Udzungwalimax suminis , Rowson, Ben, Paustian, Megan & Goethem, Jackie Van, 2017

Rowson, Ben, Paustian, Megan & Goethem, Jackie Van, 2017, New species and records of terrestrial slugs from East Africa (Gastropoda, Urocyclidae, Veronicellidae, Agriolimacidae), ZooKeys 723, pp. 11-42: 16-17

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Udzungwalimax suminis

sp. n.

Udzungwalimax suminis  sp. n. Figs 18-20, 26, 42-44, 71-75


TANZANIA: Holotype NMW.Z.1997.007.00011: 1 ad., Lulanda FR (8.62°S, 35.62°E), Mufindi District, montane forest at 1430 m alt., leg. AK, NO, CFN, MBS & PT, 12 Feb. 1997 (sample IG). Paratype 1 NMW.Z.1997.007.00013: 1 ad., data as previous but sample IH. Paratypes NMW.Z.1997.007.00014: 4 ads., 1 juv.?, data as previous. Paratype RBINS.I.G. 33548/MT.3611: 1 ad., data as previous. Paratype NMT: 1 ad., data as previous. Paratypes NMW.Z.1997.007.00012: 2 juvs., data as previous but sample IG.


External appearance (Figs 18-19). (In preservation; living appearance not recorded). Medium-sized (46 mm long) slug, body, head and tentacles rich brown, lacking markings save for a few small scattered dark brown spots on and around the mantle. Sole coloured as body, tripartite. Moderate dorsal keel along whole length of tail, terminating in a short, blunt caudal appendage. Supraperipodial groove not evident. Tail and flanks with moderately large, but smooth and very flat tubercules. Mantle moderately sized (approx. 35% of body length) with finely granular surface and large shell pore, attached at rear. Two probable juveniles, collected with the holotype, have additional dark brown markings on and around the mantle.

Shell (Fig. 20). Fingernail-shaped, nearly symmetrical, 7.3 mm long, thin and weakly mineralised, with periostracum just extending beyond the margins.

Jaw and radula (Figs 26, 42-44). Jaw with strong median projection. Radula with central tooth and up to 66 lateral and marginal teeth in a half-row, in over 100 rows. Lateral teeth tricuspid, outermost laterals becoming bicuspid, but with mesocones pointed and largest. No serrated outer edges to the outermost marginals.

Genitalia (Figs 71-74). Visceral cavity almost reaches tail (only the posterior 10% of body solid). No stimulator. Penial complex consisting of: stout free penis, broad in its proximal part then rapidly narrowing; epiphallus 1 a little shorter than penis, epiphallus 2 short; long epiphallic caecum; pyriform calc sac. Penial retractor muscle arising from diaphragm. Internally, penis covered with many rounded, mamillate papillae with hard tips, arranged in irregular rows, some on a tongue-like flap. Papillae replaced by horizontal folds or pilasters at point where free penis narrows. No obvious verge in penis, but a basal constriction present. Very thin, transparent penial sheath present. Atrium long, with weak internal folds. Vagina with a muscular swelling at one side, internally with strong irregular folds. Bursa copulatrix duct robust, very long, not pigmented or ornamented, internally with weak longitudinal pilasters; bursa voluminous, thin-walled, pointed apically. Oviductal gland small, oviductus short and broad, leaving vagina at a sharp angle. Vas deferens short. Ovotestis sited posterior to albumen gland.

Spermatophores (Fig. 75). Two spermatophores from bursa of holotype, up to 18 mm long when coiled, with 4.5 volutions. No clear division between ampulla and tail. Spermatophore pointed at both ends, appearing completely smooth, without obvious hooks or keels; cylindrical, although becoming slightly more laterally compressed towards tail tip.


From Latin ‘suminis’, a sow’s udders, or a breeding sow, used as a noun in apposition referring to the mamillate surface of the penis.

Distribution and habitat.

Probably endemic to forest in the Udzungwa Mts., where several other endemic forest molluscs occur (Rowson & Van Goethem 2012).


This species is apparently unique in its hard-tipped, mamillate papillae inside the penis. No similar structures are mentioned or illustrated in Van Goethem (1977) or are present in any other species examined. They are not the same structures as the “lobules” inside the atrium of A. usambarense  (Verdcourt & Polhill 1961, Van Goethem 1977). Neither are they present in Emphysetes  Verdcourt, 2003, another recently described genus of Urocyclini  from Udzungwa ( Verdcourt 2003; observation verified from the holotype by A. J. de Winter, Leiden). The most similar structures seem to be the small, easily dislodged, irregular spines found on the penial prepuce of Polytoxon robustum  (Simroth, 1896) ( Van Goethem 1977), or perhaps the splinter-like crystals described by Verdcourt and Polhill (1961) in their Atrichotoxon  "sp. n." from the Taita Hills. Van Goethem (1973) described tubercles inside the penis of the the Malawian Atoxonoides aberrans  Van Goethem, 1973, but they are not mamillate in shape and were not said to have hard tips.