Hyphessobrycon piorskii , Guimaraes, Erick Cristofore, Brito, Pamella Silva De, Feitosa, Leonardo Manir, Carvalho-Costa, Luis Fernando & Ottoni, Felipe Po, 2018

Guimaraes, Erick Cristofore, Brito, Pamella Silva De, Feitosa, Leonardo Manir, Carvalho-Costa, Luis Fernando & Ottoni, Felipe Po, 2018, A new species of Hyphessobrycon Durbin from northeastern Brazil: evidence from morphological data and DNA barcoding (Characiformes, Characidae), ZooKeys 765, pp. 79-101: 82-87

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Hyphessobrycon piorskii

sp. n.

Hyphessobrycon piorskii  sp. n. Figures 1, 2


CICCAA 00695, 25.9 mm SL, Brazil, Maranhão State: stream at the Anapurus municipality, 03°40'14"S, 43°07'10"W, 05 Feb 2017, Guimarães E. C. and Brito P. S.


All from Brazil, Maranhão State: CICCAA 00430, 15,18.4-25.2 mm SL; CICCAA 00696, 15, 19.9-24.4mm SL, CICCAA 00697, 16 (C&S) 19.3-24.5 mm SL; CICCAA 00698, 6, 1 (C&S) 22.0-20.4 mm SL; CICCAA 00750, 9, 20.0-25.3mm SL; CPUFMA 171664, 15, 19.5-23.1 mm SL; UFRJ 11553, 6, 19.1-22.1 mm SL collected with holotype. CICCAA 00089, 1 (C&S) 25.2 mm SL, stream at Mata de Itamacaoca, Chapadinha municipality; 03°44'50"S, 43°19'21"W, 02 Apr. 2016, Ottoni F. P., Oliveira E., Nascimento I., Fernandes R., Carneiro V. leg. CICCAA 00431, 21, 15.3-19.8mm SL, stream at the Anapurus municipality, 03°40'53"S, 43°07'23"W, 15 Jan. 2017, W; Aguiar R. leg. CICCAA 00881, 1, 29.4 mm SL, stream at Mata de Itamacaoca, Chapadinha municipality; 03°44'45"S, 45°19'15"W, 15 Jul. 2017, Campos D., Oliveira E., Viana S., Lopes M., Sousa R. leg. CICCAA 01563, 1, 21.6 mm SL, stream at Mata de Itamacaoca, Chapadinha municipality; 03°44'55"S 43°19'55"W, 19 Nov. 2017, Guimarães E. C., Brito P. S., Ottoni F. P., Lucas O., Sousa R. leg. CICCAA01654, 1, 26.9 mm SL, stream at the Anapurus municipality, 03°40'14"S, 43°07'10"W, 17 Jan. 2018, Guimarães E. C. and Brito P. S. leg. CICCAA 01382, 5, 22.7-27.2 mm SL, stream at Mata Fome, Barreirinhas municipality, 02°39'47"S, 42°48'16"W, 15 Jun., 2017, Guimarães E. C., Brito P. S., Ottoni F. P., Ferreira B. R. CICCAA 02008, 12 (C&S), 15.4-18.3 mm SL, stream at Mata Fome, Barreirinhas municipality; 02°39'47"S, 42°48'16"W, 15 Jun., 2017, Guimarães E. C., Brito P. S., Ottoni F. P., Ferreira B. R. leg.


(PAA). The new species Hyphessobrycon piorskii  sp. n., promptly differs from most congeners except by species of Hyphessobrycon  sensu stricto by the presence of a dark brown or black blotch on dorsal fin (vs. absence), no midlateral stripe on the body (vs. presence) and Weberian apparatus upward horizontal through dorsal margin of operculum (vs. downward).

The new species herein described differs from all of its congeners from Hyphessobrycon  sensu stricto, with exception to H. bentosi  and H. hasemani  , by possessing an inconspicuous vertically elongated humeral spot [vs. approximately rounded humeral spot in H. copelandi  , H. erythrostigma  , H. jackrobertsi  , H. minor  , H. pando  , H. paepkei  , H. pyrrhonotus  , H. roseus  , H. socolofi  , and H. sweglesi  ; humeral spot horizontally or posteriorly elongated in H. epicharis  , H. khardinae  , and H. werneri  ; conspicuous humeral spot in H. eques  , H. haraldschultzi  Travassos, 1960, H. micropterus  , H. megalopterus  , H. simulatus  and H. takasei  ; and absence of humeral spot in H. compresus  , H. dorsalis  Zarske, 2014, H. georgettae  , H. pulchripinnis  , and H. rosaceus  ].

The new species differs from H. bentosi  by the absence of an extended and pointed dorsal and anal-fin tips (Figures 1, 2) [vs. extended and pointed dorsal and anal-fin tips]; and from H. hasemani  by the dorsal-fin black spot shape, which is located approximately at the middle of the fin’s depth, not reaching its tip [vs. extended along all the fin, reaching its tip in adults] and by presenting tri to unicuspid teeth in the inner row of premaxillary and dentary [vs. pentacuspid teeth].


Morphometric data of holotype and paratypes are presented in Table 3. Body compressed, moderately deep, greatest body depth slightly anterior to dorsal-fin base. Body profile straight and downward directed from end of dorsal fin to adipose fin, straight or slightly convex between later point and origin of dorsal most procurrent caudal-fin ray. Dorsal profile of head convex from upper lip to vertical through eye; predorsal profile of body roughly straight, dorsal-fin base slightly convex, posteroventrally inclined; ventral profile of head convex from lower jaw to pelvic-fin origin. Ventral profile of body straight or slightly convex from pelvic-fin origin to anal-fin origin; straight and posterodorsally slanted along anal-fin base; and slightly concave on caudal peduncle. Jaws equal, mouth terminal, anteroventral end of dentary protruding. Maxilla reaching vertical to anterior margin of pupil. Premaxillary teeth in two rows. Outer row with one tricuspid tooth; inner row with 6(6), 7(20) or 8(4) tricuspid teeth and one unicuspid tooth. Maxilla with 3(5), 5(24) or 6(1) tricuspid teeth. Dentary with five (21) or six (9) larger tricuspid teeth followed by one smaller tricuspid teeth 5(2), 6(6), 7(13), 8(5), 9(4) smaller unicuspid teeth (Figure 3). Scales cycloid, three to eight radii strongly marked, circuli well-marked anteriorly, weakly-marked posteriorly; lateral line incompletely pored, with 6(19), 7(62) or 8(13) perforated scales. Longitudinal scales series including lateral-line scales 31(9), 32(34), 33(26), 34(17) or 35(3). Longitudinal scales rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line 6(49) or 7(41). Horizontal scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin 4(18) or 5(71). Scales in median series between tip of supraoccipital spine and dorsal-fin origin 8(6), 9(14), 10(7) or 11(3). Circumpeduncular scales 11(16), 12(38) or 13(11). Dorsal-fin rays i + 10(105) or ii + 10(18). First dorsal-fin pterygiophore main body located behind neural spine of 4th vertebrae. Adipose fin present. Anteriormost anal-fin pterygiophore inserting posterior to haemal spine of 11th vertebrae. Anal-fin ii+24(3), iii+24(87), ii-25(32) or iii+25(1). Anterior anal-fin margin slightly convex, with anteriormost rays more elongate and slightly more thickened than remaining rays, forming a distinct lobe. Remaining rays smaller with straight distal margin. Anal-fin rays with a sexually dimorphic pattern, which are absent in females (Figure 4). Pectoral fin-rays 12(122) or 13(1) total rays. Tip of pectoral fin usually reaching vertical through pelvic-fin origin. Pelvic-fin rays 8(125) total rays. Pelvic-fin rays with a sexually dimorphic pattern, which are absent in females (Fig. 5). Caudal fin forked, upper and lower lobes similar in size. Principal caudal-fin rays 10+9(121), 10+10(7) or 11+10(17); dorsal procurrent rays 7(1), 9(13), 10(13) or 11(3) and ventral procurrent rays 6(1), 7(8), 8(12) or 9(9). Branchiostegal rays 4(30). First gill arch with 1(1), 2(29) hypobranchial, 11(1), 12(28) or 13(1) ceratobranchial, 1(30) on cartilage between ceratobranchial and epibranchial, and 5(1) or 6(16) epibranchial gill-rakers. Supraneurals 3(2) 4(23) or 5(5). Total vertebrae 29(30).

Color in alcohol Figure 1. Ground coloration light yellowish brown. Humeral region with one inconspicuous vertically elongated spot; more intensely pigmented on its central portion. Flank with chromatophores homogeneously scattered, more concentrated on posterior region to humeral spot, posterior region of dorsal-fin base origin and below mid-portion of trunk, between anal-fin origin and caudal peduncle. Ventral region lacking dark brown chromatophores. Dark brown chromatophores present on head and more concentrated on dorsal portion, becoming sparser on cheek and preopercular regions.

Dorsal fin ground coloration hyaline, with a conspicuous black or dark brown spot located on anterior portion of fin, reaching about sixth ray, approximately between half to two thirds of fin depth. Anal and caudal fins hyaline. Caudal fin with a darker, usually dark brown, posterior margin and on its base. Adipose fin hyaline to light brown, with dark brown or black chromatophores more concentrated on its dorsal portion, depending on the state of preservation of the specimen. Pectoral and pelvic fins hyaline; pelvic fin with variable amounts dark brown pigmentation remaining depending on the state of preservation of the specimen.

Color in life (Figure 2). Pattern similar to coloration of preserved specimens. Ground coloration light yellowish brown to grey, with a reddish-brown pigmentation on vertebrae region, and usually with red chromatophores. Ventral region anterior to anal-fin origin lighter. Humeral spot inconspicuously dark brown or black. Head with same coloration as body, and ventrally lighter.

Conspicuous black spot on dorsal-fin, with yellow or orange pigmentation on dorsal and ventral margins of spot; yellow or orange pigmentation lighter and less evident on dorsal margin, reaching half to two thirds of the spot length and extending to the tip of fin; yellow or orange pigmentation darker and more developed at ventral margin of the spot, reaching entire spot base length, not extended to dorsal fin-base. Rest of dorsal fin hyaline. Anal-fin base with red pigmentation, with different degrees of intensity, with milk white pigmentation on anterior tip of anal fin, which could be extended through entire anterior margin, reaching between second to fourth rays. Posterior margin of anal fin with an inconspicuous dark brown pigmentation. Adipose fin light brown to hyaline at base, with red to black pigmentation at tip. Pectoral and pelvic fins hyaline, with some sparser dark brown chromatophores, more concentrated at pelvic fin base. First ray of pelvic fin with a white pigmentation. Caudal fin with red pigmentation on almost fin, with an inconspicuous light brown, reddish brown or dark brown margin.

Sexual dimorphism. Mature males have hooks on anal-fin and pelvic-fin rays. Hooks absent on females. Anal-fin presenting hooks from 3rd, 4th or 5th rays through last ray. Number of hooks variable, increasing from the first ones to the last rays. Pelvic fin presenting 3rd and 4th rays with 5 smaller hooks (Figures 4, 5).

DNA-based identification. After trimming sequence ends with poor base call quality, the final alignment yielded 446 base pairs with 154 variable sites, and 22 haplotypes. The magnitude of sequence divergence clearly demonstrates the exist ence of a new species of Hyphessobrycon  inhabiting the Munim and Preguiças river basins in Maranhão State. Average genetic distances were 14.2%, with the highest values between H. pyrrhonotus  and H. epicharis  (19.2%), while the lowest value (2.7%) was between H. epicharis  and H. sweglesi  (Table 1). Hyphessobrycon piorskii  sp. n. has 17% sequence divergent, on average, from the other taxa, with a minimum distance with H. eques  (13.9%) and a maximum with H. rosaceus  (18.4%) (Table 2).

Other evidence for the new species is that H. piorskii  sp. n. formed a single and exclusive clade with maximum posterior probability support (posterior probability = 1) in the Bayesian phylogenetic tree (Figure 7). Furthermore, H. piorskii  sp. n. clade is located within the Hyphessobrycon  s. str. group with high support of posterior probability (0.94). Hyphessobrycon piorskii  sp. n. was recovered as the sister-group of the clade including H. bentosi  , H. socolofi  , H. megalopterus  , H. erythrostigma  and H. pyrrhonotus  , with branch support of posterior probability value of 0.55. Pristella maxillaris  and Moenkhausia hemigrammoides  formed a clade (posterior probability value = 0.86), and it was recovered as the sister-clade of the Hyphessobrycon  s. str. group (posterior probability value = 0.6).

Geographical distribution.

Hyphessobrycon piorskii  sp. n. is presently known only from the upper Munim and Preguiças river basins, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil (Figure 7).

Ecological notes.

Hyphessobrycon piorskii  sp.n. lives in shallow well-oxygenated streams with transparent waters flowing over different types of substrates (Figure 8). The streams where H. piorskii  sp. n. specimens were collected varied from 0.90 to 10 meters wide, with a maximum depth of 1.60 meters. They possessed moderate water currents (0.1-0.7 m/s), with clear, sandy substrates with pebbles, mud, leaf litter, and submerged logs, often also presenting aquatic macrophytes. Hyphessobrycon piorskii  sp. n. was found near shore among aquatic vegetation, tree roots and fallen logs. Other species found at both sites were Anablepsoides vieirai  Nielsen, 2016, Apistogramma piauiensis  Kullander, 1980, Astyanax  sp., Cichlasoma cf. zarskei  , Copella arnoldi  (Regan, 1912), Crenicichla brasiliensis  (Bloch, 1792), Hoplias malabaricus  (Bloch, 1794), Megalechis thoracata  (Valenciennes, 1840), Nannostomus beckfordi  Günther, 1872, and Synbranchus marmoratus  Bloch, 1795. Gut contents of C&S specimens contained algae and disarticulated arthropod remains.


The name piorskii  honors the ichthyologist Nivaldo Magalhães Piorski for his contributions to the ichthyologic knowledge of the Maranhão State.