Stigmella inca Diškus & Stonis,

Stonis, Jonas R., Diškus, Arūnas, Remeikis, Andrius, Karsholt, Ole & Torres, Nixon Cumbicus, 2017, Illustrated review of the leaf-mining Nepticulidae of the central Andes (Peru and Bolivia), Zootaxa 4257 (1), pp. 1-70: 39-41

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.556874

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Stigmella inca Diškus & Stonis

sp. nov.

31. Stigmella inca Diškus & Stonis  , sp. nov.

( Figs 2View FIGURES 1 – 8, 9View FIGURES 9 – 11, 12, 15View FIGURES 12 – 18, 35View FIGURE 35, 65–71View FIGURES 65 – 71, 105View FIGURES 104 – 107)

Type material. Holotype: ♂, PERU: Huamanga Province , 9 km East of Ayacucho (Muyurina), 13°06'52˝S, 74°11'47˝W, elevation 2510 m, mining larva on Sida  sp. 29.x.2008, ex pupa xi.2008, field card no. 4956, A. Diškus, genitalia slide no. AD 755♂ ( ZMUC)  . Paratypes: 2 ♂, 1 ♀, same label data as holotype, genitalia slides nos AD699♂, AD725♂, AD762♀ (ZMUC); 7 ♂, 11 ♀, ECUADOR, Loja Province, Vilcabamba , 4°17'45˝S, 79°12'59˝W 1940 m, larvae on Sida  sp. 23.i.2017, A. Diškus ( ZMUC)  .

Diagnosis. Belongs to the S. nivea  species group. The combination of differentiated band of cornuti into clusters of size-wise different spines, short arms of transtilla, and simple shaped but broad plate of gnathos distinguishes S. inca  sp. nov. from all members of the S. nivea  group, including the most similar species ( S. nivea  and S. eiffeli  ). Externally, S. inca  sp. nov. may be easily distinguished from the possibly most closely related S. nivea  by the distinctly speckled forewing and absence of grey-white scales on forewing apex.

Male ( Fig. 35View FIGURE 35). Forewing length 2.0– 2.8 mm; wingspan 4.4–6.2 mm. Head: palpi cream to yellowish cream; frontal tuft pale beige or comprises of yellowish cream, blackish grey and brown-grey piliform scales; collar cream to yellowish cream, divided distally; scape yellowish cream; antenna longer than half the length of forewing; flagellum with 33–34 segments, dark grey-brown on upper side, grey-cream on underside. Thorax, tegula and forewing yellowish cream to pale grey, densely speckled with brown and black-brown scales; these dark scales with some or without purple iridescence; fringe cream to grey cream apically, pale grey on tornus; underside of forewing dark grey-brown, without spots. Hindwing grey to pale grey on upper side and underside, without spots or androconia; its fringe grey. Legs dark grey-brown on upper side, brownish cream on underside. Abdomen browngrey to grey on upper side, cream, glossy on underside; genital plates cream; anal tufts pale brown to grey, very distinctive and long (as long as the width abdominal apex).

Female ( Fig. 35View FIGURE 35). Forewing length about 2.8 mm; wingspan about 6.2 mm. Flagellum with 32 segments. Abdomen dark grey on upper side, yellowish cream on underside; ovipositor very slender; anal tufts pale grey, very distinctive and long (almost as long as the length of ovipositor).

Male genitalia ( Figs 65–71View FIGURES 65 – 71). Capsule significantly longer (285–290 µm) than wide (165 µm). Uncus bilobed. Gnathos with one large caudal process and simple shaped plate. Valva 185–190 µm long, 40–45 µm wide, with two slender and sharp apical processes; transtilla with very short arms and without sublateral processes. Juxta membranous. Vinculum with small pointed lateral lobes, and short ventral plate. Phallus ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 65 – 71) 325–350 µm long, 80–95 µm wide; vesica with few clusters of size-wise different cornuti gathered into a large band.

Female genitalia ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 104 – 107). Total length 915 µm. Anterior and posterior apophyses almost equal in lenght; anterior apophyses blunt distally; posterior apophyses very slender. Vestibulum narrow, without sclerites. Corpus bursae with long folded distal part and large, 290 µm long, 310 µm wide basal part; pectinations comb-like; signa absent. Accessory sac very large, heavily folded; ductus spermathecae with 0.5 convolution. Abdominal apex tapered into long and slender ovipositor.

Bionomics ( Figs 126–130View FIGURES 126 – 130). Larva mines in leaves of Sida  L. ( Malvaceae  : Malvoideae  ) ( Fig. 126View FIGURES 126 – 130). Larva pale to greenish yellow, with indistinctive intestine and brown head; mines in October. Leaf-mine ( Figs 127–130View FIGURES 126 – 130) starts as very slender sinuous gallery with a wide, sometimes interrupted central line of black frass; then gallery abruptly widens to a blotch with irregularly scattered brown-black or green-black frass. Larval exit slit on upper side of the leaf. Cocoon brownish white; length 2.6–3.0 mm, maximum width 1.2–1.4 mm.

Distribution ( Figs 9View FIGURES 9 – 11, 15View FIGURES 12 – 18). This species occurs in the Andes (southern Ecuador and Peru: Huamanga Departamento) at altitudes about 1940–2500 m ( Figs 12, 15View FIGURES 12 – 18).

Etymology. This species is named after the Inca  people, the Andean civilization.


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen