Anolis sacamecatensis, Köhler & Pérez & Petersen & Méndez & Cruz, 2014

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La, 2014, A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species, Zootaxa 3862 (1), pp. 1-210 : 77-85

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Anolis sacamecatensis

sp. nov.

Anolis sacamecatensis sp. nov.

Figs. 58–64 View FIGURE 58 View FIGURE 59 View FIGURE 60 View FIGURE 61 View FIGURE 62 View FIGURE 63 View FIGURE 64

Anolis quercorum: Peterson et al. 2004

Holotype. SMF 96705 View Materials , an adult male from Cerro Sacamecates (16.549440°N, 95.819820°W, WGS84 ), 2035 m, Estado de Oaxaca, Mexico; collected 18 June 2013 by Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez. Field tag number GK-4549 . GoogleMaps

Paratypes. GK-4533 , GK-4535 , GK-4543 , GK-4545–47 , GK-4550 ( IBH uncatalogued) , SMF 96706 View Materials –13 View Materials , same collecting data as holotype GoogleMaps . GK-4535 , GK-4545 ( IBH uncatalogued) , SMF 96706 View Materials , 96708 View Materials are males, GK-4533 , GK-4543 , GK-4546–47 , GK-4550 ( IBH uncatalogued) , SMF 96710 View Materials –13 View Materials are females.

Referred specimens ⎯ Mexico: Oaxaca: Sierra Mixe : Carretera Ayutla-Zacatepec, 1945 m: UTA 51887 View Materials ; Sierra Mixe : 6.9 mi W Zacatepec rd, 1420: KU 224553 View Materials –55 ; Albarrados , 1768 m: USNM 47391 View Materials ; near Santiago Matatlán , 1870 m: SMF 96459 View Materials .

Diagnosis. A small species (our Species C of the A. quercorum complex, see above; SVL in largest male 40.0 mm, largest female 44.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004) that differs from all Mexican and Central American anoles except A. carlliebi and A. quercorum by having a combination of (1) strongly keeled ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) 10–12 rows of slightly to moderately enlarged dorsal scales that are smaller than ventral scales; (4) short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg usually reaching to level of ear opening, occasionally to a point between shoulder and ear opening or to a point between ear opening and eye, ratio shank length/SVL 0.20–0.24; (5) circumnasal usually in contact with first supralabial; and (6) a large pink dewlap in males and a very small orange-red dewlap in females ( Fig. 58 View FIGURE 58 ). Anolis sacamecatensis differs from A. carlliebi and A. quercorum in the ranges and average values of several morphometric and pholidotic characters (see Table 9 View TABLE 9 ), most obvious in (1) number of middorsal scales in one head length; (2) ratio shank length/HL; and (3) subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV. Also, Anolis sacamecatensis differs from A. carlliebi and A. quercorum in hemipenis morphology (hemipenis slightly bilobed in A. sacamecatensis vs. unilobed in A. carlliebi and distinctly bilobed in A. quercorum ) and by substantial genetic distances (see above).

Description of the holotype. Adult male, as indicated by almost completely everted hemipenes and presence of large dewlap; SVL 40.0 mm; tail incomplete; tail moderately compressed in cross section, tail height 1.7 mm and width 1.3 mm; axilla to groin distance 17.2 mm; head length 10.2 mm, head length/SVL ratio 0.26; snout length 4.5 mm; head width 6.5 mm; longest toe of adpressed hind limb reaching to ear opening; shank length 9.2 mm, shank length/head length ratio 0.90; longest finger of extended forelimb reaching to tip of snout; longest finger of adpressed forelimb reaching to a point 4.2 mm in front of anterior insertion of hind limbs. Dorsal head scales in internasal region keeled, unicarinate; other dorsal head scales rugose or keeled; 5 postrostrals; 6 scales between nasals; 1 elongate prenasal scale on each side, in contact with both rostral and first supralabial; circumnasal in contact with first supralabial on left side, separated from supralabial by one scale row on right side; scales in shallow prefrontal depression mostly rugose or weakly keeled; supraorbital semicircles well developed, separated medially by one scale row at narrowest point; supraorbital disc composed of 4 to 5 moderately to greatly enlarged, weakly keeled scales arranged in two rows; circumorbital row incomplete, therefore, some enlarged supraorbital scales in contact supraorbital semicircles; 3 elongated, strongly overlapping superciliaries, the two anterior ones much larger than posterior one, followed posteriorly by 5 to 6 roundish to squarish scales of moderate size; 2 to 3 rows of small keeled scales extending between enlarged supraorbitals and superciliaries; parietal depression shallow; interparietal scale well developed, 1.5 x 0.9 mm (length x width), surrounded by scales of moderate size; 2 scales present between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; canthal ridge distinct, composed of 3 large (second largest) and 3 small anterior canthal scales; 6 scales present between second canthals; 9 scales present between posterior canthals; 17 (right)– 16 (left) mostly keeled loreal scales in a maximum of 5 (right)– 4 (left) horizontal rows; 4 keeled subocular scales arranged in a single row; 5 supralabials to level below center of eye; 2 suboculars broadly in contact with 3 supralabials; ear opening 0.6 x 1.3 mm (length x height); mental distinctly wider than long, completely divided medially, bordered posteriorly by 4 postmentals, outer ones much larger than median ones, a single small scale interspersed on each side between enlarged postmental, infralabial, and mental; 5 (right)– 6 (left) infralabials to level below center of eye; one greatly enlarged sublabial on each side; keeled granular scales present on chin and throat; dewlap large, extending from level below anterior margin of eye to level of chest; 8–9 horizontal gorgetal-sternal rows with 9–17 scales per row; modal number of marginal pairs 2–4; a nuchal crest and a dorsal ridge present; dorsum of body with weakly keeled, subimbricate, non-mucronate scales; about 20 medial rows slightly to moderately enlarged; largest dorsal scales about 0.42 x 0.30 mm (length x width); about 30 medial dorsal scales in one head length; about 63 medial dorsal scales between levels of axilla andgroin; lateral scales keeled, granular and more or less homogeneous in size, average size 0.25 mm in diameter; ventrals at midbody strongly keeled, imbricate, mucronate, about 0.50 x 0.35 mm (length x width); about 28 medial ventral scales in one head length; about 42 medial ventral scales between levels of axilla and groin; 118 scales around midbody; all caudal scales keeled; middorsal caudal scales moderately enlarged, not forming a crest; lateral caudal scales without whorls of enlarged scales, although an indistinct division in segments is discernible; a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales present, about 0.8 mm wide; no tube-like axillary pocket present; scales on dorsal surface of forelimb weakly keeled; digital pads dilated, dilated pad about 3 times width of non-dilated distal phalanx; distal phalanx narrower than and raised from dilated pad; 22 (right)–20 (left) lamellae under phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; 4 (right)–5 (left) scales under distal phalanx of Toe IV of hind limbs.

The completely everted hemipenis of ( Fig. 64 View FIGURE 64 ) is a slightly bilobate organ; sulcus spermaticus bordered by well developed sulcal lips and opening into a single apical field void of ornamentation; a small asulcate processus and a distinct asulcate ridge present; apex strongly calyculate, truncus with transverse folds.

Coloration after six months preservation in 70% ethanol was recorded as follows: Dorsal surface of head Ground Cinnamon (270); dorsal surface of body Medium Neutral Gray (298) with a suffusion of Ground Cinnamon (270) at middorsum; dorsal surfaces of limbs and tail Medium Neutral Gray (298) with a suffusion of Dusky Brown (285); ventral surface of head Pale Buff (1); ventral surfaces of body, limbs, and tail Smoky White (261); finger and toe pads Vandyke Brown (282); dewlap Light Flesh Color (250) with a suffusion of Pink (242).

Variation. The paratypes agree well with the holotype in general appearance, morphometrics, and scalation ( Table 9 View TABLE 9 ). They differ in some scalation characters as follows: The number of slightly to moderately enlarged dorsal scale rows varies from 12 to 20. All but one specimen have a single elongate prenasal, only GK-4546 (IBH uncatalogued) has a divided prenasal. Suboculars in contact with supralabials (2–3 suboculars in contact with 1–4 supralabials) in all specimens examined. Of 14 individuals, the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to shoulder in 7.1%, to a point between shoulder and ear opening in 71.4%, to ear opening in 7.1%, and to a point between ear opening and eye in 14.3%. All males have a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 ).

The coloration in life of an adult male from Cerro Sacamecates ( SMF 96706 View Materials ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Olive Brown (278) with Smoky White (261) lateral line and blotches and Smoky Gray (267) color in vertebral region; dorsal surface of limbs Glaucous (272) with Sepia (279) bands; dorsal surface of head Brownish Olive (276) with Sepia (286) markings and indistinct Olive Brown (278) interorbital bar; ventral surface of body Smoky Gray White (261); ventral surface of limbs and tail Smoky Gray (266) fussed with Smoky White (261); dewlap Pale Rose (231) with Cream White (52) gorgetals. The coloration in life of another adult male from Cerro Sacamecates ( SMF 96708 View Materials ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color: Raw Umber (23) grading into Drab (19) in vertebral region and towards tail; Light Buff (2) lateral line and dots; dorsal surface of head Cinnamon-Drab (50); ventral surface of body Pale Buff (1) in limbs and tail suffused with Pale Neutral Gray (296); dewlap Spinel Pink (235) fused with Cream Color (12) and Light Rose (233) around gorgetals; iris Antique Brown (24).

The coloration in life of an adult female from Cerro Sacamecates (GK-4533, IBH) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Drab (19) with a Clay Color (18) vertebral band, a Lavender (202) zigzag line and Fuscous (283) markings; dorsal surface of head Antique Brown (24) with Warm Sepia (40) interorbital bars and markings; dorsal surface of limbs Verona Brown (37) with Dark Neutral Gray (299) indistinct splotches; ventral surface of body, limbs and tail; Cream White (52); dewlap Spinel Pink (235) with Cream White (52) gorgetals; iris Olive (126).

Etymology. The name sacamecatensis refers to the type locality, Cerro Sacamecates, a mountain peak in the southeastern portion of the Mexican State of Oaxaca.

Natural History Notes. Individuals of Anolis sacamecatensis were seen in leaf litter and among fallen logs in a pine forest, very common at 2200 masl but less abundant at higher elevations; we did not find any above 2500 masl. On 14 June 2013 at 14:15 hrs., we found a pair copulating on a fallen pine log above a stream at 2190 masl. Copulation lasted about 1.5 minutes.

Geographic Distribution and Conservation. As currently known, Anolis sacamecatensis is restricted to the Pacific versant of the eastern central and southeastern portions of the Mexican State of Oaxaca at elevations between 1870 and 2200 masl ( Fig. 71 View FIGURE 71 ). Given its usual abundance wherever this species occurs, it seems justified to classify A. sacamecatensis as Least Concern based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria ( IUCN 2012).


Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg


Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Biologia


University of Texas at Arlington














Anolis sacamecatensis

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La 2014

Anolis quercorum:

Peterson 2004