Pyrrhosphodrus caatingensis Lapischies & Forero

Lapischies, Rita, Forero, Dimitri, Barcellos, Aline & Salomão, Renato P., 2019, A new species of Pyrrhosphodrus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) from the Caatinga ecosystem in Brazil, with notes on the genus, Zootaxa 4543 (3), pp. 388-400: 389-393

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4543.3.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E660C8E1-DFB5-4167-9690-C9B42182DC3A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/5F815D0B-F889-4EAE-BF88-8845C7D48966

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:5F815D0B-F889-4EAE-BF88-8845C7D48966

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pyrrhosphodrus caatingensis Lapischies & Forero
status

sp. nov.

Pyrrhosphodrus caatingensis Lapischies & Forero  sp. nov.

( Figs 1–10View FIGURE 1–3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURES 6–8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10, 13–15View FIGURES 11–14View FIGURE 15)

Type material. HolotypeGoogleMaps  . ♂. BRAZIL. Brejo Santo, Ceará [CE]. Açude Atalho—PMN11 (7°38'41.4"S 38°52'18.8"W); Col. Ativa 30/III/2015; R. P. Salomão leg. ( MCNZ 182464View Materials)  . Paratypes: same data as the holotype: 1 ♂ ( MCNZ 182465View Materials) and 3 ♀ ( MCNZ 182466View Materials, 182467View Materials, 182468View Materials); 2 ♀ (UNIVASF); 3 ♀ and 2 ♂, Salgueiro , Pernambuco [PE]; PMN08  ; Col. Ativa 30/III/2015; F. C. Costa leg. (specimens preserved in alcohol, MCNZ number 182469)  .

Diagnosis. General coloration reddish with black markings. Body covered with short, erect, stiff setae, except on membrane of hemelytra. Hemelytra black, except base and distal third of corium and base of clavus which are reddish. Labium yellow; coxae reddish; trochanters darkened; femora black, each with a subapical yellowish broad ring with a very narrow, brown annulation; tibiae black with apical and subapical yellowish annuli. Connexivum visible in dorsal view.

Description. Male: Total length 12–14 mm.

Head. Length 2.92 mm. Dorsal color black, with yellow marks: a dot between ocelli continued posteriorly by a mid-longitudinal stripe; paired spots on interocular area and one lateral stripe from eye up to middle of posterior lobe. Ventral surface yellow. Antenniferous tubercle with small protuberance. Antennal segments black; first segment with a very faint, narrow, yellow annulus at basal third, subapically on distal third with a broad yellow annulus; small protuberance basally on first segment; fourth segment paler than remaining. Antennal segments: 6; 2.5; 3.6; 2. Interocular area elevated; transverse sulcus deep. Postocular lobe 0.75 times as long as anterior lobe. Ocelli elevated. Labial segments yellowish, blotched with dark brown. First visible labial segment reaching posterior margin of eye; second segment slightly curved.

Thorax. Pronotum length 3.0 mm, anterior lobe about half of pronotum length. Anterior width 1.98 mm, posterior width 3.96 mm. Surface reddish, entirely covered with short, erect, stiff setae. Anterior pronotal lobe with paired protuberances on disc; medial longitudinal sulcus deeply impressed, not continuing into posterior lobe; anterior angles produced anteriorly as a tit-like projection. Humeral angles rounded and elevated. Posterior lobe slightly depressed medially. Scutellum reddish along basal and lateral margins; in middle, basally blackish with a yellow V-like central elevation, becoming lighter toward apex, which is almost white. Two dark stripes parallel to prosternal sulcus, almost reaching anterior margin of procoxal cavity. Legs black; femora each with a yellowish broad ring with a central very narrow brown annulation; forefemur thicker than mesofemur, and both thicker than metafemur. Tibiae with apical and subapical narrow yellowish annuli. Forewings reaching apex of abdomen; hemelytron shiny black, covered with small setae; corium basally, and apically on area from anterior region of quadrate cell to costal vein reddish; clavus on basal half reddish.

Abdomen. Venter mostly reddish, with whitish lateral dots, anterior margin of sternites V–VII darkened on dorsal half. Connexivum dorsally visible, segments on anterior half with black marks at anterolateral external angle, posterior half of each segment pale, posterolateral angle of each segment protruding.

Genitalia. Pygophore ovoid in lateral view, subquadrate in dorsal view ( Figs 4–5View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5); medial process of pygophore directed caudad, in dorsal view broad, short, posterior margin sinuate, posterolateral angles broadly rounded ( Fig 4View FIGURE 4, mpp), in caudal view strongly concave. Parameres ( Figs 4–5View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5, pa) 0.4 times as long as length of pygophore, diameter uniform, slightly sinuous in lateral view, rounded, slightly expanded, with setae at apex. Phallus  . Basal plate subtriangular with bridge as long and thick as the arms of basal plate. Dorsal phallothecal sclerite ( Figs 6–7View FIGURES 6–8, dps) wider basally, lateral margins sinuous, apically strongly curved dorsally, apex broadly rounded, with median small tooth on posterior margin. Endosoma with a distal dorsal lobe, apically with strongly sclerotized spicules ( Figs 6–8View FIGURES 6–8, al); medial subapical lobe membranous ( Fig 7View FIGURES 6–8, ml); lateral lobes strongly sclerotized ( Figs 6–8View FIGURES 6–8, ls), very broad basally, tapering apically, with very fine denticles at apex. Medial lobe sclerotized ( Fig 6View FIGURES 6–8, cs).

FEMALE. Total length 13.8–15.5 mm. General characters as described for male, except as follows.

Genitalia. Gonapophysis 8 setosae at apex ( Fig 9View FIGURE 9). Bursa copulatrix membranous, trapezoid, wider anteriorly ( Fig 10View FIGURE 10); median oviduct ( Fig 10View FIGURE 10, mov) connects to folded anterior medial portion of bursa copulatrix, which has slightly sclerotized folds ( Fig 10View FIGURE 10, sf); ventral surface with anterior projections of gonapophysis 8 sclerotized, long, almost reaching sclerotized folds, tapering and curved medially on anterior end ( Fig 10View FIGURE 10, ap).

Etymology. The epithet refers to Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian ecosystem from which the species is known.

Distribution and bionomics. The species was recorded at 23 of 24 monitoring points of the artificial transposition of the main course of São Francisco River ( Fig 15View FIGURE 15), which is one of the longest Brazilian rivers, running through five states (Minas Gerais, Bahia, Pernambuco, Sergipe and Alagoas). Observed specimens were distributed in Caatinga vegetation and were active throughout the year. Specimens were usually collected on Cleome spinosa Jacq.  ( Cleomaceae  ), a species native to South America, which is found in open areas near rivers, lakes and ponds ( Figs 11–12View FIGURES 11–14).

Pyrrhosphodrus  belongs to a Neotropical clade that contains also the genera Pselliopus Bergroth, 1905  and Cosmoclopius Stål, 1866  ( Zhang & Weirauch 2014), none of which possess sticky glands on the forefemur ( Zhang & Weirauch 2013), which is congruent with previous observations of some species of Pselliopus  and Cosmoclopius  found on sticky plants such as Cleome  (e.g., Cobben & Wygodzinsky 1975). Finding this new species of Pyrrhosphodrus  associated with a sticky plant reinforces the idea that species lacking sticky glands on the forelegs might be associated with plant with glandular trichomes that aid in prey capture ( Zhang & Weirauch 2013).

The species seems to be a generalist predator, because it was observed feeding on different insects that visit C. spinosa  , such as Meliponini bees ( Hymenoptera  ) ( Fig 13View FIGURES 11–14) and Cicadellidae  ( Hemiptera  ). Mating was also recorded on C. spinosa  ( Fig 14View FIGURES 11–14).

Discussion. Pyrrhosphodrus caatingensis  sp. nov. is easily distinguished from all other species of Pyrrhosphodrus  by the reddish pronotum and abdomen, and the mostly black legs. Pyrrhosphodrus caatingensis  sp. nov. can be set apart from P. amazonus  and P. geraesensis  by the uniformly colored pronotum, whereas in these two species the pronotum has a black transverse band. Pyrrhosphodrus caatingensis  sp. nov. is similar to P. militaris  because of the uniformly colored pronotum. Pyrrhosphodrus caatingensis  sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. militaris  by the reddish pronotum, the paired protuberances on the disk of the anterior lobe of the pronotum, and by the mostly black legs. In P. militaris  the pronotum is yellowish, the disk of the anterior pronotal lobe is flat, and the femora are yellowish with pale brown annuli and the tibiae are dark with a basal yellowish annulus.

Forattini & Serra (1950) presented schematic drawings for the pygophore and aedeagus of P. militaris  . We document the female genitalia of P. caatingensis  sp. nov., the first for any species of Pyrrhosphodrus  . Despite not being able to compare in detail the genitalic structure of P. caatingensis  sp. nov. with P. militaris  or other species, we consider the former as a new species based on its morphology and its particular coloration pattern. Future studies might corroborate this hypothesis with additional data, including genitalic structures.

MCNZ

Porto Alegre, Museu de Ciencias Naturais da Fundacao Zoo-Botanica do Rio Grande do Sul

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Reduviidae

Genus

Pyrrhosphodrus

Loc

Pyrrhosphodrus caatingensis Lapischies & Forero

Lapischies, Rita, Forero, Dimitri, Barcellos, Aline & Salomão, Renato P. 2019
2019
Loc

Pselliopus

Bergroth 1905
1905
Loc

Pselliopus

Bergroth 1905
1905
Loc

Pyrrhosphodrus

Stal 1866
1866
Loc

Cosmoclopius Stål, 1866

Stal 1866
1866
Loc

Cosmoclopius

Stal 1866
1866
Loc

Pyrrhosphodrus

Stal 1866
1866
Loc

1758
1758