Radicipes kopelatos Cordeiro, Castro & Perez, 2015
treatment provided by
|Radicipes kopelatos Cordeiro, Castro & Perez, 2015|
Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 D, 13
Radicipes kopelatos Cordeiro, CaStro & Perez, 2015: 94 –96, figS. 2H, 8–9. Radicipes sp. 1: CaStro et al., 2006: 170 (liSted).
Radicipes sp. 2: Castro et al., 2006: 170 (liSted)
Material Examined. Paratypes: Thal -522, 13°22’17”S, 38°36’56”W, 750 m (MNRJ 5968, three colonies); MNRJ 4361, same collection data as that of the holotype (55 colonies).
Description. Colonies fleXible, white or yellowish, with clockwise or counterclockwise upward spiraling trend, up to 60 cm long. AXis with iridescent aspect, 0.7–1.0 mm diameter, calcareous holdfast with projections up to 6.0 mm long. Coenenchyme easily detachable from aXis. Polyps 0.8–3.5 mm long ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D), disposed in a single row, 1.0–4.0 mm distant from each other, in a frequency of two to five polyps per centimeter, but usually four. Frequency of polyps usually decreasing in base to apeX direction, with up to five polyps per centimeter on the proXimal two-thirds of the colony, two to four polyps per centimeter on the distal third. Body wall with rods 0.16– 0.60 mm long, longitudinally arranged, homogeneous in diameter (0.03–0.08 mm), sometimes flattened, usually with flattened ends, sparse in some areas of the colony ( Fig.13View FIGURE 13 A). Coenenchymal scales (8-shaped) 0.15–0.25 mm long ( Fig. 13View FIGURE 13 B) and 0.03–0.07 mm in width. Sclerites on abpolypar face rare or absent eXcept on polyp bases. AdaXial and infrabasal portion of polyps frequently filled with scales similar to those of coenenchyme, slightly smaller than the spindles, 0.10–0.18 mm long. Rods from tentacles longitudinally striated and slightly constricted, sometimes twisted in the middle, 0.08–0.12 mm long and 0.02–0.04 mm in width ( Fig. 13View FIGURE 13 C). Pinnular sclerites represented by small scales, 0.1–0.14 mm long and 0.02–0.04 mm wide ( Fig. 13View FIGURE 13 D).
TABLE]. Distinguishing macro-structuraƚ characters of Radicipes species baseđ on examination of type specimens from museum coƚƚections anđ recent materiaƚ. Information baseđ on Kükenthaƚ (1919) is inđicateđ with an asterisk (*).
Maximum điameter of 1.0* 0.75 2.2 1.0 4.3 1.3 2.9
Poƚyp ƚength (mm) 3.0 ̅5.0* 0.7̅1.7 2.5̅5 0.8̅3.5 2.8̅5.1 1.2̅3.2 1.0̅3.0
Number of poƚyps/ cm 2̅3 (3)* Unknown 3̅5 (3) 2̅5 (4) 1̅4 (3) 2̅4 (3) 1̅5 (3)
Coenenchymaƚ scƚerites Present Rare/absent Rare/absent Present Present Rare/absent Present
Distribution of Entireƚy surrounđing Occasionaƚ; no Onƚy bođy waƚƚ Usuaƚƚy onƚy on Entireƚy surrounđing Occasionaƚ; no Entireƚy surrounđing
coenenchymaƚ scƚerites the axis, even between scƚerites between rođs between fuƚƚ- poƚypar face of axis, except between scƚerites between the axis, except poƚyps. fuƚl-sizeđ poƚyps sizeđ poƚyps coƚony; frequent most of the fuƚƚ-sizeđ fuƚƚ-sizeđ poƚyps between most of the bođy waƚƚ rođs poƚyps, where bođy fuƚƚ-sizeđ poƚyps, between poƚyps waƚƚ rođs cover the where bođy waƚƚ rođs space between them cover the space between them
Shape of the Scaƚes with ƚobate 8-shapeđ 8-shapeđ 8-shapeđ Longituđinaƚƚy Fƚatteneđ rođs Scaƚes ƚongituđinaƚƚy
coenenchymaƚ scƚerites margins curveđ scaƚes grooveđ, with at ƚeast (woođy appearance) one fƚatteneđ tip
Length of coenenchymaƚ 0.2̅0.6 (5̅6) - 0.15̅0.26 0.15̅0.25 0.15̅1.0 (3.75̅8.3) - 0.15̅0.68 (3̅5.7)
scƚerites (mm) (L:W) (3.75̅5.2) (3.6̅5)
Arrangement of bođy Scaƚes anđ fƚatteneđ Rođs ƚongituđinaƚƚy Rođs ƚongituđinaƚƚy Scatteređ (but in Rođs ƚongituđinaƚƚy Sparse or absent, Rođs ƚongituđinaƚƚy
scƚerites rođs ƚongituđinaƚƚy arrangeđ anđ arrangeđ a ƚongituđinaƚ đisposeđ. In sexuaƚƚy irreguƚarƚy arrangeđ, some with a arrangeđ. In sexuaƚƚy sparse infrabasaƚƚy trenđ) mature poƚyps, arrangeđ fƚat enđ anđ (rareƚy) mature poƚyps, presence of an compƚeteƚy fƚatteneđ presence of an infrabasaƚ buƚb (scaƚe-ƚike) infrabasaƚ buƚb formeđ formeđ by
by same scaƚes transverseƚy
transverseƚy or arrangeđ rođs
Length of 0.7̅1.2 (9.2̅10) 0.15̅0.53 (7.5̅8.8) 0.18̅0.7 (9̅11.7) 0.16̅0.60 (5.3̅ 0.6̅2.3 (14.4̅15) 0.15̅0.25 0.13̅0.86 (4.3̅8.6)
poƚypar (presence of 7.5) (8.3̅15)
scƚerites (mm) (L:W) infrabasaƚ 8-
mm ƚong anđ 0.04̅
0.05 mm in wiđth)
Tentacuƚar scƚerites Fƚatteneđ rođs Fƚatteneđ rođs Fƚatteneđ rođs Rođs Rođs Fƚatteneđ rođs Sƚightƚy or compƚeteƚy fƚatteneđ rođs
Length of tentacuƚar 0.15̅0.4 (7.9̅20) 0.15̅0.35 (7.5̅ 0.07̅0.18 (4.5̅7) 0.8̅0.12 (3̅4) 0.2̅0.46 (4.6̅10) 0.08̅0.15 (5̅8) 0.14̅0.3 (5̅7)
scƚerites (mm) (L:W) 11.7)
Distribution anđ Somaƚia to South Northwestern anđ Western anđ miđ- Southern Braziƚ, Eastern Pacific Hawaii, 241̅ Guƚf of Aƚaska anđ
bathymetric range Africa, 463̅ 1644 m northeastern Atƚantic (northern 592̅ 750 m ( Japan) to Inđo-? 1462 m Aƚeutian Isƚanđs, Atƚantic, 439̅1737 hemisphere), 500̅ Pacific ( Inđonesia), 1207̅ 3580 m m 3259 m 629̅ 1301 m
Comparisons. This species is morphologically close to R. challengeri (Table 1), with similar sclerite sizes. However, R. kopelatos has body wall rods proportionally thicker than those in R. challengeri , with a more homogeneous diameter in these sclerites. The latter also has usually smaller polyps.
Remarks. There are no new records for this species since its recent discovery in southern Brazil ( Cordeiro et al., 2015). Besides the west coast of the African continent, the Brazilian slope is one of the most poorly known areas in the Atlantic. Thus, it is essential to collect new material in those areas and invest in integrative taXonomic studies that could help to better understand the relationship between eastern and western populations of the Atlantic Ocean ( R. kopelatos , R. challengeri and R. gracilis ).
Distribution. Western Atlantic, Southeastern Brazil, 592– 750 m.
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