Tettigoniinae

Ünal, Mustafa, 2018, Tettigoniinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Turkey with key to genera and descriptions of six new species, Zootaxa 4432 (1), pp. 1-66: 7-10

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4432.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D44C8383-4070-44B6-91CE-4A0940A0F094

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8B5C87A2-FFA6-FFEA-FF6C-FD2B0DF3FA71

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tettigoniinae
status

 

Key to tribes, genera and subgenera of Tettigoniinae  of Turkey

(Modified from Ramme 1951; Karabağ 1961a; Bey-Bienko 1964; Harz 1969; Stolyarov 1994; Demirsoy et al. 2002; Willemse 1985; Storozhenko 2004; Massa & Fontana 2011 using some new characters)

1 Prosternum with 2 spines or small projections ( Fig. 1 View Figure ); if the projections very weak then fastigium of vertex narrow, not wider twice as wide as scapus (Fig. 3).......................................................................... 2

- Prosternum without spines or projections ( Fig. 2 View Figure ); if present (only Rhacocleis  ) then hind tibia with 2 apical spurs ventrally ( Fig. 57 View Figure )............................................................................................ 14

2 Fastigium of vertex very narrow, almost half of scapus (Fig. 4). Body green or milky-brown (Fig. 5). Tegmina without dark spots in the middle part; tegmina and wings fully developed (Fig. 5).......... Tettigoniini  (gen. Tettigonia Linnaeus, 1758  )

- Fastigium of vertex as wide as scapus or much wider (Figs. 6–8); if slightly narrower than scapus then body not unicolorous green. Tegmina in various length, shortened or fully developed................................................. 3

3 Fastigium of vertex 3–4 times wider than scapus (Fig. 8). Plantula long, almost 2/3 of metatarsus (Fig. 9). Male with two pairs of titillators.................................................... Gampsocleidini  (gen. Gampsocleis Fieber, 1852  )

- Fastigium of vertex at most twice as wide as scapus (Figs. 6–7). Plantula short, not reaching to half of metatarsus (Fig. 10). Male with one pair of titillators … Drymadusini  ............................................................. 4

4 Pronotum with narrowly rounded or parabolic posterior margin (Fig. 11), distinctly extended posteriorly (Fig. 13). Fully winged (Fig. 13)................................................................ gen. Drymadusa Stein, 1860 

- Pronotum with broadly rounded or truncate posterior margin (Fig. 12), less extended posteriorly (Fig. 15); if narrowly rounded at hind margin then tegmina brachypterous (Fig. 14) to squamipterous............................................ 5

5 Male last tergite with a pair of long sharply pointed posterior lobes (Figs. 15–16); at least as long as the plate or much longer. Male cerci without inner tooth (except Anadrymadusa spinicercis  ), straight or strongly incurved along its length or in the middle, with an apical spine (Figs. 15–16)..................................................................... 6

- Male last tergite without or with short lobes (Fig. 17); if as long as the plate (some Scotodrymadusa  ) which never sharply pointed at apex (Fig. 18). Male cerci with inner tooth (sometimes very preapical or at apex in some Scotodrymadusa  ) (Figs. 17–18).............................................................................................. 7

6 Metazona of pronotum convex; shoulder incision indistinct ( Figs. 19–20 View Figure ). Tegmina shorter than half of abdomen ( Figs. 19–20 View Figure ). Ovipositor much shorter than twice length of pronotum ( Fig. 20 View Figure )............. gen. Pezodrymadusa Karabağ, 1961 

- Metazona of pronotum flat; shoulder incision distinct ( Fig. 21 View Figure ). Tegmina longer than half of abdomen ( Figs. 21–22 View Figure ). Ovipositor more than twice length of pronotum ( Fig. 22 View Figure )..................................gen. Anadrymadusa Karabağ, 1961 

7 Male last tergite fused with supra-anal plate and unusually strongly extended posteriorly in the middle with 4 cross-shaped contiguous plates ( Fig. 23 View Figure ). Female 7th sternite with an acute, spine-like projection posteriorly ( Fig. 24 View Figure )......................................................................... gen. Novadrymadusa Demirsoy, Salman & Sevgili, 2002 

- Male last tergite not prolonged with supra-anal plate in the middle ( Fig. 25 View Figure ). Female 7th sternite almost flat, without an acute projection ( Fig. 26 View Figure ).................................................................................... 8

8 Frons with a distinct black band between eyes ( Fig. 27 View Figure ) (anterior surface of scapus, foramen, antero-ventral part of fastigium of vertex, upper part of fastigium of frons and sometimes eyes blackened) [Male cercus with a distinct distal inner tooth ( Fig. 30 View Figure ). Ovipositor distinctly downcurved. Pronotum unicolored].......................... gen. Paradrymadusa Herman, 1874 

- Frons without black band between eyes ( Fig. 28 View Figure ); if seen a weak ( Anadolua schwarzi  and Mixodusa retusa  sp. nov.) ( Fig. 29 View Figure ) then male cerci with a small inner tooth in proximal part ( Fig. 31 View Figure ) and ovipositor straight in A. schwarzi  ( Figs. 32–33 View Figure ); paranota bicolored, ventral half contrastly lighetened in Mixodusa retusa  sp. nov. ( Figs. 198–199 View Figure ).......................... 9

9 Ovipositor almost straight, indistinctly curved upwards or downwards ( Figs. 32–36 View Figure ). Body greyish, marbled without any green or yellow ( Fig. 40 View Figure ). Male cerci with a small inner tooth in proximal part (at most in the middle) ( Figs. 25, 31 View Figure ). Found in western and southern Anatolia........................................................ gen. Anadolua Ramme, 1939 

- Ovipositor distinctly upcurved ( Figs. 37–38View FIGURES 19–37View FIGURES 38–58) or downcurved ( Fig. 39 View Figure ); if almost straight (in some Leptodusa  and Phytodrymadusa  ) then body fully green or yellowish ( Fig. 41 View Figure ). Male cerci with a large inner tooth in distal part (Figs. 18, 48, 51, 53).. 10

10 Ovipositor upcurved ( Figs. 37–38View FIGURES 19–37View FIGURES 38–58). Male titillator with a very short and stout, plate-like basal arms ( Fig. 42 View Figure )...................................................................................... gen. Scotodrymadusa Ramme, 1939 

- Ovipositor downcurved ( Fig. 39 View Figure ). Male titillator with a slender, long and narrower basal arms ( Figs. 43–45 View Figure )............. 11

11 Body grey, uniformly marbled, without greenish or yellowish tones ( Fig. 46 View Figure ). Male tegmina long reaching to 3/4 of abdomen ( Fig. 46 View Figure ). Known only from Çoruh Valley , NE Turkey............................... gen. Lithodusa Bey-Bienko, 1951   

- Body green, yellow or sometimes brownish, never uniformly marbled ( Fig. 47 View Figure ); if brown with small black spots then male tegmina reaching to 2nd abdominal tergite and ventral half of paranota contrastly lightened ( Fig. 198 View Figure ). Male tegmina at most reaching to half of abdomen............................................................................ 12

12 Male last tergite very short and wide, with a weak posterior incision and weak, short, wide posterior lobes ( Fig. 48 View Figure ). Titillators with widened, flattened and rounded distal part of apical arms, without denticles ( Fig. 44 View Figure ). Female tegmina clearly longer, reaching to middle of 2nd abdominal tergite ( Fig. 49 View Figure ).............................gen. Phytodrymadusa Ramme, 1939 

- Male last tergite elongated, with a deep posterior incision and longer posterior lobes ( Figs. 50, 52 View Figure ). Titillators with very narrow, sharp and acute apical arms, with distinct denticles ( Figs. 43, 45 View Figure ). Female tegmina very short, scale-like laterally ( Fig. 54 View Figure ) or not reaching to half of first abdominal tergite ( Fig. 55 View Figure )....................................................... 13

13 Body green, yellowish ( Fig. 54 View Figure ). Male cercus short and quite wide; basal part of inner tooth very expanded ( Fig. 51 View Figure ). Male last tergite with a wide posterior incision ( Fig. 50 View Figure ). Female tegmina scale-like laterally ( Fig. 54 View Figure )..gen. Leptodusa Stolyarov, 1994 

- Body various shades of brown, without green and yellow tones ( Fig. 55 View Figure ). Male cercus much narrower with an acute inner tooth ( Fig. 53 View Figure ). Male last tergite with a narrow triangular posterior incision ( Fig. 52 View Figure ). Female tegmina touching eachother at dorsum ( Fig. 55 View Figure )..................................................................... gen. Mixodusa Stolyarov, 1994 

14 Hind tibia with 4 apical spurs ventrally, inner two much shorter than outer ones ( Fig. 56 View Figure )........................... 15

- Hind tibia with 2 apical spurs ventrally ( Fig. 57 View Figure ) … within Decticini  ............................................ 40

15 Fore tibia with 4 dorsal spines on the outside ( Figs. 58–59View FIGURES 38–58View FIGURES 59–80) … within Decticini  .................................... 16

- Fore tibia with 3 dorsal spines on the outside ( Figs. 60–61 View Figure ).................................................... 20

16 Pronotum 2–3 times longer than fore femur ( Fig. 62 View Figure ).................. gen. Psorodonotus Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1861 

- Pronotum 1.5 times longer than fore femur ( Fig. 63 View Figure )......................................................... 17

17 Male last tergite with spinous processes ( Fig. 64 View Figure ). Tegmina reduced, slightly protruded under pronotum ( Figs. 63, 67 View Figure ) or fully covered. Ovipositor shorter than 20 mm (at most 19.6 in Bucephaloptera bolivari  )................................. 18

- Male last tergite with long pointed lobes, but never spinous ( Figs. 65–66 View Figure ). Tegmina longer than abdomen ( Fig. 68 View Figure ). Ovipositor around 20 mm or much longer.......................................................................... 19

18 Male cercus with inner tooth at the base ( Fig. 64 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with a shallow posterior incision, at most 1/4 of the length of the plate ( Fig. 69 View Figure ). Male with two pairs of titillators ( Fig. 71 View Figure )................. gen. Bucephaloptera Ebner, 1923 

- Male cercus without inner tooth, its apex strongly incurved, pointed with a spine ( F. rammei  ). Female subgenital plate with a very deep posterior incision, about 3/4 of the length of the plate ( Fig. 70 View Figure ). Male with one pair of titillators as common in Tettigoniinae  .................................................................... gen. Festella Giglio-Tos, 1894 

19 Pronotum flat dorsally, with a distinct median carina ( Fig. 72 View Figure )............................ gen. Decticus Serville, 1831 

- Pronotum convex dorsally; surface smooth without median carina ( Fig. 73 View Figure )............... gen. Medecticus Uvarov, 1921 

20 Pronotum with a distinct median carina in metazona ( Figs. 74–75 View Figure ). Tegmina fully developed or shortened; if short then apical part with distinct longitudinal veins in both sexes ( Figs. 74–75 View Figure ). Male tegmina relatively more or less pointed apically ( Fig. 74 View Figure ) … Decticini  ......................................................................................... 21

- Pronotum without or very weak, rudimentary median carina in metazona ( Figs. 76–77 View Figure ). Tegmina shortened, not reaching to half of abdomen, apex reduced, rounded or truncate ( Fig. 76 View Figure ); female tegmina not contiguous at dorsum ( Fig. 77 View Figure ) or completely covered by pronotum with only a network of veinlets (at most C and Sc distinct)............................ 32

21 Tegmina contrastly with distinct dark spots almost in all fields (especially in radial field); transverse veins light, enclosed by light spots ( Figs. 74, 75, 78 View Figure ) … gen. Platycleis Fieber, 1853  s.l ................................................. 23

- Tegmina unicolor or with indistinct dark spots only in radial field; transverse veins almost the same color with the other veins or with the rest of tegmina ( Figs. 79, 80 View Figure ).................................................................. 22

22 Paranota with a very narrow light band along the whole margin; shoulder incision very weak ( Fig. 81 View Figure ). Male last tergite with a weak median incision and nonprojecting lobes ( Fig. 82 View Figure ). Female 6th and 7th abdominal sternites with a pair of tubercles ( Fig. 83 View Figure ); subgenital plate small, shorter than wide, posterior margin straight ( Fig. 83 View Figure ).............. gen. Sepiana Zeuner, 1941 

- Paranota without or with a wide light band; shoulder incision more distinct ( Fig. 84 View Figure ). Male last tergite with a deep median incision and triangular or long pointed projecting lobes ( Fig. 85 View Figure ). Female 6th and 7th abdominal sternites without a pair of tubercles ( Fig. 86 View Figure ); subgenital plate large, longer than wide, posterior margin prolonged, with a deep median incision ( Fig. 86 View Figure ) … gen. Metrioptera Wesmaël, 1838  s.l ...................................................................... 29

23 Tegmina fully developed, reaching to hind knee, apex broadly rounded ( Fig. 87 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with a distinct wide longitudinal groove in the middle; hind margin with a deep, almost U-shaped posterior incision ( Fig. 88 View Figure ). [Ovipositor short, high, distinctly and gradually upcurved, basal 1/3 part ivory color, remaining part bright brown ( Fig. 87 View Figure )].........................................................................................subgen. Platycleis Fieber, 1853  s.str.

- Tegmina short, not reaching to end of abdomen ( Fig. 89 View Figure ); if longer then apical part very narrow and ovipositor as in Fig. 93 View Figure . Female subgenital plate without or with a very weak narrow longitudinal groove; hind margin without incision or weakly concave ( Fig. 90 View Figure ) or with a sharp triangular posterior incision ( Montana elegans  and Yalvaciana yalvaci  , Fig. 108 View Figure ).......... 24

24 Tegmina 1.5 times longer than pronotum, reaching beyond half of abdomen ( Figs. 91, 95–97, 99 View Figure ) (except Incertana incerta  , Figs. 94, 98 View Figure ); if slightly shorter, then apical part of tegmina strongly narrowed and very narrowly rounded at apex (sometimes almost pointed)...................................................................................... 25 - Tegmina shorter than pronotum ( Figs. 92, 104–105 View Figure ) or slightly longer than pronotum, never reaching to half of abdomen; its apex comparatively broadly rounded..................................................................... 27

25 Body large, robust (except Montana elegans  , Fig. 93 View Figure ). Ovipositor slightly and gradually upcurved along its length; longer than twice length of pronotum ( Figs. 89, 93 View Figure ). Female 7th sternite without longitudinal carina ( Figs. 89, 90 View Figure )............................................................................................... subgen. Montana Zeuner, 1941 

- Body small, slender. Ovipositor strongly and sharply upcurved just after the base; only a little longer than pronotum ( Figs. 94–97 View Figure ). Female 7th sternite with a rised longitudinal carina ( Fig. 96 View Figure )............................................ 26

26 Tegmina short, reaching to (at most) half of abdomen or shorter ( Figs. 94–95 View Figure ); apex as in Fig. 98 View Figure . Male frontal groove narrow, at most as wide as scapus. Titillators with strong spines ( Fig. 100 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with almost straight posterior margin ( Fig. 101 View Figure ) (at most slightly concave).......................................... subgen. Incertana Zeuner, 1941 

- Tegmina long, reaching to beyond half of abdomen ( Figs. 91, 96–97 View Figure ); apex as in Figs. 97, 99 View Figure . Male frontal groove wider than scapus. Titillators with very weak spinules ( Fig. 102 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with a rounded posterior incision ( Fig. 103 View Figure ).............................................................................. subgen. Tessellana Zeuner, 1941 

27 Male last tergite with 2 long and narrow posterior lobes ( Fig. 106 View Figure ). Male cerci pointed at apex with a small spine; inner tooth in proximal part ( Fig. 107 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with a deep triangular posterior incision ( Fig. 108 View Figure ).............................................................................................. subgen. Yalvaciana Çıplak, 2002 

- Male last tergite with 2 short and wide posterior lobes, rounded or triangular ( Figs. 109, 112 View Figure ). Male cerci narrowly rounded at apex; inner tooth in distal part or at most in the middle ( Figs. 110, 113 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with straight or slightly concave posterior margin ( Figs. 111, 114 View Figure ).................................................................... 28

28 Male last tergite with 2 rounded posterior lobes ( Fig. 109 View Figure ). Ovipositor strongly and sharply upcurved just after the base, distal part very narrow, yellowish cream ( Fig. 116 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate like a flat plate, square; posterior margin straight ( Fig. 111 View Figure )...................................................................... subgen. Sporadiana Zeuner, 1941 

- Male last tergite with 2 triangular posterior lobes ( Fig. 112 View Figure ). Ovipositor regularly and gradually upcurved along its length, distal part wide, basal 1/3 ivory color, remaining part dark bright brown ( Fig. 115 View Figure ) as in Platycleis  s.str. Female subgenital plate always upcurved laterally; posterior margin strongly or slightly convex ( Fig. 115 View Figure )........ subgen. Squamiana Zeuner, 1941 

29 Paranota unicolor green or brownish, without or with a weak light band along its margin ( Figs. 117, 121 View Figure )............... 30

- Paranota with more or less with a wide light band along its margin ( Fig. 122 View Figure ); if indistinct then all main veins of tegmina darkened except the creamish Sc ( Fig. 122 View Figure ) or tegmina shorter than pronotum ( Fig. 126 View Figure )................................ 31

30 Male tegmina reaching to half of abdomen ( Fig. 118 View Figure ). Posterior incision of male subgenital plate narrow and deep, both sides darkened ( Fig. 119 View Figure ); styli shorter than the depth of posterior incision ( Fig. 119 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with a very deep posterior incision, reaching more than 1/3 of the plate................................... subgen. Broughtonia Harz, 1969 

- Male tegmina reaching far beyond the half of abdomen ( Fig. 121 View Figure ). Posterior incision of male subgenital plate wide triangular and shallower, both sides not darkened ( Fig. 120 View Figure ); styli longer than the depth of posterior incision ( Fig. 120 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with shallower posterior incision, reaching to 1/4 of the plate.................. subgen. Bicolorana Zeuner, 1941 

31 Tegmina longer than pronotum ( Fig. 122 View Figure ); at least slightly longer in female of Metrioptera (Roeseliana) bispina  ( Fig. 125 View Figure ). Except the creamish Sc all the main veins of tegmina darkened ( Fig. 122 View Figure ). Posterior incision of male subgenital plate wide triangular and shallow, both sides not darkened ( Fig. 123 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate as in Fig. 124 View Figure ................................................................................................... subgen. Roeseliana Zeuner, 1941 

- Tegmina shorter than pronotum ( Figs. 126, 129 View Figure ). Sc and the other main veins of tegmina in same color, creamish ( Fig. 126 View Figure ). Posterior incision of male subgenital plate narrow and deep, both sides darkened ( Fig. 127 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate as in Fig. 128 View Figure ........................................................................... subgen. Fichetia Harz, 1969

32 Body very narrow in dorsal view; small and slender ( Figs. 130a, b, c View Figure ), shorter than 20 mm …within Decticini  ........... 33

- Body wide in dorsal view; large and robust ( Figs. 130d, e, f View Figure ), longer than 20 mm, if slightly shorter than 20 mm then pronotum distinctly wider as in Figs. 130d, e, f View Figure Pholidopterini  ....................................................... 35

33 Male last tergite prolonged posteriorly, with 2 distinct triangular lobes and with a deep triangular incision ( Fig. 131 View Figure ). Pronotum not extended posteriorly in metazona ( Fig. 138 View Figure ). Female 7th sternite with a rised longitudinal carina ( Fig. 133 View Figure ). Ovipositor short, almost twice as long as pronotum, strongly and sharply upcurved just after the base, distal part distinctly narrowed ( Fig. 139 View Figure )......................................................................... gen. Rammeola Uvarov, 1934 

- Male last tergite short and wide, with a shallow posterior incision; lobes very weak ( Figs. 134, 136 View Figure ). Pronotum more or less extended posteriorly in metazona ( Figs. 140, 142 View Figure ). Female 7th sternite smooth, without any carina. Ovipositor long, almost 3 times longer than pronotum, very slightly and gradually upcurved along its length, middle part slightly narrowed ( Figs. 141, 143 View Figure )............................................................................................... 34

34 Male cercus without inner tooth; very long, only 1.2 times shorter than pronotum, cylindrical and straight along its length ( Figs. 134, 140 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with a wide triangular incision and triangular lobes ( Fig. 135 View Figure )............................................................................................. gen. Pachytrachis Uvarov, 1940 

- Male cercus with a small but distinct inner tooth in distal part; about half of pronotum, narrowing towards apex and slightly incurved along its length ( Figs. 136, 142 View Figure ). Female subgenital plate with a narrow incision and broadly rounded lobes ( Fig. 137 View Figure )................................................................................... gen. Bolua Ünal, 1999 

35 Last abdominal tergite not black, all tergites unicolor, brownish cream ( Figs. 144–146, 153View FIGURES 130–145. 130View FIGURES 146–166)......................... 36

- Last abdominal tergite fully and sometimes also 7th–9th sternites laterally black, brownish black or partly light spotted ( Figs. 147–149, 157, 159 View Figure )................................................................................... 38

36 Pronotum slightly to strongly flattened dorsally; posterior margin straight or slightly convex ( Fig. 150 View Figure ). Male last tergite with a shallow, small incision, without or with very weak posterior lobes ( Fig. 144 View Figure ). Male tegmina not or only half covered by prono- tum ( Fig. 150 View Figure ); if pronotum and tegmina as in Figs. 151 and 152 View Figure (only Pholidoptera femorata  ) then male last tergite without posterior lobes ( Fig. 153 View Figure ). Female tegmina scale like laterally........................gen. Pholidoptera Wesmaël, 1838  - Pronotum almost cylindrical, metazona extended posteriorly with rounded posterior margin ( Figs. 151–152 View Figure ). Male last tergite with 2 distinct (mostly long) lobes and narrow incision between them ( Figs. 145–146View FIGURES 130–145. 130View FIGURES 146–166). Male tegmina fully covered or slightly projecting under pronotum ( Figs. 151–152 View Figure ). Female tegmina covered by pronotum, mostly contiguous at dorsum........ 37

37 Inner and outer surfaces of hind femora unicolor yellowish, creamish light brown without distinct black bands; hind knee blackened ( Fig. 154 View Figure )......................................................... gen. Apholidoptera Maran, 1953 

- Outer surface (and mostly inner) of hind femora with distinct longitudinal black band or black stripes and spots ( Fig. 155 View Figure ); if very weak then hind knee never blackened ( Fig. 156 View Figure ); hind knee at most slightly darkened but never distinctly black.............................................................................. gen. Parapholidoptera Maran, 1953 

38 Male last tergite unicolor black ( Figs. 147, 157 View Figure ), rarely with small lightened parts. Body slender ( Fig. 158 View Figure ), abdomen naturally and gradually narrowing backwards (except some species in E. prasina  species group but they are distictly smaller). Dorsal surface of head mostly light, creamish brown ( Fig. 162 View Figure ) (usually both sides of head and behind of eyes black in dorsal view). Ovipositor thin, more than twice as long as pronotum ( Fig. 170 View Figure ). Mediterranean elements … gen. Eupholidoptera Maran, 1953 

- Male and female last tergite unicolor black or partly lightened; black color also effused to 7th–9th tergites laterally ( Figs. 148–149, 159 View Figure ). Body stout ( Figs. 160–161 View Figure ), abdomen relatively cylindrical along its length and blunt at apex. Dorsal surface of head fully black or blackened with many dense stripes and spots ( Figs. 163–164, 166 View Figure ). Ovipositor thick, slightly longer (not more than 1.5 times) than pronotum ( Figs. 171–172 View Figure ) (except Exopholidoptera  , Fig. 173 View Figure ). Irano-Turanian elements...... 39

39 Body large, almost 30 mm and larger. Pronotum strongly exteded posteriorly in metazona ( Figs. 160, 165 View Figure ), with distinctly rounded posterior margin ( Fig. 163–164 View Figure , 169 View Figure ). Apical arms of titillator without spines. Ovipositor thick, slightly longer (not more than 1.5 times) than pronotum ( Figs. 171–172 View Figure ). Outer and inner surfaces of hind femora with very distinct black bands and stripes ( Fig. 174 View Figure ), with ventral spines on inner side............................... gen. Uvarovistia Maran, 1953 

- Body small, to 25 mm. Pronotum slightly extended posteriorly in metazona ( Fig. 161 View Figure , 167 View Figure ), with slightly convex posterior margin ( Figs. 166 View Figure , 168 View Figure ). Apical arms of titillator with spines. Ovipositor thin, more than twice as long as pronotum ( Fig. 173 View Figure ). Outer and inner surfaces of hind femora without distinct black bands and stripes ( Fig. 175 View Figure ), without ventral spines................................................................................... gen. Exopholidoptera Ünal, 1998 

40 Prosternum with 2 spines. Frontal groove almost half of antennal scapus ( Fig. 176 View Figure ). Plantula as long as metatarsus ( Fig. 180 View Figure ). Male cerci pointed with a spine at apex and with inner tooth in proximal part ( Fig. 182 View Figure )........gen. Rhacocleis Fieber, 1853 

- Prosternum without any projection. Frontal groove at most slightly narrower than scapus ( Fig. 177 View Figure ) or wider ( Figs. 178–179 View Figure ). Plantula shorter than metatarsus ( Fig. 181 View Figure ). Male cerci rounded or very narrowed, but without a spine at apex, with inner tooth in distal part ( Figs. 183–185 View Figure )........................................................................... 41

41 Frontal groove slightly narrower than scapus ( Fig. 177 View Figure ). Pronotum strongly flattened dorsally, with a median carina in metazona ( Figs. 186–187 View Figure ). Male last tergite with 2 long, incurved lobes ( Fig. 183 View Figure ). Female tegmina reaching to end of 2nd–3rd abdominal tergites ( Fig. 187 View Figure ), always contiguous at dorsum [General appearance similar to Drymadusini  , but much smaller ( Figs. 186–187 View Figure )]............................................................... gen. Sureyaella Uvarov, 1934 

- Frontal groove as wide as or wider than scapus ( Figs. 178–179 View Figure ). Pronotum distinctly convex dorsally, without median carina ( Figs. 188–191 View Figure ). Male last tergite with 2 triangular or pointed short, straight lobes ( Figs. 184–185 View Figure ). Female tegmina scale like laterally ( Figs. 189, 191 View Figure ) [General appearance similar to Pholidopterini  , but much smaller ( Figs. 188–191 View Figure )]............. 42

42 Male right tegmen always and distinctly longer than left one ( Fig. 193 View Figure ); the shape of left tegmen as in Fig. 196 View Figure ; stridulatory file without basal ridge ( Figs. 196–197 View Figure ). Male cerci swollen near to inner tooth, not depressed dorso-ventrally ( Fig. 185 View Figure ). Ovipositor very short, not more than twice as long as pronotum; distinctly upcurved and rapidly tapering towards apex; distal part very narrow ( Fig. 191 View Figure ).................................................................. gen. Koroglus Ünal, 2002 

- Male with equal left and right tegmina ( Fig. 192 View Figure ), if a weak inequality is seen then stridulatory file always with a basal ridge turning to the base of tegmen ( Figs. 194–195 View Figure ); the shape of left tegmen as in Fig. 194 View Figure . Male cerci with a strong depression near to inner tooth, distinctly flattened ( Fig. 184 View Figure ). Ovipositor long, more than 2.5 times pronotal length; slightly upcurved and tapering towards apex; distal part wider ( Fig. 189 View Figure )........................... gen. Anterastes Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882