Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920

Ohara, Willian Massaharu & Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno, 2016, On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae), Zootaxa 4137 (2), pp. 291-295: 291-292

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http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4137.2.11

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scientific name

Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920
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On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920  ( Siluriformes  : Pimelodidae  )

WILLIAN MASSAHARU OHARA 1 & EMANUEL BRUNO NEUHAUS 2

1 Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. Caixa Postal 42494, 04218- 970. São Paulo, SP, Brazil. E-mail: willianmohara@gmail.com

2 Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Vertebrados, Setor de Ictiologia. Quinta da Boa Vista s/ n, São Cristóvão, 20940 -040. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. E-mail: ebnsl@yahoo.com.br

Sorubim trigonocephalus  was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as “Porto Velho”, during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas” (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin ( Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area ( Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013 a), some of them including region of Porto Velho ( Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013 b).

In the original description of Sorubim trigonocephalus, Miranda-Ribeiro (1920: 13)  commented: “O exemplar unico medindo 36 centims. D’este Jurupensen, foi colhido em Porto Velho pelo Geraldo Kuhlmann, em Novembro de 1914 ”. However, at the time of the species' description, two specimens, MNRJAbout MNRJ 882 (Porto Velho, Geraldo Kuhlmann, 1914) and MNRJAbout MNRJ 854 (rio Paranatinga, Mato Grosso, Comissão Rondon, Pyrineus de Sousa/Antenor Pires, 21 May 1915), were known, and, according to the records in the ledger of the MNRJAbout MNRJ collection, both were identified by Miranda Ribeiro. In the original description it is not mentioned which is the holotype, so his son, Paulo de Miranda Ribeiro, designated the specimen MNRJAbout MNRJ 882 as such ( P. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1953). Nevertheless, contrary to P. Miranda-Ribeiro’s (1953) decision, the specimen MNRJAbout MNRJ 854 (Tapajós basin) is listed in the ledger as holotype. The reasons for Paulo de Miranda Ribeiro choosing the holotype were not mentioned; however, in accordance with the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ( ICZN), the specimen illustrated in the original description must be considered as the holotype, which corresponds to MNRJAbout MNRJ 882 (see Littmann, 2007 for holotype image).

Until 2007, just three S. trigonocephalus  specimens were known: MNRJAbout MNRJ 882, MNRJAbout MNRJ 854 [misquoted as MNRJAbout MNRJ 852 in Littmann (2007)] and USNMAbout USNM 194403 ( Littmann, 2007), the latter two from the Tapajós basin. Recent expeditions in rivers draining the Brazilian shield have provided many individuals of this species, indicating that S. trigonocephalus  ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1) is relatively common in the upper/middle Tapajós River and is also recorded from the Xingu River ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Searching for records in literature and looking at extensive collections of fishes from the Madeira River, the first author did not find any additional records nor specimens of the species in this basin. Therefore, the presence of records in the Tapajós and Xingu basins, plus lack of specimens of the species in the Madeira River and the conflicting information provided by Miranda Ribeiro (1920) raises uncertainty about its origin and type locality.

The original tags corresponding to MNRJAbout MNRJ 882 are lost, but based on records of the Rondon Commission, it is safe to conclude that Geraldo Kuhlmann was not in Porto Velho, Rondônia State in 1914. Nevertheless, G. Kuhlmann gathered material from the Madeira River basin, preparing it for Frederico Carlos Hoehne during the Rondon Comission from 1908 to 1909 and also between 1918 and 1919.

Miranda-Ribeiro (1920: 12) refering to Pimelodus versicolor  [Synonym of Genidens barbus (Lacepède 1803)  ], wrote: "... 4 exemplares trazidos de S. Manoel, Porto Velho – Arinos, pelo Shr. Geraldo Kuhlmann ”. Surely Miranda- Ribeiro did not refer to Porto Velho as being in Rondônia State (Madeira River basin), because the S. Manoel (= Teles Pires) and Arinos Rivers are tributaries of the Tapajós River. The botanist Hoehne (1923: 29) wrote: “ No dia 17 do mesmo mez (November) chegou elle (G. Kuhlmann) no Paranatinga e em 29 de Novembro 1914 embarcava no Porto Velho do Rio Arinos para descer este ...”. From this statement it is possible to confirm that there is a locality known as Porto Velho in the Arinos River, Tapajós basin. It is clear then that the locality, Porto Velho, in S. trigonocephalus  's description does not correspond to Porto Velho municipality in Rondônia State, located in the Madeira basin. Melgaço (1884: 328) wrote: “... poucas milhas abaixo (downstream) d’esta confluência (confluence of Preto River with the Arinos River) esta o chamado Porto-velho distante 10 leguas do Diamantino (14 º 24 ’ 24.82 ”S 56 º 26 ’ 31.26 ”W). E por este rio, que se faz a navegação d’esta villa para a província do Pará... ”. For these reasons, we can conclude that the locality of Porto Velho is a village about 55 Km from Diamantino municipality. As seen on the map published in Pimenta Bueno (1886), it is possible to reach the Porto Velho village through a short trail from the municipality of Diamantino ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). In 1952 this trail had already disappeared (see Rondon, 1952), and thereafter, Porto Velho, which was possibly a gold miner’s village at the time, ceased to exist. Based on these reports and consulting old maps of the region (see Pimenta Bueno, 1886; Rondon, 1952), Porto Velho is located approximately at 14 º05’ 32.25 ” S 56 º 19 ’ 26.44 ” W.

The type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus  can be determined as: Arinos River, downstream from the mouth of Preto River, Juruena drainage, Tapajós basin, Porto Velho, Diamantino, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 14 º05’ 32.25 ” S 56 º 19 ’ 26.44 ” W.

Material examined. Sorubim trigonocephalus  : all from Brazil. MNRJAbout MNRJ 882, 1, holotype, 335 mm LT, Porto Velho, Geraldo Kuhlmann , Nov 1914;  MNRJ 854, 1, 360 mm LT, rio Paranatinga , Mato Grosso, Comissão Rondon, Pyrineus de Sousa/Antenor Pires , 21 May 1915. 

MZUSPAbout MZUSP 106027, 1, 234 mm SL, Arapujá lake, rio Xingu, Altamira, Pará, [3 º 12 ’ 59 ” S 52 º 11 ’ 35 ” W], equipe de ictiologia da UFPA, 7 Jul 2001. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 106217, 1, 263 mm SL, rio Xingu, Arroz Cru, Altamira, Pará, [3 º 12 ’ 59 ” S 52 º 11 ’ 35 ” W], equipe de ictiologia da UFPA, 4 Dec 2000. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 33237, 2, 332 – 431 mm SL, rio Xingu, Mato Grosso, 11 º 33 ’ 10 ” S 57 º 26 ’ 25.69 ” W, M. Goulding, L. P. S. Portugal & M. L. Carvalho, 19 Aug 1984. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 33238, 6, 397 – 482 mm SL, rio Xingu, near confluence of the Culuene with Sete de Setembro, Gaucha do Norte, Mato Grosso, 12 º 55 ’ 28.03 ” S 52 º 59 ’ 36.25 ” W, M. Goulding, L. P. S. Portugal & M. L. Carvalho, 23 Aug 1984. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 87003, 2, 481 – 522 mm SL, rio Culuene, tributary of Xingu, Gaúcha do Norte, Mato Grosso, 13 º 30 ’ 52 ” S 53 º05’ 33.91 ” W, O. T. Oyakawa, J. L. Birindelli & J. C. Nolasco, 19 Oct 2004. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 87072, 2, 226 – 285 mm SL, rio Batovi, tributary of Culuene, Gaúcha do Norte, Mato Grosso, 13 º 14 ’ 48.52 ” S 54 º01’ 30.62 ” W, O. T. Oyakawa, I. Landim, C. Moreira, A. Oliveira, A. Datovo, J. L. Birindelli & J. C. Nolasco, 21 Oct 2004. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 95468, 8, 271 – 308 mm SL, rio Teles Pires, Paranaíta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 27 ’ 7.11 ” S 56 º 30 ’ 46.02 ” W, L. M. Sousa & A. L. Netto-Ferreira, 27 Sep 2007. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 95874, 2, 296 – 324 mm SL, rio Teles Pires, Itaúba, Mato Grosso, 10 º 58 ’ 27 ” S 55 º 44 ’ 3 ” W, J. S. Birindelli & P. Hollanda- Carvalho, 1 Oct 2007. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 116512, 1, 198 mm SL, rio Teles Pires to upstream of the cachoeira do Jaú, Paranaíta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 22 ’ 40.38 ” S 56 º 40 ’ 12.94 ” W, W. M. Ohara, 30 Oct 2014. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 100065, 1, 191 mm SL, rio Teles Pires to upstream of the cachoeira do Sete Quedas, Paranaíta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 23 ’ 53 ” S 56 º 34 ’ 37 ” W, W. M. Ohara, 30 Oct 2014. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 62821, 3, 184 – 272 mm SL, rio Teles Pires near mouth of the rio Peixoto de Azevedo, Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 59 ’ 25 ” S 55 º 33 ’ 48 ” W, F.A. Machado, Jul 1997. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99993, 2, 215 – 243 mm SL, rio Teles Pires to upstream of the cachoeira do Sete Quedas, Paranaíta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 25 ’02” S 56 º 33 ’01” W, L. M. Sousa & A. L. Netto- Ferreira, 16 Jun 2008. MNRJAbout MNRJ 29671, 5, 160 – 170 mm SL, rio Juruena near the fazenda São Nicolau, Cotriguaçu, Mato Grosso, 9 º 53 ’ 58 ” S 58 º 14 ’ 50 ” W, P. A. Buckup, L. F. S. Ingenito, S. Martinez-Plaza, 7 May 2006. LIRPAbout LIRP 9792, 1, 520 mm SL, rio Juruena, PCHAbout PCH Telegráfica, Sapezal, Mato Grosso, 12 º 50 ’ 59 ” S 58 º 55 ’ 37.45 ” W, R. Ilário, 1 Jan, 2011. INPAAbout INPA 45976, 1, not measured, rio São Benedito, tributary of rio Teles Pires, UNEMAT team. INPAAbout INPA 45267, 1, not measured, rio Teles Pires to downstream of the cachoeira do Jaú, Paranaíta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 22 ’ 28 ” S 56 º 52 ’ 25 ” W. Bios team. INPAAbout INPA 45586, 2, not measured, rio Teles Pires, Paranaíta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 27 ’ 7.11 ” S 56 º 30 ’ 46.02 ” W, UNEMAT team. INPAAbout INPA 45268, 1, not measured, rio Teles Pires near mouth of the rio Santa Helena, Paranaíta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 33 ’ 23 ” S 56 º 18 ’ 36 ” W, Bios team. INPAAbout INPA 45493, 1, not measured, rio Teles Pires, Paranaíta, Mato Grosso, 9 º 27 ’ 7.11 ” S 56 º 30 ’ 46.02 ” W, UNEMAT team. Sorubim elongatus  : MZUSPAbout MZUSP 116431, 1, 28.1 mm SL, rio Apiacás, tributary of rio Teles Pires, Apiacás, Mato Grosso, 9 º 11 ’ 41.51 ” S 57 º05’05.11” W, W. M. Ohara, 23 Oct 2014. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 116472, 1, 312 mm SL, rio Teles Pires, Pará, 7 º 56 ’ 31.48 ” S 57 º 50 ’ 15.56 ” W, W. M. Ohara, 6 Jul 2014.

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

LIRP

Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia

PCH

Prestwich and Pilkington Botanical Society

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia