Sphecodes

Astafurova, Yulia V. & Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu., 2015, Bees of the genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804 of Siberia, with a key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae), Zootaxa 4052 (1), pp. 65-95: 89-92

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4052.1.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5B38724D-0FC3-453C-A273-7EA87B08EA25

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/9468AA7B-FA60-FFA6-BCCF-FAEB3AB5F96D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sphecodes
status

 

Key to the Sphecodes  species of the Siberia and Mongolia

Females

Note: The female of S. kozlovi Astafurova et Proshchalykin  and S. schwarzi  , sp. nov. is unknown. Additional characters that are not unique but are useful in the identification of some species are indicated in parentheses. *Females of this vicarious species are very difficult to distinguish morphologically; however, S. nippon  is distributed in the East Palaearctic to Baikal Lake on the West, whereas S. gibbus  is distributed in the West Palaeractic to Baikal Lake and Yakutsk on the East.

1. Preoccipital carina present along vertex only. F 2 square, as long as wide, remaining flagellomeres distinctly longer than wide. (Head strongly transverse, 1.25 times wider than long. Scutum densely punctate, punctures separated mostly by less than a puncture diameter. Body length 8.0–11.0 mm).............................................. S. spinulosus Hagens 

- Preoccipital carina not developed or present laterally behind eye only. F 2 transverse 0.5–0.7 times as long as wide, remaining flagellomeres square or slightly longer than wide........................................................... 2

2. Hind wing with 7–14 hamuli; with basal (M) vein weakly curved ( Fig. 112View FIGURES 105 – 114). Usually large species: body length 6.0–15.0 mm................................................................................................... 3

- Hind wing with 5–6 hamuli; with basal (M) vein strongly curved ( Fig. 111View FIGURES 105 – 114). Large or small species: body length 4.5–11.0 mm.................................................................................................. 10

3 (2). Vertex weakly elevated, with longitudinal sharp carina ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 100 – 104). (Head strongly transverse, 1.2 times wider than long. Scutum and scutellum sparsely punctate, medially with punctures separeted by mostly 1–3 puncture diameters; Fig. 90View FIGURES 89 – 94. Pygid-

ium slightly narrower than hind basitarsus. Body length 6.0–8.0 mm)............................ S. cristatus Hagens  - Vertex strongly elevated, acarinate, but sometimes with weak (indistinct) longitudinal ridge......................... 4

4 (3). Genal area flat. Preoccipital lateral carina developed. (Head strongly transverse, 1.3 times wider than long. Vertex short, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about two lateral ocellar diameters; Fig. 87View FIGURES 77 – 88. Scutum densely punctate and medially with punctures separated by at most 1.5– 2 puncture diameters; Fig. 89View FIGURES 89 – 94. Pygidium slightly narrower than hind basitarsus. Body length 9.0–12.0 mm).................................................. S. scabricollis Wesmael 

- Genal area swollen. Preoccipital carina not developed....................................................... 5

5 (4). Scutum densely punctate, punctures separated by less than a puncture diameter ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 89 – 94). (Head strongly transverse, 1.3 times wider than long. T 4 and T 5 red. Pygidium slightly narrower than hind basitarsus. Body length 9.0–15.0 mm)............................................................................................. S. albilabris (Fabricius) 

- Scutum sparsely punctate, medially with punctures separated by more than a puncture diameter ( Figs. 92View FIGURES 89 – 94)............... 6

6 (5). Vertex short, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about two lateral ocellar diameters ( Fig. 86View FIGURES 77 – 88). Marginal zone of T 4 punctate and smooth between punctures or finely tessellate without punctures. Sides of propodeum reticulaterugose.............................................................................................. 7

- Vertex longer, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus equal to 2.5–3.0 lateral ocellar diameters ( Fig. 85View FIGURES 77 – 88). Marginal zone of T 4 tessellate, smooth (rarely indistinctly tessellate). Sides of propodeum strigate or reticulate-rugose.... 8.

7 (6). Marginal zone of T 4 impunctate, finely tessellate (Fig. 98). Scutum usually densely punctate, medially with punctures separated by not more than 1–3 puncture diameters, sometimes sparser. T 1 finely punctate. Body length 7.0–10.0 mm........................................................................................... S. reticulatus Thomson 

- Marginal zone of T 4 distinctly punctate, smooth between punctures (rarely indistinctly tessellate) (Fig. 99). Scutum usually sparsely punctate, medially with punctures separated by mostly 2–4 puncture diameters. T 1 coarserly punctate. Body length 8.0–11.0 mm......................................................................... S. alternatus Smith 

8 (6). Head rounded-rectangular on upper margin, square-shaped as seen in frontal view ( Fig. 78View FIGURES 77 – 88); vertex sparsely punctate, punctures mostly separated by more than а puncture diameter. Pygidium equal or slightly narrower than hind basitarsus. T 1 indistinctly punctate, with a few very fine punctures (Fig. 97). (Body length 7.0–10.0 mm)............ S. monilicornis (Kirby) 

- Head uniformly rounded on upper margin, oval in frontal view ( Fig. 84View FIGURES 77 – 88); vertex densely punctate, punctures mostly separated by less than a puncture diameter. Pygidium 0.5–0.6 times narrower than hind basitarsus. T 1 distinctly punctate, with fine and coarser punctures..................................................................................... 9

9 (8). Mesopleura strigate or strigate-rugose, sides of propodeum strigate ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 100 – 104). Marginal zone of T 3 coarsely punctate. T 4 red, T 5 red or dark red. Body length 6.5–8.5 mm.............................................. S. rufiventris (Panzer) 

- Mesopleura reticulate-rugose, sides of propodeum strigate or reticulate-rugose. Marginal zone of T 3 impunctate. T 4 and T 5 black, sometimes T 4 laterally red. Body length 7.0–11.0 mm.................. S. nippon Meyer  / S. gibbus (Linnaeus)  *

10 (1). Pygidium wider than hind basitarsus, usually dull ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 100 – 104). Scutum densely punctate, punctures usually separated by less than two puncture diameters. Body length 7.0–11.0 mm...................................................... 11

- Pygidium equal or narrower than hind basitarsus, shiny ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 100 – 104). Scutum usually sparsely punctate, disc medially with punctures separated by more than two puncture diameters. Body length 4.0–9.0 mm................................... 12

11 (10). Head strongly transverse, 1.30–1.35 times wider than long; vertex, behind ocelli, not elevated in frontal view ( Fig. 82View FIGURES 77 – 88, 110View FIGURES 105 – 114). Hairs on scape distinctly longer than width of scape. Pygidium 1.3–1.5 times wider than hind basitarsus. Body length 7.0–11.0 mm................................................................................. S. pellucidus Smith 

- Head weaker transverse, 1.20–1.25 times wider than long ( Fig. 83View FIGURES 77 – 88, 109View FIGURES 105 – 114); vertex, behind ocelli, weakly elevated. Hairs on scape shorter than width of scape. Pygidium 1.2–1.4 times wider than hind basitarsus. Body length 7.0–9.0 mm.................................................................................................... S. ephippius (Linné) 

12 (10). Mandible simple (without an inner tooth)................................................................. 13

- Mandible bidentate................................................................................... 14

13 (12). Head weakly transverse, 1.07–1.18 times wider than long ( Fig. 79View FIGURES 77 – 88). F 3 transverse. Clypeus, at least in its lower half, with punctures separated by about a puncture diameter. T 2 –T 3 usually indistinctly punctate. Body length 4.0–6.0 mm.............................................................................................. S. longulus Hagens 

- Head strongly transverse, 1.2–1.3 times wider than long ( Fig. 81View FIGURES 77 – 88). F 3 square. Clypeus with punctures separated by at most a puncture diameter. T 2 –T 3 on basal half usually distinctly punctate. Body length 5.0–7.0 mm...... S. puncticeps Thomson 

14 (12). Clypeus densely punctate, punctures separated by less than a puncture diameter. Pronotum, between dorsal and lateral surfaces, rounded, not angulated ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 114).................................................................. 15

- Clypeus sparsely punctate, punctures separated by at least a puncture diameter. Pronotum between dorsal and lateral surfaces with sharp angle ( Fig. 106View FIGURES 105 – 114)............................................................................. 16

15 (14). Ventral part of thorax dull, finely reticulate-rugulose ( Fig. 94View FIGURES 89 – 94). Head transverse, about 1.2 times wider than long. Scutum with punctures separated by 1–3 (sometimes more) puncture diameters. Body length 5.0–7.5 mm......... S. hyalinatus Hagens 

- Ventral part of thorax shiny, coarsely reticulate-rugose ( Fig. 93View FIGURES 89 – 94). Head transverse, about 1.25 times wider than long. Scutum with punctures separated by 1–4 puncture diameters. Body length 6.0–9.0 mm.................. S. ferruginatus Hagens 

16 (14). Vertex long, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about 3 –3.5 times lateral ocellar diameters. Metasomal terga relatively coarsely and densely punctate (sparser on T 1) (Fig. 96). Upper half of gena with apressed, dense pubescence covering integument. (Head transverse, about 1.25 wider than long. Scutum and scutellum sparsely punctate, punctures separeted by 1–7 puncture diameters. Body length 5.0–7.0 mm)................................ S. pinguiculus Pérez 

- Vertex shorter, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about two lateral ocellar diameters. Metasomal terga finely and sparsely punctate or densely punctate on basal half only, T 1 impunctate or with a few fine punctures (Figs. 95). Genal area with erect, sparse pubescence................................................................. 17

17 (16). F 3 transverse, 0.6–0.7 times as long as wide, as long as F 1 ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 100 – 104). Pygidium as wide as hind basitarsus. (Head transverse, 1.15 times wider than long. Labrum semicircular, 0.5 times as long as width. Scutum sparsely punctate, with punctutres separeted by 1–4 puncture diameters. Body length 4.0–6.0 mm)..................................... S. miniatus Hagens 

- F 3 square, as long as wide, longer than F 1 ( Figs 77, 80View FIGURES 77 – 88). Pygidium narrower than hind basitarsus.................... 18

18 (17). Head strongly transverse, 1.25 times wider than long ( Fig. 80View FIGURES 77 – 88, 108View FIGURES 105 – 114). Labrum trapezoidal, 0.7 times as long as wide. Hind femur strongly enlarged on proximal half, maximum width 0.4 times its length. Scutum sparsely punctate, with fine punctures separated by 2–6 (sometimes more) puncture diameters. Pygidium 0.6–0.7 times narrower than hind basitarsus. Body length 5.0– 8.0 mm.............................................................................. S. crassus Thomson 

- Head weakly transverse, 1.1 times wider than long ( Fig. 77View FIGURES 77 – 88, 107View FIGURES 105 – 114). Labrum semicircular, 0.5 times as long as width. Hind femur weakly enlarged on proximal half, maximum width 0.35 times its length. Scutum sparsely punctate, punctures separated by 2– 4 puncture diameters. Pygidium 0.7–0.8 times narrower than hind basitarsus. Body length 4.5–6.5 mm..................................................................................................... S. geoffrellus (Kirby) 

Males

1. Hind wing with 7–14 hamuli. Base of gonocoxite dorsally without impression ( Fig. 113View FIGURES 105 – 114). Usually large species: body length 7.0–12.0 mm......................................................................................... 2

- Hind wing with 5–6 hamuli. Base of gonocoxite dorsally with impression ( Fig. 114View FIGURES 105 – 114) or without it. Large or small species: body length 3.5–11.0 mm.................................................................................. 11

2. Preoccipital carina developed, complete. Upper side of hind tibiae with red spines ( Fig. 76View FIGURES 72 – 76). (Felt-like areas on flagellomeres semicircular across basal 1 / 7 – 1 / 5 (at least from F 4) and widely linear across rest of segment as seen in lateral view (Fig. 23), sometimes strongly developed. Hind wing with basal (M) vein strongly curved. Scutum and scutellum densely punctate, punctutres separeted by less than a puncture diameter. Gonocoxite as in Figs 60, 61View FIGURES 46 – 61, 113View FIGURES 105 – 114. Body length 9.0–11.0 mm)............................................................................................... S. spinulosus Hagens 

- Preoccipital carina not developed or present laterally behind eye only. Upper side of hind tibiae without spines.......... 3

3. Head rounded, about as long as wide. Hind wing with basal (M) vein strongly curved. T 1 finely and sparsely (sometimes indistinctly) punctate. (Vertex strongly elevated; distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about two lateral ocellar diameters. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres weakly developed, semicircular across basal 1 / 7 – 1 / 5 of flagellomere (Fig. 12). Scutum densely punctate, punctures separated by about 1 –1.5 times a puncture diameter, sometimes denser. Gonocoxite as in Figs 44, 45View FIGURES 24 – 45. Body length 7.0–10.0 mm)................................................. S. monilicornis (Kirby) 

- Head transverse, wider than long. Hind wing with basal (M) vein weakly curved. T 1 distinctly coarsely and densely punctate.................................................................................................... 4

4. Scutum densely punctate, with confluent punctures (areolate) ( Fig. 69View FIGURES 69 – 71).......................................... 5

- Scutum sparsely punctate, medially with punctutres separated by at least a puncture diameter ( Figs 70, 71View FIGURES 69 – 71)............. 6

5. Head strongly transverse, 1.2 times wider than long. Vertex long, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about 2.5–3.0 lateral ocellar diameters. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres (at least from F 4) semicircular across basal 1 / 5 – 1 / 3 and linear across the rest of segment as seen in lateral view (Fig. 2). Scutellum sparsely punctate, medially with punctures separated by more than a puncture diameter and often with impunctate areas. T 1 completely red. Gonostylus as in Figs 24, 25View FIGURES 24 – 45. Body length 9.0–12.0 mm........................................................... S. albilabris (Fabricius) 

- Head weakly transverse, 1.1 times wider than long. Vertex shorter, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about two lateral ocellar diameters. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres semicircular across basal 1 / 6 – 1 / 4, linear portion along remaining flagellomeres not developed (Fig. 20). Scutellum densely punctate, with confluent punctures. T 1 black or brownish at least on basal 1 / 3. Gonostylus as in Figs 56, 57View FIGURES 46 – 61. Body length 7.0–12.0 mm................... S. scabricollis Wesmael 

6. Vertex with a longitudinal carina ( Fig. 65View FIGURES 62 – 68). Marginal zone of T 1 with very fine and indistinct punctures, T 2 impunctate. (Feltlike areas on flagellomeres, at least from F 4, semicircular across basal 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 (Fig. 4). Gonostylus as in Figs 26, 27View FIGURES 24 – 45. Body length 7.0–10.0 mm)................................................................... S. cristatus Hagens 

- Vertex without a longitudinal carina. Marginal zones of T 1 and T 2 with relatively coarse and distinct punctures.......... 7

7. Vertex long, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about three lateral ocellar diameters ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 62 – 68). Feltlike areas on flagellomeres covering at least 1 / 3 part of flagellomere (Figs 7, 13, 19)................................ 8

- Vertex shorter, distance from top of head to upper margin of lateral ocellus about two lateral ocellar diameters ( Fig. 67View FIGURES 62 – 68). Feltlike areas on flagellomeres not covering more than 1 / 4 part of flagellomere (Fig. 17). Gonostylus as in Figs 52, 53View FIGURES 46 – 61....... 10

8. F 3 short, slightly longer than wide. Lover part of mesopleura strigate or strigate-rugose. Gonostylus without an elongated apical projection ( Figs. 54, 55View FIGURES 46 – 61). (Felt-like areas on flagellomeres well developed, cover larger part of flagellomer (Fig. 18, 19). Scutum coarsely and densely punctate, punctures separated by about 0.5–1.5 puncture diameters. Body length 6.0–8.0 mm).................................................................................... S. rufiventris (Panzer) 

- F 3 long, about 2 times longer than wide. Mesopleura reticulate-rugose. Gonostylus with an elongated apical projection ( Fig. 46, 47View FIGURES 46 – 61).............................................................................................. 9

9. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres well developed, covering large part of flagellomere as seen in lateral view (Figs. 7). Scutum coarsely punctate, density of punctures variable, usually relatively densely punctate, medially with punctures separated by at most 1 –1.5 puncture diameter, sometimes sparser (up to three times a puncture diameter) ( Fig. 71View FIGURES 69 – 71). Body length 7.0–14.0 mm.................................................................................... S. gibbus (Linnaeus) 

- Felt-like areas on flagellomeres weakly developed, are semicircular across basal 1 / 3 (Fig. 13). Scutum densely punctate, medially with punctures separated by about a puncture diameter ( Fig. 70View FIGURES 69 – 71). Body length 7.0–11.0 mm......... S. nippon Meyer 

10. Marginal zone of T 4 finely tessellate, without punctures ( Fig. 73View FIGURES 72 – 76). Scutum densely punctate, medially with punctures separated by at most 1.5 puncture diameters. Body length 7.0–10.0 mm............................... S. reticulatus Thomson 

- Marginal zone of T 4 distinctly punctate, smooth between punctures (rarely indistinctly tessellate) ( Fig. 72View FIGURES 72 – 76). Scutum with punctures medially separated by at most 1.5– 2 puncture diameters, rarely sparser. Body length 7.0–12.0 mm. S. alternatus Smith 

11. Base of gonocoxite dorsally without impression ( Fig. 113View FIGURES 105 – 114)................................................... 12

- Base of gonocoxite dorsally with impression ( Fig. 114View FIGURES 105 – 114)....................................................... 16

12. Vertex sparsely punctate, area between lateral ocellus and compound eye with fine punctures separated by more than а puncture diameter ( Fig. 68View FIGURES 62 – 68). Head weakly transverse, 1.05–1.10 times wider than long. (Felt-like areas on flagellomeres semiovalshaped, not extending beyond middle of the flagellomere (Fig. 10). Scutum relatively sparsely punctate, medially with punctures separated by 1–3 puncture diameters. Gonostylus as in Figs 40, 41View FIGURES 24 – 45. Body length 3.5–6.0 mm) ...... S. longulus Hagens 

- Vertex densely punctate, area between lateral ocellus and compound eye with coarse punctures separated by about a puncture diameter. Head strongly transverse, 1.15–1.30 times wider than long............................................. 13

13. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres shallow, semi-oval (Figs 15, 16). Gonostylus triangular on apex ( Figs 50, 51View FIGURES 46 – 61). Small: body length 4.5–7.0 mm. (Scutum coarsely and densely punctate, punctures separeted by 0.5–1.5 a puncture diameter. T 1 impunctate or with a few fine punctures, T 2 relatively coarsely and densely punctate on anterior half)..... S. puncticeps Thomson 

- Felt-like areas on flagellomeres deep, semicircular. Apex of gonostylus not triangular. Larger: body length 6.0–11.0 mm.. 14

14. Vertex with a longitudinal carina (sometimes weakly developed). Felt-like areas on flagellomeres (from F 4) extending up to 1 / 3 underside of flagellomere (Fig. 9). T 1 sparsely, but coarsely punctate ( Fig. 74View FIGURES 72 – 76). (Gonostylus as in Figs 38, 39View FIGURES 24 – 45. Body length 8.0–10.0 mm)....................................................... S. kozlovi Astafurova & Proshchalykin 

- Vertex without a longitudinal carina. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres (from F 4) covering 1 / 2–4 / 5 underside of flagellomere (Figs 5, 14). T 1 impunctate or with a few fine punctures..................................................... 15

15. Felt-like areas on last flagellomeres (from F 4) usually covering more than 1 / 2 underside of flagellomere, often up to 4 / 5 (Fig. 14). Gonostylus similar to S. kozlovi  (as in Figs 38, 39View FIGURES 24 – 45). Body length 7.0–11.0 mm................... S. pellucidus Smith 

- Felt-like areas on last flagellomeres (from F 4) usually covering about 1 / 2 underside of flagellomere, rarely 3 / 4 (Fig. 5). Gonostylus as in Figs 34, 35View FIGURES 24 – 45. Body length 6.0–9.0 mm........................................... S. ephippius (Linné) 

16. Face with apressed white pubescence below as well as above antennal sockets ( Figs 62, 63View FIGURES 62 – 68). T 1 densely punctate ( Fig. 75View FIGURES 72 – 76)..................................................................................................... 17

- Face with apressed white pubescence below antennal sockets only ( Fig. 64View FIGURES 62 – 68). T 1 impunctate or with sparse punctures (at S. miniatus  sometimes relatively densely punctate)............................................................... 18

17. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres (from F 3) covering 1 / 2–4 / 5 of flagellomere (Figs 21, 22). F 3 short, slightly longer than wide and shorter than F 2. Gonostylus small, triangular ( Figs 58, 59View FIGURES 46 – 61). Body length 5.0–5.5 mm......................................................................................... S. schwarzi Astafurova et Proshchalykin  , sp. nov.

- Felt-like areas on flagellomeres (from F 2) covering all underside of flagellomere. F 3 longer, 1.5 longer than wide and equal to F 2. Gonostylus large, rectangular ( Figs 48, 49View FIGURES 46 – 61). Body length 5.0–7.5 mm........................ S. pinguiculus Pérez 

18. F 2 short, 0.9–1.0 times as long as F 3. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres (from F 4) covering all underside of flagellomere. (Head weakly transverse, 1.05 times wider than long. Scutum with punctures separated by 0.5– 2 puncture diameters. T 1 and T 2 smooth, with a few very fine punctures. Gonocoxite with impression, gonostylus as in Figs 32, 33View FIGURES 24 – 45. Body length 5.0–6.5 mm).................................................................................. S. geoffrellus (Kirby) 

- F 2 longer, 1.1–1.2 as long as F 3. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres shorter, covering at most 4 / 5 the underside of flagellomere (in S. miniatus  felt-like areas on last flagellomeres sometimes covering entire underside surface)....................... 19

19. Pronotum between dorsal and lateral surfaces rounded, not angulated ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 114). Scutum densely punctate, with punctures separated by at most a puncture diameter..................................................................... 20

- Pronotum between dorsal and lateral surfaces with sharp angle ( Fig. 106View FIGURES 105 – 114). Scutum sparsely punctate, punctures (at least in middle) mostly separated by more than a puncture diameter...................................................... 21

20. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres covering less than 1 / 3 underside of flagellomere (Fig 6). Gonostylus long, trapezoidal ( Figs 30, 31View FIGURES 24 – 45, 114View FIGURES 105 – 114). Body length 6.0–9.0 mm.................................................. S. ferruginatus Hagens 

- Felt-like areas on flagellomeres (from F 4) covering about 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 underside of flagellomere, rarely 3 / 4 on last flagellomeres (Fig. 8). Gonostylus shorter, not trapezoidal ( Figs 36, 37View FIGURES 24 – 45). Body length 5.0–7.0 mm............... S. hyalinatus Hagens 

21. Felt-like areas on flagellomeres usually covering less than 1 / 3 underside of flagellomere (rarely 1 / 2) (Fig. 3). Gonostylus oval ( Figs 28, 29View FIGURES 24 – 45). Body length 5.0–7.0 mm.................................................... S. crassus Thomson 

- Felt-like areas on flagellomeres cover more than 3 / 4 underside of flagellomere (Fig. 11), sometimes entire underside. Gonostylus trapezoidal ( Figs 42, 43View FIGURES 24 – 45). Body length 4.0–6.0 mm......................................... S. miniatus Hagens