–B; gonocoxite and gonapophysis VIII, gonocoxite IX, and gonapophysis IX as shown in Figs. 13View FIGURES 12 – 13 A, 13B and 13C, respectively.

Distribution. Brazil, state of Minas Gerais.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the combination of two indigenous words (Tupi-Guarani): " gereva ", meaning "spotted" and " tinga " which means "white." The epithet refers to the condition observed on the hemelytra of the specimen, featuring distinct white spots.

Specimens examined. Zelurus gerevatinga  sp. nov. BRAZIL, Minas Gerais, Pains, Gruta [cave] da Sangueira, 28.XI. 1999, Ferreira leg., ISLA 12080, male holotype  ; Gruta [cave] do Brejão, 11.X.2000, Ferreira leg., ISLA 12079, male paratype  ; Gruta [cave] da Torre, 27.XI.1999, Ferreira et al. leg., ISLA 9501, female paratype  ; Gruta [cave] Massarambará, 12.X.2000, Ferreira leg., ISLA 12078, female paratype  ; [ISLA].

Zelurus transnominalis Lent & Wygodzinsky.  BRAZIL, Mato Grosso [currently, Mato Grosso do Sul], Bodoquena , XI.1941, Com. I.O.C. [leg.], P. Wygodzinsky. + H. Lent det., 447, 449, HEMIPTERA, Inst. Oswaldo Cruz  , female paratype, male paratype [ CTIOC]  .

Discussion. Among all species of Zelurus  , judging by external features of adults, Z. gerevatinga  sp. nov. seems closer to Z. transnominalis Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1947  . They share several similarities: hemelytra with a conspicuous pale spot on distal half of corium; fore lobe of pronotum with a pair of moderately long spines and short acute prominences laterally; a moderately long and strong spine on each humeral angle; scutellum with an apical, moderately long, posteriorly directed spine; fore and mid tibia with ventral row of denticles and spongy fossa on fore tibia approximately 1/3 of the length of the tibia. On the other hand, other several prominent features distinguish Z. gerevatinga  sp. nov. and Z. transnominalis  : Z. gerevatinga  sp. nov. has a much darker general coloration and larger size. Zelurus transnominalis  besides the distal spot has an additional pale large spot on the basal portion of the corium of hemelytra, the femora and the connexivum are uniformly colored, and a median keel on sternites II–VI (males) or II–VII (females), whereas Z. gerevatinga  sp. nov. has the basal portion of the corium almost completely dark, apices of femora distinctly pale, connexivum bicolored, and the median keel on sternites restricted to segments II–IV and anterior half of V.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Reduviidae

Genus

Zelurus