Antispila treitschkiella (Fischer von Roeslerstamm ) Herrich-Schaeffer

Nieukerken, Erik J. van, Lees, David C., Doorenweerd, Camiel, Koster, Sjaak (J. C.), Bryner, Rudolf, Schreurs, Arnold, Timmermans, Martijn J. T. N. & Sattler, Klaus, 2018, Two European Cornus L. feeding leafmining moths, Antispila petryi Martini, 1899, sp. rev. and A. treitschkiella (Fischer von Roeslerstamm, 1843) (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae): an unjustified synonymy and overlooked range expansion, Nota Lepidopterologica 41 (1), pp. 39-86 : 51-60

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Antispila treitschkiella (Fischer von Roeslerstamm ) Herrich-Schaeffer


Antispila treitschkiella (Fischer von Roeslerstamm) Herrich-Schaeffer Figs 3 View Figures 1–6 , 4 View Figures 1–6 , 8 View Figures 7–8 , 9 View Figures 9–10 , 16-20 View Figures 16–20 , 24-26 View Figures 21–26 , 28 View Figures 27–32 , 30 View Figures 27–32 , 32 View Figures 27–32 , 36-38 View Figures 33–38 , 41 View Figures 39–42 , 42 View Figures 39–42 , 46-48 View Figures 43–48 , 53 View Figures 49–54 , 54 View Figures 49–54 , 56 View Figures 55–56

Elachista treitschkiella Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843 [March]: 297, pl. 100: 4. Syntypes, number and sex unspecified: Austria: Wien [Vienna], v-vi, leg. Mann, flying around Cornus mascula . One potential syntype in NHMUK without date or hostplant information [examined by DCL; not dissected].

Oecophora treitschkiella Duponchel, [1843, 4 May]: 319, pl. 77:1. Syntypes, [Austria: Vienna, leg. Mann], received from Pareyss (independent new description) (Paris).

Antispila stachjanella ; Dziurzyński 1948: 3. Syntypes: unspecified number, both sexes: Poland, Kraków, 1944-1946, 1948, ex mines in Cornus mas ; NHMUK [syntypes examined by DCL and by L. Przybyłowicz] Synonymised by Razowski 1978: 96.

Antispila treitschkiella ; Herrich-Schäffer 1855: 315 (recombination, Vienna); Rebel 1911: 420 (Romania); Toll 1938: 211 (Podolia, now Ukraine); Jäckh 1942: 239 (Germany, Loreley); Hering 1957: 325 (leafmine keys); Klimesch 1961: 725 (Alps); Lhomme 1963: 1157 (France, partim); Hering 1968: 120 (letter to Klimesch of 1952); Kuznetsov 1978: 73 (keys); Razowski 1978: 96 (Poland, partim); Klimesch 1990: 77 (Austria, partim); Buszko and Beshkov 2004: 726 (Bulgaria); Patočka and Kulfan 2009: 43, Fig. 52 View Figures 49–54 (Slovakia, ecology); Péré et al. 2010: 1014 (abundance, Bulgaria).

Antispila treitschkeella [unjustified emendation]; [ Stainton 1851: 9 (misidentification for Antispila petryi )]; Spuler and Meess 1910: 471; Hering 1932: 18 (key); Wörz 1958: 271 (Germany, Württemberg); Gozmány 1965: 47 (Hungary, key); Szőcs 1973: 452 (Hungary); Szőcs 1977: 121 (leafmine key); Szőcs 1981: 210 (Hungary: Budapest); Szabó 1982: 159 (ecology); Szabóky 1982: 8 (Hungary); Tóth et al. 1992: 343 (sex attractants); De Prins 2007: 4 (Belgium).

Antispila treitschkella [misspelling]; Borkowski 2003: 114 (Polish Sudeten).

Antispila stachjanella ; Hering 1957: 325 (leafmine); Gozmány 1965: 47 (key); Berestynska-Wilczek 1966a: 433 (larval habits); Berestynska-Wilczek 1966b: 455 (nervous system); Maček 1974a: 56 (Slovenia); Maček 1974b: 94 (Slovenia).

Material examined.

Total 34♂, 33♀, 4 sex unknown: Albania (1 ♀), Austria (2♂, 2♀, 2 sex unknown), Bulgaria (larvae, mines), Czech Republic (6♂, 3♀, leafmines), France (leafmines), Germany (1♂, 1♀, leafmines), The Netherlands (16♂, 16♀, 2 sex unknown, larvae, leafmines), Poland (4♂, 2♀), Switzerland (5♂, 7♀, larvae, leafmines), United Kingdom (1♀, larvae, leafmines). Details in Suppl. material 1.

Differential diagnosis.

See A. petryi . Larva see A. petryi , characteristic absence of black dot on mesothorax (second visible segment), making a maximum of eight dots, abdominal segment 8 with 2-3 rows comprising many black warts of different sizes.


Male (Fig. 3 View Figures 1–6 ). Head face and vertex covered with appressed shiny grey scales. Antenna fuscous, ringed, particularly near tip, and better visible on underside. Thorax dark fuscous, concolorous with forewings. Legs grey, tarsi ringed white at tip, spurs and undersides paler. Forewing dark fuscous with a slight purple shine, with silver-golden patterning; an outwardly oblique fascia at ca 1/3, hardly or not narrowing in middle, dorsal edge slightly wider than costal; dorsal spot slightly beyond middle of posterior margin, triangular, reaching hardly to middle of wing, a more trapezoid or rectangular costal spot at 2/3, slightly longer than wide; fringe line distinct. Terminal fringe paler. Hindwing rather dark grey. Underside of wings fuscous, close to base a yellow to orange tuft of androconial scales. Abdomen lead-coloured, including vestiture on external genitalia.

Female (Fig. 4 View Figures 1–6 ). Similar to male, androconial scales absent. Abdomen with slightly protruding ovipositor.

Measurements, male: forewing length 2.7-3.3 mm (2.9 ± 0.2, 13), wingspan 5.7-7.0 mm, 19-20 antennal segments (n=8); female: forewing length 2.3-3.0 mm (2.7 ± 0.2, 7), wingspan 5.7-7.0 mm, 19-20 antennal segments (n=3). For costal spot see Table 2 View Table 2 .

Male genitalia (Figs 16-20 View Figures 16–20 , 28 View Figures 27–32 , 30 View Figures 27–32 ). Uncus with two distinct setose lateral lobes and a more prominent central lobe that reaches beyond a line between the lateral lobes; distinctly indented between lobes. Vinculum 335-355 μm long, anteriorly almost truncate. Valva length 235-270 μm, basally broad, more or less triangular, narrowing towards digitate tip; pecten on pedicel, with 9-14 comb teeth (Fig. 20 View Figures 16–20 ); anellus absent; transtilla platelike, in the middle emarginated anteriorly, sublateral processes long, thin and curved, hardly or not widened at tips. Juxta anteriorly spade-shaped, about half as long as phallus. Phallus 400-415 μm long, at phallotrema with group of larger pointed spines; most spines belonging to one type.

Female genitalia (Figs 24-26 View Figures 21–26 , 32 View Figures 27–32 ). Anterior apophyses 1030-1080 μm, posterior apophyses 1125-1160 μm (n=3). Oviscapt with two large lateral cusps and two smaller ones more centrally, tip distinctly indented. Sternum 8 hardly indented in middle. Internal genitalia not examined in detail, no sclerotisations visible.

Larva (Figs 36-38 View Figures 33–38 , 41 View Figures 39–42 , 42 View Figures 39–42 ). Whitish translucent, head capsule brown, prothorax with large black shining tergum and sternum. In instar IV, the final feeding instar, mesothorax white, without spot; metathorax and abdominal segments 1 to 7 each with a central black spot, outline more distinct than in A. petryi , more or less trapezoid to almost square, spots becoming smaller from segment 5 to 7, sometimes spots lacking on segments 6 and 7 and very small on metathorax (e.g. Ellis 2017). Abdominal segment 8 dorsally with a swollen hump, at the anal end lined with 2-3 rows of more than 20 black warts of different sizes. Anal segment black. More details on earlier instars are given by Dziurzyński (1948). The fifth instar is a non-feeding prepupal instar, that is reached after one moult inside the case.


Hostplants Cornus mas . Records on C. sanguinea probably all refer to A. petryi . Szabó (1982) remarked on a large population in a Hungarian oak forest:

The larvae are monophagous and do not occur on the shrubs of Cornus sanguinea L. which species is also very frequent in the forest examined.

There are some records on the planted species C. sericea or C. alba , but the accuracy of these is questionable. May be occasionally also on C. officinalis (see below under Living collections).

Leafmines (Figs 46-48 View Figures 43–48 , 56 View Figures 55–56 ). The egg is inserted on the leaf underside, frequently on leaf margin (82% of 135 mines), less often away from the margin; in pest densities, however, more mines appear away from the margin. The oviposition site is recognisable as a reddish dot (the "vesicula incubatoria" of Dziurzyński). The mine starts with a narrow gallery, almost straight along the leaf margin when the egg was laid there, or rather contorted in other cases; the frass line is usually rather narrow. Later mine expanding into a large full depth blotch, in many cases absorbing the earlier gallery completely (in half of the marginal mines); frass often in a clump near the origin of the mine and also scattered around. The larva prepares an oval cut-out of ca 4.5-5.5 mm length, usually at the other edge of the mine, lined with silk, and drops to the ground in this case. The larvae feed with ventral side up, but they start turning around in the blotch when preparing the cut-out. The gallery part of the mine is prepared during the first two instars, the blotch during instar 3 and 4.

Life history. Bivoltine. Larvae of the first generation are found from June to July, a second generation from August until early November; it is possible that generations may overlap. Adults emerge in captivity from April to June (the few earlier records are almost certainly forced breedings), and again from July to late August; the few records of field caught adults agree with this pattern. The adults may swarm around the host during the day, as already was mentioned by Fischer von Röslerstamm (1843). A recent observation of ca. 100 swarming adults on C. mas in the Netherlands can be seen here:


Widespread in central and southern Europe, in the natural range of C. mas , and north and west of it occurring on the frequently planted trees. Positively recorded on basis of adult or larval characters, or hostplant: England, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Czech republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Slovenia, Bulgaria, and Ukraine. We record it here from Albania, one specimen on BOLD, GRPAL724-11, agreeing in DNA barcode (Table 1 View Table 1 ), and from Serbia and Greece on the basis of mines in herbarium specimens (see below). For Greece, there was only a previous record of A. treitschkiella by Staudinger for which the identity cannot be confirmed ( Gozmány 2012). Antispila treitschkiella has recently been expanding northwards and westwards with the widely planted trees in parks and gardens (see below). Not yet recorded from the Iberian Peninsula. Many records require verification because of confusion with A. petryi .

The natural distribution of C. mas is much more restricted than that of C. sanguinea , its NW border being from SE Belgium to NW France, away from the coast, covering large parts of France, whereas it is scarce in isolated regions in Germany, West and South Switzerland, Austria north and east of the Alps, large parts of Italy and the whole of Southeast Europe south of southern and western Czechia, Slovakia, and southern parts of the Ukraine; also coastal areas of Turkey, Caucasus region and Black Sea coast of Russia and Crimea, just reaching Azerbaijan and North Iran. Cornus mas is absent from the Mediterranean islands and the Iberian Peninsula, except for a very small area in the Catalonian Pyrenees (Da Ronch et al. 2016).


The original description by Fischer von Röslerstamm (1843) of Elachista treitschkiella is based on an unspecified number of specimens, collected by the renowned Austrian collector J. Mann in the vicinity of Vienna, where the adults were observed flying in the afternoon and particularly swarming around sunset about bushes of “Kornelkirschensträucher ( Cornus mascula )", i.e. the European cornel or C. mas . The hostplant and the detailed description leave little doubt as to the identity of this moth, also in the light of our DNA barcode findings. Fischer von Röslerstamm named this species after Friedrich Treitschke, who died a year earlier on, and he added a long obituary in a footnote. Duponchel [1843] described the species independently again, as Oecophora treitschkiella , also based on material collected by Mann, most likely in Vienna. De Joannis (1915) determined on the basis of publication dates that Fischer’s name has priority (see also Fletcher and Griffin 1943). Because his name is Treitschke, Stainton (1851) emended the species name as Cornus treitschkeella (used as misidentification for A. petryi ). He corrected this later ( Stainton 1854), but Meess (in Spuler and Meess (1910) introduced this spelling again, which was followed by several authors, especially in Hungary, but the name is an unjustified emendation and thus not valid.

Fischer von Röslerstamm’s Microlepidoptera were acquired in 1843 by Herrich-Schäffer ( Horn et al. 1990: 120, 168), whose collection was split up in various ways (e.g. via Staudinger, Hofmann) so that it is now extremely difficult if not impossible to trace his original specimens. In Vienna there are no likely syntypes of A. treitschkiella (Sabine Gaal-Haszler, pers. comm.). There may be some FR specimens (?of Antispila ) in the collections of contemporaries such as Zeller (now in NHMUK). A single male specimen in NHMUK (NHMUK010305384) labelled "Treitschkiella Mann. Wien" is a potential male syntype of Elachista treitschkiella , although unfortunately it bears no collection date. Its correspondence with the C. mas feeding Antispila needs to be established prior to potential lectotypification.

Antispila stachjanella was described from an unspecified number of specimens of both sexes, bred by Dziurzyński in 1944-1947 [1948] from larvae mining the leaves of C. mas in Kraków. In the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków are about 150 (undissected) specimens of A. stachjanella from Dziurzyń ski’s rearings (1944-1948), none of which is clearly labelled as any kind of type, although at least some of them constitute a potential syntypic series (L. Przybyłowicz, pers. comm.). In NHMUK there are four specimens under A. stachjanella , two of which on loan, and two of which are labelled “COTYPUS”, only one of which (NHMUK010305235) is apparently in the correct date range (the other NHMUK010305235, is labelled 1949). The original description of A. stachjanella is a short diagnosis in Latin amidst a long Polish text and a rather long English summary of six pages. The Latin text does not give information on types, but there is a drawing embedded on page 5, showing a male and a wing of a female collected in Kraków Botanical Garden which emerged ex larva (Dziurzyński 1948: 5). In Krakow there are 11 corresponding specimens which are undissected, two males and nine females (L. Przybyłowicz, pers. comm.), one of which would potentially be suitable for lectotype designation. The whereabouts of specimens giving rise to illustrations of genitalia are unknown. Both in the collections in Leiden and London there are four specimens each of A. treitschkiella from Kraków, collected by S. Błeszyński between 1946 and 1948. In Kraków there are no specimens currently labelled A. petryi and 36 specimens under A. treitschkiella 14 of which collected by S. Błeszyński up until 1948. Błeszyński is acknowledged by Dziurzyński (1948: 8, footnote) for his assistance. These 14 specimens could also be syntypes of A. stachjanella .

It is somewhat mysterious why Dziurzyński needed to introduce A. stachjanella in such a detailed study, while he only briefly addressed the separation from A. treitschkiella . A single specimen identified by Hering and collected by Toll in Podolia was his only comparative material, and he based the different identities on the fact that the antennae of his species were ringed, whereas the specimen of A. treitschkiella he studied did not have rings. He also cited Rebel (1891), who briefly referred to this character, but also mentioned that other authors did not cite this ( Dziurzyński 1948: 6). In fact the ringing is only apparent on the upper side and may be obsolete in some specimens.

Antispila treitschkiella has been - under the name A. stachjanella - the subject, of two very detailed studies respectively on larval behaviour and the central nervous system ( Berestynska-Wilczek 1966a, 1966b).














Antispila treitschkiella (Fischer von Roeslerstamm ) Herrich-Schaeffer

Nieukerken, Erik J. van, Lees, David C., Doorenweerd, Camiel, Koster, Sjaak (J. C.), Bryner, Rudolf, Schreurs, Arnold, Timmermans, Martijn J. T. N. & Sattler, Klaus 2018

Elachista treitschkiella

Nieukerken & Lees & Doorenweerd & Koster & Bryner & Schreurs & Timmermans & Sattler 2018

Antispila petryi

Nieukerken & Lees & Doorenweerd & Koster & Bryner & Schreurs & Timmermans & Sattler 2018