Anolis zapotecorum, Köhler & Pérez & Petersen & Méndez & Cruz, 2014

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La, 2014, A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species, Zootaxa 3862 (1), pp. 1-210 : 48-55

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Anolis zapotecorum

sp. nov.

Anolis zapotecorum sp. nov.

Figs. 33–39 View FIGURE 33 View FIGURE 34 View FIGURE 35 View FIGURE 36 View FIGURE 37 View FIGURE 38 View FIGURE 39

Holotype. SMF 96425 View Materials , an adult male from Pluma Hidalgo (15.942410°N, 96.430440°W), 1350 m, Estado de Oaxaca, Mexico; collected 4 March 2013 by Gunther Köhler and Raúl Gómez Trejo Pérez. Field tag number GK- 4369 . GoogleMaps

Paratypes. IBH 26997 View Materials –27004 View Materials , SMF 96418 View Materials –24 View Materials , 96426–27 View Materials , same collecting data as holotype GoogleMaps . IBH 26998 View Materials –27001 View Materials , 27003–27004 View Materials , SMF 96419 View Materials , 96421–22 View Materials , 96424 View Materials , 96426–27 View Materials are males, IBH 26997 View Materials , 27002 View Materials , SMF 96418 View Materials , 96420 View Materials , 96423 View Materials are females.

Referred specimens ⎯ Mexico: Oaxaca: 7 mi S of la Candelaria, 358 m: UIMNH 8906 View Materials ; 2.5 km S Candelaria , 394 m: KU 137684 View Materials ; road from San Jose Pacífico to Candelaria Loxicha, 500–1469 m: UTA R-51711–16; road from Pochutla to Candelaria , 380 m: UTA R-53606; Finca de Juan García, near Santiago La Galera , 1010 m: IBH 26579, SMF 96246 –47 ; 5.1 km S Jalatengo , 1017 m: KU 137686 View Materials –87 ; Santiago la Galera , 1160 m: IBH 26513 View Materials –14 View Materials , 26521–22 View Materials , 26578 View Materials , 26582 View Materials , 26612 View Materials , SMF 96240 View Materials , 96248–51 View Materials ; near Tierra Blanca , 1287 m: SMF 96431 View Materials –32 View Materials ; near La Soledad , 1350 m: IBH 27028 View Materials –29 View Materials , SMF 96429 View Materials –30 View Materials , 96558–59 View Materials ; Tierra Blanca , 1369 m: SMF 96753 View Materials –54 View Materials ; 0.2 km N Jalatengo , 1458 m: KU 137688 View Materials ; Sierra Madre del Sur, Portillo de Rayo , 1519–1590 m: UTA R-51708, 51720–24; 2 mi W La Soledad : UIMNH 8963 View Materials ; La Soledad : UIMNH 8914 View Materials , 8924 View Materials , 8926 View Materials , 8929 View Materials , 8931 View Materials , 8949 View Materials , 8952 View Materials , 8962 View Materials , 8969-70 View Materials ; 1.0 km S Candelaria , 1621 m: KU 137685 View Materials ; Sierra Madre del Sur, along Hwy 131, 15 miles (24.1 km) SW San Pedro Juchatengo, 1872 m: UTA R-51709; Mex Hwy 175 and Chacalapilla River : UTA R-51720; Suchitepec , 2044 m: UTA R-51721; road from Portillo de Rayo to Pochutla, 677 m: UTA R-53603–05.

Diagnosis. A small species (our Species E of the A. nebuloides complex, see above; SVL in largest male 50.0 mm, largest female 47.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004) that differs from all Mexican and Central American anoles except A. nebuloides , A. nietoi , A. megapholidotus , and A. stevepoei by having a combination of (1) strongly keeled ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) 10–12 rows of greatly enlarged dorsal scales that are larger than ventral scales; (4) short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg usually reaching to posterior margin of eye, occasionally to a point between levels of ear opening and eye or to mideye (to ear opening in single female), ratio shank length/SVL 0.24–0.29; (5) circumnasal usually in contact with first supralabial; and (6) a large pink dewlap in males and a very small pink dewlap in females ( Fig. 33 View FIGURE 33 ). Anolis zapotecorum differs from A. nebuloides , A. nietoi , and A. megapholidotus by having (1) a rather gradual transition over 3 to 4 scales between the enlarged dorsal scales and lateral body scales (vs. a more abrupt transition over only 1 or 2 scales); (2) the edges of the field of enlarged dorsal scale rows forming an undulating line due to single enlarged scales or groups thereof outside the main field (vs. the edges of this field forming well defined and in a more or less straight line) (3) and by having a pink male dewlap (vs. more reddish). Anolis zapotecorum differs from A. stevepoei in hemipenial morphology (lobes well developed with two apical fields void of ornamentation—one on each lobe, and without a flap-like structure at tip of apex in A. zapotecorum vs. lobes rudimentary with a single apical field void of ornamentation, and with a flap-like structure at tip of apex in A. stevepoei ) and in the average values of several morphometric and pholidotic characters, most obvious in (1) number of midventral scales in one head length; (2) dorsal scales between levels of axilla and groin; and (3) subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV (see Table 8 View Table 8 ).

Description of the holotype. Adult male, as indicated by everted hemipenes and presence of large dewlap; SVL 47.5 mm; tail length 97.0 mm, tail complete; tail moderately compressed in cross section, tail height 2.6 mm and width 2.2 mm; axilla to groin distance 17.8 mm; head length 13.5 mm, head length/SVL ratio 0.28; snout length 5.9 mm; head width 8.1 mm; longest toe of adpressed hind limb reaching to mideye; shank length 13.2 mm, shank length/head length ratio 0.98; longest finger of extended forelimb reaching to a point 1 mm beyond tip of snout; longest finger of adpressed forelimb reaching to anterior insertion of hind limbs. Scales on snout keeled, mostly unicarinate, some multicarinate; posterior head scales rugose or keeled; 6 postrostrals; 7 scales between nasals; 1 elongate prenasal scale on each side, partly fused with circumnasal, in contact with both rostral and first supralabial; circumnasal in contact with first supralabial; scales in deep prefrontal depression mostly keeled, keels mostly radiating from center of depression; supraorbital semicircles well developed, medially in contact with each other; supraorbital disc composed of an oval patch of 3 greatly enlarged, keeled scales; circumorbital row complete, therefore, enlarged supraorbital scales completely separated from supraorbital semicircles; 2 elongated, strongly overlapping superciliaries, anterior one larger than posterior one, followed posteriorly by 3 to 4 roundish to squarish scales of moderate size; 2 to 3 rows of small smooth scales extending between enlarged supraorbitals and superciliaries; parietal depression shallow; interparietal scale well developed, 2.4 x 2.0 mm (length x width), surrounded by scales of moderate size; 1 scale present between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; canthal ridge distinct, composed of 3 large (second largest) and 3 small anterior canthal scales; 7 scales present between second canthals; 6 scales present between posterior canthals; 25 mostly keeled loreal scales in a maximum of 5 horizontal rows; 3 keeled subocular scales arranged in a single row; 6 supralabials to level below center of eye; 2 suboculars broadly in contact with 2 supralabials; ear opening 0.7 x 1.4 mm (length x height); mental distinctly wider than long, completely divided medially, bordered posteriorly by 4 postmentals, outer ones slightly larger than median ones; 6 infralabials to level below center of eye; sublabials not differentiated; keeled granular scales present on chin and throat; dewlap large, extending from level beyond anterior margin of eye to level of chest; 7–9 horizontal gorgetal-sternal rows with 10–21 scales per row; modal number of marginal pairs 2–4; a nuchal crest and a dorsal ridge present; dorsum of body with strongly keeled, imbricate, non-mucronate scales; about 10 to 14 medial rows greatly enlarged; largest dorsal scales about 0.95 x 0.95 mm (length x width); about 20 medial dorsal scales in one head length; about 34 medial dorsal scales between levels of axilla and groin; lateral scales smooth, granular and more or less homogeneous in size, average size 0.25 mm in diameter; ventrals at midbody strongly keeled, imbricate, mucronate, about 0.65 x 0.65 mm (length x width); about 36 medial ventral scales in one head length; about 46 medial ventral scales between levels of axilla and groin; 114 scales around midbody; all caudal scales keeled; middorsal caudal scales moderately enlarged, not forming a crest; lateral caudal scales without whorls of enlarged scales, although an indistinct division in segments is discernible; a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales present, about 1.5 mm wide; no tube-like axillary pocket present; scales on dorsal surface of forelimb weakly keeled; digital pads dilated, dilated pad about 3 times width of non-dilated distal phalanx; distal phalanx narrower than and raised from dilated pad; 26 (right)–25 (left) lamellae under phalanges II–IV of fourth toe; 8 scales under distal phalanx of fourth toe.

The completely everted hemipenis of SMF 96425 View Materials ( Fig. 39 View FIGURE 39 ) is a bilobate organ; sulcus spermaticus bordered by well developed sulcal lips and opening at base of apex into two apical fields void of ornamentation, one on each lobe; distal portion of sulcal lips with several transverse folds at level of bifurcation; a distinct asulcate ridge and a knob-like asulcate processus present; apex strongly calyculate, truncus and asulcate ridge with transverse folds.

Coloration after five months preservation in 70% ethanol was recorded as follows: Dorsal surfaces of head and body Light Russet Vinaceous (246) grading into Light Neutral Gray (297) in parietal region and with an indistinct Dark Neutral Gray (299) lateral longitudinal stripe between levels of axilla and groin; dorsal surfaces of limbs Tawny (60) with indistinct Dark Drab (45) bands; dorsal surface of tail Tawny (60) with indistinct Fawn Color (258) bands; ventral surfaces of head, body, limbs, and tail Chamois (84) with a slight suffusion of Cinnamon-Drab (50); finger and toe pads Vandyke Brown (282); dewlap Vinaceous (247) grading into Rose Pink (243) on edges.

Variation. The paratypes agree well with the holotype in general appearance, morphometrics, and scalation (see Table 8 View Table 8 ). Variation is evident in some scalation characters as follows: The number of slightly to moderately enlarged dorsal scale rows varies from 11 to 14. All specimens have a single elongate prenasal. Suboculars in contact with supralabials (1–3 suboculars in contact with 1–3 supralabials) in all specimens examined. Of 30 individuals, the longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to a point between ear opening and eye in 3.3%, to posterior border of eye in 20.0%, to mideye in 66.7%, to anterior border of eye in 6.7%, and to beyond eye in 3.3%. All males have a pair of greatly enlarged postcloacal scales.

The coloration in life of an adult male of ( SMF 96248 View Materials ; Fig. 34a View FIGURE 34 ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Raw Umber (22) with Antique Brown (24) interorbital bar and Mars Brown (25) occipital blotch; lateral stripe Ground Cinnamon (270) edged above and below by Ferruginous (35) streaks; dorsum with Warm Sepia (40) chevrons; dorsal surface of limbs and tail with Warm Sepia (40) bars; ventral surfaces Light Buff (2), those on limbs and tail suffused with Drab (19); dewlap Spinel Pink (235) with Light Orange Yellow (7) marginals and Paris White (139) gorgetals; iris Warm Sepia (40). The coloration in life of another adult male ( SMF 96240 View Materials ; Fig. 34c View FIGURE 34 ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Mikado Brown (42) with a suffusion of Olive Brown (278) dorsally and with a Burnt Siena (38) interorbital bar; lateral stripe Smoky Gray (267) edged above and below by series of Walnut Brown (27) splotches; dorsal surface of limbs and tail Antique Brown (24) with Warm Sepia (40) bands; ventral surface of head Pale Buff (1); ventral surface of body Pale Pinkish Buff (3); ventral surface of limbs and tail Ground Cinnamon (270) with Dark Drab (45) suffusions; dewlap Magenta (236) with Cream White (52) gorgetals and Chamois (84) marginals.

The coloration in life of an adult female ( SMF 96249 View Materials ; Fig. 34b View FIGURE 34 ) was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color Raw Umber (22) with suffusions of Cinnamon (21) and with Mars Brown (25) stipples on flanks; ventral surface of head Light Buff (2); ventral surface of limbs and tail Tawny Olive (17); Venter Cream Color (12); dewlap Spinel Pink (235) with Cream White (52) gorgetals; iris Burnt Umber (48).

Etymology. The name zapotecorum refers to the Zapotecan people. The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca. Many people in the range of Anolis zapotecorum still speak the ancient Zapotec language.

Natural History Notes. Anolis zapotecorum appears to be very abundant in the surroundings of La Galera, Buena Vista, and Pluma Hidalgo. During daytime surveys, they were encountered on leaf litter or perching low on tree trunks about 0.1 to 0.5 m above the ground. At night, they were found sleeping on twigs, leaves, and ferns. Near Pluma Hidalgo at 10:30 hrs., an adult male of A. zapotecorum was observed using the same coffee tree to rest as a juvenile of Anolis macrinii , with only a few centimeters in distance between them, although on a different branch.

Geographic Distribution and Conservation. As currently known, Anolis zapotecorum is restricted to the Pacific versant of the eastern portion of the Sierra Madre del Sur in the south-central portion of the Mexican State of Oaxaca at elevations between 358 and 2044 masl ( Fig. 40 View FIGURE 40 ). Given its usual abundance wherever this species occurs, it seems justified to classify A. zapotecorum as Least Concern based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria ( IUCN 2012).


Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg


Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Biologia


Biodiversity Institute, University of Kansas


University of Texas at Arlington