Aphonopelma parvum Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 202-207

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/36D039B8-1D65-4312-A5CD-0A96F0C77061

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:36D039B8-1D65-4312-A5CD-0A96F0C77061

treatment provided by

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scientific name

Aphonopelma parvum Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond
status

sp. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma parvum Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond  sp. n. Figures 112, 113, 114, 115, 116

Types.

Male holotype (APH_1264) collected along CR-C078, Hidalgo Co., New Mexico, 32.0679 -108.94608 2, elev. 4296ft., 6.xii.2010, coll. June Olberding; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype female (APH_1622) from 0.2 miles N Hwy-533 (Portal Rd) on Stateline Rd., Hidalgo Co., New Mexico, 31.874121 -109.047377 1, elev. 4107ft., 14.xi.2012, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype male (APH_1106) from 0.11 miles N Portal Rd (Hwy 533) on State Line Rd, Hidalgo Co., New Mexico, 31.87232 -109.04787 2, elev. 4127ft., 28.xi.2009, coll. June Olberding; deposited in AMNH. Paratype female (APH_1600) from Tanque Rd., Graham Co., Arizona, 32.606785 -109.680286 1, elev. 4158ft., 9.xi.2012, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson; deposited in AMNH.

Etymology.

The specific epithet is a neuter adjective for "very small" or "very little" and is in reference to the diminutive size of this new tarantula species.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma parvum  (Fig. 112) is a member of the paloma  species group and can be distinguished by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA identifies Aphonopelma parvum  as a strongly supported monophyletic lineage (Figs 7-8) that is a sister lineage to Aphonopelma mareki  sp. n., Aphonopelma saguaro  sp. n., and Aphonopelma superstitionense  sp. n. Aphonopelma parvum  can easily be differentiated from syntopic populations of Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  by their much smaller size, and can be differentiated from other members of the paloma  species group by locality. Importantly, Aphonopelma parvum  males do not possess a swollen femur III as is seen in Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma saguaro  , Aphonopelma superstitionense  , and some specimens of Aphonopelma mareki  . The most significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma parvum  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are Cl and the extent of scopulation on metatarsi III and IV. Male Aphonopelma parvum  can be distinguished by possessing a smaller Cl/PTw (≤4.22; 3.79-4.22) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≥5.06; 5.06-6.05), Aphonopelma gabeli  (≥5.93; 5.93-6.56), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≥4.87; 4.87-6.16), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≥4.61; 4.61-5.58); a larger L3 scopulation extent (60%-65%) than Aphonopelma mareki  (50%-56%); and a larger L4 scopulation extent (36%-44%) than Aphonopelma paloma  (5%-24%), Aphonopelma saguaro  (14%-26%), and Aphonopelma superstitionense  (14%-20%). The most significant measurements that distinguish female Aphonopelma parvum  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are F3 and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma parvum  can be distinguished by possessing a smaller F3/A4 (≤1.28; 1.21-1.28) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≥1.44; 1.44-1.80), Aphonopelma gabeli  (≥1.37; 1.37-1.65), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≥1.36; 1.36-1.66), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≥1.37; 1.37-1.63); and a larger L4 scopulation extent (33%-42%) than Aphonopelma chiricahua  sp. n. (28% ± (only 1 specimen)), Aphonopelma mareki  (21%-27%), Aphonopelma paloma  (0-25%), Aphonopelma saguaro  (21% ± (only 1 specimen)), and Aphonopelma superstitionense  (26% ± (only 1 specimen)).

Description of male holotype

(APH_1264; Fig. 113). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected wandering and preserved in 80% ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right legs III & IV removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Faded black/brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 6.544 mm long, 6.019 mm wide; densely clothed with faded pubescence, appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface, hirsute appearance; foveal groove medium deep and slightly recurved; pars cephalica region rises very gradually from foveal groove on a straight plane towards the ocular area; AER slightly procurved, PER recurved; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus extends forward on a slight curve; LBl 0.829, LBw 0.989; sternum hirsute, clothed with faded, densely packed, short setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black/brown pubescence with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972) - larger than other miniature species. Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in faded pubescence. Metatarsus I curved. F1 7.966; F1w 1.529; P1 2.427; T1 6.919; M1 4.861; A1 4.182; F3 6.228; F3w 1.649; P3 2.157; T3 4.869; M3 5.41; A3 4.143; F4 7.436; F4w 1.461; P4 2.297; T4 6.65; M4 6.86; A4 4.963; femur III is normal - not noticeably swollen or wider than other legs. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 61.4%; leg IV (SC4) = 40.4%. Three ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; six ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV; one prolateral and two ventral spinose setae on tibia I; one megaspine present on the retrolateral tibia, at the apex of the mating clasper; one megaspine on the apex on the retrolateral branch of the tibial apophyses. Coxa I: Prolateral surface covered by fine, hair-like setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta at the apical, prolateral femur and three prolateral spinose setae on the palpal tibia; PTl 4.618, PTw 1.664. Palpal bulb is very short and stout. When extended, embolus tapers with a curve to the retrolateral side; embolus slender, no keels; distinct dorsal and ventral transition from bulb to embolus.

Variation (7).Cl 5.702-7.057 (6.333 ± 0.19), Cw 5.141-6.376 (5.836 ± 0.2), LBl 0.764-0.889 (0.829 ± 0.02), LBw 0.888-0.989 (0.958 ± 0.01), F1 6.212-7.966 (7.063 ± 0.25), F1w 1.312-1.704 (1.54 ± 0.05), P1 1.967-2.597 (2.35 ± 0.09), T1 5.269-6.919 (6.012 ± 0.21), M1 3.837-4.863 (4.483 ± 0.16), A1 3.282-4.182 (3.593 ± 0.13), L1 length 20.633-26.355 (23.501 ± 0.76), F3 4.964-6.228 (5.631 ± 0.2), F3w 1.305-1.865 (1.637 ± 0.08), P3 1.806-2.173 (2.025 ± 0.05), T3 3.791-4.869 (4.318 ± 0.14), M3 4.408-5.41 (4.817 ± 0.14), A3 3.141-4.143 (3.758 ± 0.13), L3 length 18.197-22.807 (20.548 ± 0.63), F4 6.055-7.436 (6.741 ± 0.2), F4w 1.226-1.634 (1.453 ± 0.06), P4 2.085-2.476 (2.214 ± 0.05), T4 5.104-6.65 (5.772 ± 0.2), M4 5.78-6.86 (6.336 ± 0.18), A4 3.915-4.963 (4.374 ± 0.13), L4 length 23.105-28.206 (25.438 ± 0.71), PTl 3.619-4.618 (4.139 ± 0.13), PTw 1.377-1.673 (1.567 ± 0.05), SC3 ratio 0.601-0.649 (0.63 ± 0.01), SC4 ratio 0.368-0.442 (0.399 ± 0.01), Coxa I setae = very thin tapered, F3 condition = normal.

Description of female paratype

(APH_1622; Figs 114-115). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right legs III & IV removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Faded black/brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 7.147 mm long, 6.51 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with short faded black/brown pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in slightly longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and slightly procurved; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER very slightly procurved - mostly straight, PER slightly recurved; chelicerae robust, clypeus extends on a slight curve; LBl 1.136, LBw 1.271; sternum hirsute, clothed with short faded setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short faded black setae with longer, lighter setae (generally red or orange in situ) focused near the urticating patch; dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972) - larger than other miniature species. Spermathecae: Paired and separate, with capitate bulbs, narrow necks widening towards the bases; not fused. Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in short faded black/brown pubescence; F1 6.016; F1w 1.935; P1 2.504; T1 4.616; M1 2.927; A1 3.144; F3 4.951; F3w 1.674; P3 2.168; T3 3.466; M3 3.703; A3 3.027; F4 6.277; F4w 1.733; P4 2.396; T4 5.001; M4 4.984; A4 4.017. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 64.2%; leg IV (SC4) = 40.4%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; six ventral spinose setae and one retrolateral spinose seta on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface covered by very thin tapered and fine, hair-like setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur, four prolateral (two at the apical, prolateral border with the tarsus) spinose setae and one ventral spinose seta on the tibia.

Variation (5).Cl 6.181-7.326 (6.974 ± 0.21), Cw 5.827-6.86 (6.28 ± 0.2), LBl 0.964-1.136 (1.074 ± 0.03), LBw 1.072-1.295 (1.206 ± 0.04), F1 5.344-6.154 (5.849 ± 0.14), F1w 1.777-2.043 (1.896 ± 0.05), P1 2.291-2.693 (2.453 ± 0.07), T1 4.492-5.026 (4.721 ± 0.1), M1 2.927-3.487 (3.099 ± 0.1), A1 2.777-3.283 (3.027 ± 0.09), L1 length 18.064-20.322 (19.149 ± 0.4), F3 4.621-5.077 (4.851 ± 0.1), F3w 1.515-1.742 (1.646 ± 0.04), P3 2.127-2.267 (2.168 ± 0.03), T3 3.192-3.467 (3.369 ± 0.05), M3 3.221-3.703 (3.44 ± 0.09), A3 3.027-3.573 (3.227 ± 0.1), L3 length 16.258-17.782 (17.056 ± 0.29), F4 5.735-6.537 (6.147 ± 0.15), F4w 1.598-1.764 (1.696 ± 0.03), P4 2.255-2.544 (2.383 ± 0.05), T4 4.539-5.438 (4.98 ± 0.16), M4 4.592-5.153 (4.942 ± 0.1), A4 3.603-4.035 (3.886 ± 0.08), L4 length 21.215-23.343 (22.339 ± 0.46), SC3 ratio 0.629-0.672 (0.651 ± 0.01), SC4 ratio 0.338-0.422 (0.397 ± 0.02), Coxa I setae = very thin tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 115.

Material examined.

United States: Arizona: Cochise: 0.8 miles SE Hwy-191 on connecting road, 32.384654 -109.654269 1, 4231ft., [APH_1619, 14/11/2012, 1 ♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Cave Creek, 1 mile south of Ranger Station, 31.888981 -109.16895 4, 5067ft., [AUMS_2247, 28/11/1990, 1♂, Barney Tomberlin, AUMNH]; on Portal Rd going towards Cave Creek Canyon, 31.91472 -109.146262 1, 4763ft., [APH_3187, 13/11/2013, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; on Portal Rd, just past the state line, 31.87769 -109.060587 1, 4195ft., [APH_3186, 13/11/2013, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Portal, 31.913703 -109.14145 5, 4770ft., [APH_2209, 20/11/1963, 1♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; [APH_2210, 1/12/1964, 1♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; San Simon, E of Kennedy Rd, 32.296735 -109.18536 1, 3703ft., [APH_1620, 14/11/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Graham: 0.25 miles E Hwy-191 on Tanque Rd, 32.605235 -109.682418 1, 3873ft., [APH_1350, 5/8/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; 0.4 miles E Hwy-191 on Tanque Rd, 32.606204 -109.681524 1, 3891ft., [APH_1183, 25/7/2010, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; off Tanque Rd, off Hwy 191 to Safford, near Swift Trail Junction, 32.60887 -109.678738 1, 3833ft., [APH_3178-3180, 13/11/2013, 2♀, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Tanque Rd, 32.606785 -109.680286 1, 4158ft., [APH_1599-1601, 9/11/2012, 3♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH & AMNH]; [APH_1623, 14/11/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Greenlee: 0.4 miles N Hwy-75 on Goat Camp Rd, 32.755403 -109.110492 1, 3726ft., [APH_1354, 5/8/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; New Mexico: Hidalgo: 0.11 miles N Portal Rd (Hwy-533) on State Line Rd, 31.87232 -109.04787 2, 4127ft., [APH_1106, 28/11/2009, 1♂, June Olberding, AMNH]; [APH_1109, 28/11/2009, 1♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.18 miles N Portal Rd (Hwy-533) on State Line Rd, 31.87333 -109.04758 2, 4129ft., [APH_1105, 28/11/2009, 1 juv, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.19 miles N Portal Rd (Hwy-533) on State Line Rd, 31.87347 -109.04763 2, 4130ft., [APH_1111, 28/11/2009, 1 juv, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.2 miles N Hwy-533 (Portal Rd) on Stateline Rd, 31.874121 -109.047377 1, 4107ft., [APH_1596-1598, 8/11/2012, 3♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_1621-1622, 14/11/2012, 1♂, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 0.2 miles NW Hwy-80 on CR-C078, 32.1046 -108.96062 2, 4493ft., [APH_1260-1261, 4/12/2010, 2♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; [APH_1265-1266, 4/12/2010, 2♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.20 miles N Portal Rd (Hwy-533) on State Line Rd, 31.8737 -109.04763 2, 4130ft., [APH_1108, 28/11/2009, 1♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.21 miles N Portal Rd (Hwy-533) on State Line Rd, 31.8738 -109.04768 2, 4130ft., [APH_1110, 28/11/2009, 1♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.22 miles N Portal Rd (Hwy-533) on State Line Rd, 31.87392 -109.04793 2, 4131ft., [APH_1104, 28/11/2009, 1♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; [APH_1107, 28/11/2009, 1 juv, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.5 miles W Hwy-80 on road near Rusty’s RV Ranch, 31.92755 -109.0443 2, 4170ft., [APH_1259, 5/12/2010, 1♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; [APH_1262-1263, 5/12/2010, 2♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; [APH_1267, 5/12/2010, 1♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; along CR-C078, 32.0679 -108.94608 2, 4296ft., [APH_1264, 6/12/2010, 1♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; [APH_1268-1269, 6 /12/2010, 2♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; Animas, 31.949 -108.8073 2, 4400ft., [APH_0794, 14/10/2009, 1♀, Clyde Mahan, AUMNH]; off State Line Rd, off Portal Rd, 31.873052 -109.048122 1, 4134ft., [APH_3183-3185, 13/11/2013, 1♂, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; S on Hwy 80, S of Granite Gap, 32.054494 -109.009828 1, 4038ft., [APH_3181-3182, 13/11/2013, 2♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma parvum  can be found inhabiting the Chihuahuan Desert and Madrean Archipelago Level III Ecoregions of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (Figs 1F & 116). Due to its distribution that is in close proximity to the Cochise Filter Barrier (an important biogeographic region where biota from different ecoregions converge), Aphonopelma parvum  is syntopic with several other tarantula species including Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . The breeding season, when mature males abandon their burrows in search of females, is limited to late fall and early winter ( November–December). Excavated soil near burrow entrances is generally haphazardly scattered and not arranged into a distinct crescent-shaped mound or turret.

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma parvum  is very common throughout their distribution but can be difficult to find due to the cryptic nature of their burrows and narrow window of activity during the year. This species is likely secure.

Remarks.

Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma parvum  possess a larger F1/M3 (≥1.40; 1.40-1.53) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤1.31; 1.13-1.31), Aphonopelma gabeli  (≤1.24; 1.18-1.24), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤1.40; 1.20-1.40), Aphonopelma paloma  (≤1.38; 1.24-1.38), Aphonopelma saguaro  (≤1.37; 1.22-1.37), and Aphonopelma superstitionense  (≤1.33; 1.22-1.33). Other important ratios that distinguish Aphonopelma parvum  females: Aphonopelma parvum  possess a larger F3L/W (≥2.85; 2.85-3.05) than Aphonopelma saguaro  (2.41 ± (only 1 specimen)); a smaller P1/F3 (≤0.54; 0.47-0.54) than Aphonopelma chiricahua  (0.69 ± (only 1 specimen)) and Aphonopelma superstitionense  (0.58 ± (only 1 specimen)); a smaller Cl/A4 (≤1.91; 1.63-1.91) than Aphonopelma paloma  (≥1.92; 1.92-2.21); a smaller Cl/F4 (≤1.17; 1.07-1.17) than Aphonopelma gabeli  (≥1.20; 1.20-1.32), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≥1.20; 1.20-1.40), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≥1.23; 1.23-1.37); a smaller L4 scopulation extent than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (56%-81%). Certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no other are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional two-dimensional PCA morphospace and three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), males of Aphonopelma parvum  separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma saguaro  , Aphonopelma superstitionense  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  along PC1~2, but do not separate from Aphonopelma chiricahua  or Aphonopelma mareki  . Male Aphonopelma parvum  separate from all compared species, except Aphonopelma mareki  , in three-dimensional morphospace. Female Aphonopelma parvum  separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma paloma  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  , but do not separate from Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma mareki  , Aphonopelma saguaro  , or Aphonopelma superstitionense  in two-dimensional morphological space, yet when three-dimensional morphospace is plotted, Aphonopelma parvum  separates from all compared species. PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥97% of the variation in all analyses.