Anolis megapholidotus Smith 1933

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La, 2014, A revision of the Mexican Anolis (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae) from the Pacific versant west of the Isthmus de Tehuantepec in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Puebla, with the description of six new species, Zootaxa 3862 (1), pp. 1-210 : 55-60

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Anolis megapholidotus Smith 1933


Anolis megapholidotus Smith 1933

Figs. 41–44 View FIGURE 41 View FIGURE 42 View FIGURE 43 View FIGURE 44

Anolis megapholidotus Smith 1933: 318 ; type locality: “between Rincon and Cajones (about 40–45 kilometers south of Chilpancingo), Guerrero, Mexico.” Holotype: FMNH 100105 (originally Taylor and Smith collection 1509). Smith 1941, Smith & Smith 1941, Taylor 1944, Smith & Taylor 1950 a,b, Davis 1954, Stuart 1955, Etheridge 1959, Davis & Dixon 1961, Smith et al. 1964, Fitch 1970, Fitch & Henderson 1973, Smith & Smith 1973, Fitch 1976, Fitch et al. 1976, Smith and Smith 1976, Lieb 1981, Fitch & Hillis 1984, Flores-Villela 1993, Flores-Villela & Gerez 1994, Lieb 1995, Liner 2000, Pérez-Ramos et al. 2000, Lieb 2001, Poe 2004, Liner 2007, Fläschendräger & Wijffels 2009, Flores-Villela et al. 2010, Urbina-Cardona & Flores-Villela 2010, Wilson & Townsend 2010, Wilson et al. 2013, Köhler et al. 2014

Anolis nebuloides: Smith 1933 , Smith and Laufe 1945

Norops megapholidotus: Savage & Guyer 1989 , Liner 2000, Nicholson 2002, Martinez-Salazar 2006, Nicholson et al. 2012

Diagnosis. A small species (SVL in largest male 39.0 mm, largest female 38.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004) that differs from all Mexican and Central American anoles except A. nebuloides , A. nietoi , A. stevepoei , and A. zapotecorum by having a combination of (1) strongly keeled ventral scales; (2) usually a patch of three greatly enlarged supraocular scales; (3) 10–12 rows of greatly enlarged dorsal scales that are larger than ventral scales; (4) short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg usually reaching to posterior margin of eye, occasionally to a point between levels of ear opening and eye or to mideye (to ear opening in single female), ratio shank length/SVL 0.22–0.28; (5) circumnasal usually in contact with first supralabial; and (6) a large pinkish red dewlap in males and a very small pink dewlap in females ( Fig. 41 View FIGURE 41 ). Anolis megapholidotus differs from A. stevepoei , and A. zapotecorum by having (1) a rather abrupt transition between the enlarged dorsal scales and lateral body scales (vs. a more gradual transition over 3 to 4 scales); (2) the edges of the field of enlarged dorsal scale rows well defined and in a more or less straight line (vs. the edges of this field forming an undulating line due to single enlarged scales or groups thereof outside the main field) (3) and by having a more reddish male dewlap (vs. pink). Anolis megapholidotus differs from A. nebuloides and A. nietoi in the ranges and average values of several morphometric and pholidotic characters, most obvious in (1) number of middorsal scales in one head length; and (2) number of subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV (see Table 8 View Table 8 ).

Description. Anolis megapholidotus is a small anole (maximum recorded SVL 39.0 mm in males, 38.0 mm in females); dorsal head scales in internasal region strongly keeled, mostly unicarinate, other dorsal head scales mostly keeled in prefrontal region, in parietal region mostly weakly to strongly keeled, some rugose; shallow to deep prefrontal depression present, shallow parietal depression; 5–6 postrostrals; anterior nasal usually single, exceptionally divided, the lower scale in contact with rostral and first supralabial or, exceptionally, only with rostral scale; usually 6–7, occasionally 8, internasals; canthal ridge sharply defined; scales comprising supraorbital semicircles well defined, weakly keeled, largest scale in semicircles usually smaller than largest supraocular scale; supraorbital semicircles broadly in contact or separated by a complete row of scales; 1–3 scales separating supraorbital semicircles and interparietal at narrowest point; interparietal well defined, greatly enlarged relative to adjacent scales, surrounded by scales of moderate size, longer than wide, usually larger than ear opening, occasionally subequal to ear opening; enlarged supraoculars usually a patch of 3 greatly enlarged scales in a single row, rugose to weakly keeled, separated from supraorbital semicircles by a complete row of small scales, or these scales narrowly in contact; 2–3 scales between enlarged supraoculars and superciliaries; 3 elongate superciliaries, anterior one longest, followed posteriorly by a series of 3–4 rounded or squarish scales of moderate size; usually 3 enlarged canthals, the second canthal largest; 6–10 scales between second canthals; 7–11 scales between posterior canthals; loreal region slightly concave, 17–28 mostly keeled (some smooth to rugose) loreal scales in a maximum of 5–6 horizontal rows; 5–7 supralabials to level below center of eye; suboculars keeled, in broad contact with supralabials (2–3 suboculars in contact with 1–4 supralabials); ear opening vertically oval; scales anterior to ear opening keeled, juxtaposed, about four times larger than granulars posterior to ear opening; 5–7 infralabials to level below center of eye; commonly 4 or 5, occasionally 6 postmentals, outer pair slightly to distinctly larger than adjacent median postmental scales; 0–1 enlarged sublabial in contact with infralabials on each side; keeled granular scales present on chin and throat; male dewlap moderate-sized (38 mm 2 in one subadult male, SMF 96211 View Materials ) extending onto chest; 8–9 horizontal gorgetal-sternal rows with 8–11 scales per row; modal number of marginal pairs 2–4; female dewlap rudimentary or small; a nuchal crest and a dorsal ridge present in males; scales on middorsum strongly keeled, subimbricate with rounded posterior margins, some slightly mucronate; 9–12 middorsal scale rows moderately to greatly enlarged, abruptly larger than lateral scales; lateral scales keeled, granular, more or less homogeneous; 28–32 dorsal scales along vertebral midline between levels of axilla and groin in males, 27–35 in females; 16–20 dorsal scales along vertebral midline contained in one head length in males, 14–18 in females; ventral scales on midsection smaller than largest dorsal scales; scales on midventer strongly keeled, imbricate, mucronate; 36–39 ventral scales along midventral line between levels of axilla and groin in males, 29–37 in females; 20–30 ventral scales contained in one head length in males, 14–20 in females; 92–104 scales around midbody in males, 84–102 in females; tube-like axillary pocket absent; precloacal scales weakly to strongly keeled; males with or without a pair of moderately to greatly enlarged postcloacal scales; tail moderately compressed in cross section, tail height/tail width 1.10–1.38 in males, 1.09–1.45 in females; all caudal scales strongly keeled, homogeneous, although an indistinct division in segments is discernible; dorsal medial caudal scale row hardly enlarged, strongly keeled, not forming a crest; scales on anterodorsal surface of brachium and on dorsal surface of antebrachium subimbricate to imbricate, strongly keeled, unicarinate, slightly mucronate; 17–23 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; 6–7 subdigital lamellae on distal phalanx of Toe IV of hind limbs; digital pads dilated, about twice the size of distal phalanx. In all specimens examined, the longest toe of the adpressed hind leg reaches to level of tympanum or to a point between shoulder and tympanum. For variation in selected scalation and morphometric characters see Table 8 View Table 8 .

The coloration in life of a subadult male ( SMF 96211 View Materials ) from Agua de Obispo was recorded as follows: Dorsal ground color of body Cinnamon (21) grading into Mikado Brown (42); dorsal surface of head Natal Brown (42) with a Raw Umber (23) interorbital bar; dorsal surface of limbs and tail Cinnamon (21); ventral surface of chin and limbs Raw Umber (22); chin with Dark Brownish Olive (127) splotches and stripes; venter Chamois (48) with suffusions of Salmon Color (83); dewlap Pinkish Flesh Color (253) with Cream White (52) gorgetals; iris Dark Brownish Olive (127).

The coloration in life of an adult female ( IBH 26503 View Materials ) from Agua de Obispo was recorded as follows: Dorsal coloration Dark Drab (45) grading laterally into Sayal Brown (41); chin Cream White (52); venter Chamois (84); ventral surface of legs and tail Dark Drab (45); dorsal surface of legs Russet (44); dewlap Spinal Pink (235) with Cream White (52) gorgetals; iris Cinnamon Brown (43).

The hemipenial morphology in Anolis megapholidotus is unknown.

Natural History Notes: The few subadult individuals we encountered were found while the lizards were active on the ground during daytime and sleeping on low vegetation (shrubs at 0.2–0.5 m above the ground) at night. The habitat near Agua de Obispo is mostly disturbed dry and shrub forest in the valleys and pine-oak forest at higher elevations.

Geographic Distribution and Conservation. As currently known, Anolis megapholidotus is restricted to the Pacific versant of Sierra Madre del Sur in the south-central portion of the Mexican State of Guerrero at elevations between 960 and 1045 masl ( Fig. 40 View FIGURE 40 ). Given its presumably small geographic range, degraded habitat, and threat from deforestation, it seems justified to classify A. megapholidotus as Critically Endangered based on criterion B1ab(iii) of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria ( IUCN 2012).

Specimens examined ⎯ Mexico: Guerrero: vicinity of Agua de Obispo , 960–1045 m: FMNH 100105 View Materials , 106557 View Materials , 106559–60 View Materials , IBH 26503–04 View Materials , MCZ R-78706–12, SMF 96211–12 View Materials , UIMNH 20121–23 View Materials , UMMZ 119078 View Materials , 130949 View Materials (three specimens), 130952; Acahuizotla, 970 m: MCZ R-78713–16 .


Museum of Comparative Zoology














Anolis megapholidotus Smith 1933

Köhler, Gunther, Pérez, Raúl Gómez Trejo, Petersen, Claus Bo P., Méndez, Fausto R. & Cruz, De La 2014

Anolis megapholidotus

Smith, H. M. 1933: 318