Perelleschus salpinflexus Cardona-Duque & Franz

Nico M. Franz & Juliana Cardona-Duque, 2013, Description of two new species and phylogenetic reassessment of Perelleschus O’Brien & Wibmer, 1986 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with a complete taxonomic concept history of Perelleschus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque, 2013, Systematics and Biodiversity 11 (2), pp. 209-236 : 213-218

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1080/14772000.2013.806371

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4F2B0D9-90B7-4B6E-A499-1498907F95F7

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6148891

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/993D87C6-5710-FFC6-8053-A35BFF3BF9CD

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Perelleschus salpinflexus Cardona-Duque & Franz
status

 

Perelleschus salpinflexus Cardona-Duque & Franz

sp. nov.

sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013)

( Figs 7 & 8 View Figs 7 – 11 )

Diagnosis. Perelleschus salpinflexus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) is distinguished from other members of Perelleschus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) by the following traits: integument slightly darkened; labial prementum slightly elongate (as opposed to subquadrate); antennal scape two-coloured, progressing from dark brown to more reddish brown; intercoxal projection of the mesosternum slightly emarginate; procoxa subglabrous; apodeme of male sternum IX slender; tegminal apodeme deflexed (as opposed to straight); apical margin of the aedeagus rounded (as opposed to projected); weak papillate sclerites present in the apical 1/3 of the endophallus; appendix of the spermatheca reduced and strongly deflexed; and apical portion of the cornu inclined clockwise or counter-clockwise. Perelleschus salpinflexus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) can be distinguished from P. carludovicae sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) by its smaller size, the shorter and sparser pilosity of the procoxae, the presence of papillate endophallic sclerites, and the triangular spermathecal appendix and curvation of the cornea. This species furthermore differs from P. evelynae Franz & O’Brien sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) and P. variabilis Franz & O’Brien sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) by the apical position of endophallic sclerites and the apically rounded cornu, and from P. spinothylax sp. nov. sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013), described below, by its darker tegument, the shape of the prementum, the shape of intercoxal projection on the mesosternum, the more slen- der apodeme of the male sternum IX, the apically rounded aedeagus, and the shape and position of the distinctly sclerotized endophallic sclerites.

Description. Male. Small, length 2.3–2.6 mm, width 1.2–1.3 mm, l/w = 1.9–2.1 (N = 4); colour light to dark reddish brown; elytra yellowish brown to brown; sculpture variously punctulate; vestiture short, aurate, conspicuous on antennal funicle and club, pronotum, metaventrite, procoxae, ventral protibia and sternites. Mouthparts. Mandible ( Fig. 11 View Figs 7 – 11 ) as in other species of Perelleschus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013); pharyngeal process long, 2.4× greatest width of mandible. Maxilla ( Fig. 10 View Figs 7 – 11 ) with cardo with 1 large seta and 1 short seta mesally; stipes apically sinuate; inner margin of the galea+lacinia+palpiger complex with 4 lacinial teeth ( Ting, 1936). Labium slightly longer than wide, trapezoidal ( Figs 9 View Figs 7 – 11 & 27 View Figs 25 – 28 ). Prementum slightly elongate, trapezoidal; apical corners oblique, converging, apical margin mesally straight; with 2 large, apicolateral, dorsally inserted setae; labial palps with palpomere II nearly 3× as long as III, its outer apical edge strongly projected. Postmentum elongate. Rostrum. Short, 0.5 mm; r/p = 0.5–0.6; light reddish brown. In dorsal view slightly widened apicad of antennal insertion; dorsally rugulose, with short setae; scrobe projecting beyond antennal socket to apex, basally shallow, not well defined, widened near rostral base, dorsally punctate, with scarce and short setae, ventrally with an inflexion that almost reaches eye. Antenna with basal half of scape dark brown, apical half light reddish brown, scape extending to eye in resting position. Head. Light reddish brown; frons rugulose; posterior margin surrounding eyes darkened, glabrous, dorsal punctures finer than on rostrum. Eyes separated from anterior margin of pronotum by 0.5× diameter of eye; posterior margin preceded by a shallow ridge. Thorax. Pronotum slightly globular, l/w = 0.9–1.0 (N = 4); reddish to dark brown, darkened on sides, with an obscure mesal maculation extending to anterior margin, posterior margin and laterals darkened; anterior margin 0.5–0.6× as wide as posterior margin, greatest width near posterior 2/3; punctate, vestiture short, lateral setae longer. Epipleura . Mesanepisternum ( Fig. 12 View Figs 12 – 16 ) equilaterally triangular, posterior vertex slightly truncate; mesepimeron half as wide as mesanepisternum; metanepisternum anteriorly widened, anterior margin curved, meeting ventral margin at a sharp angle, posteriorly narrowed; sclerolepidia (Lyal et al., 2006) present along metanepisternal sutures except for anterior part where suture is curved: consisting of small and slender seta-like scleropidial scales, some of them bifurcate ( Fig. 13 View Figs 12 – 16 ), as described by Lyal et al. (2006) under the squamiform 1 type, since they resemble the hairs of the surrounding areas; metepimeron pyriform, extending above posterior 1/5 of metanepisternum. Sterna . Prosternal setae as long as lateral ones, procoxal cavities inserted at posterior 2/3; mesoventrite with mesoventral process slightly emarginate ( Fig. 14 View Figs 12 – 16 ); posterolateral area of metaventrite with a parallel ridge adjacent to metacoxa, followed by a shallow and glabrous depression, equate with metacoxa. Ventral vestiture dense, varying in length, almost entirely covering thoracic ventrites. Metendosternite ( Fig. 16 View Figs 12 – 16 ). In lateral view directed obliquely at nearly 50° in relation to metaventrite. Stalk in ventral view with posterior margin widely diverging; mesal emarginations strongly angulate. Ventral flange in lateral view as wide as stalk, sides concave (giving an appearance of a cubic structure). Sheaths subtriangular, concave, nearly half as long as stalk (Velázquez de Castro, 1998). Hemiducts as long as external branch of furcal arms, strongly clubbed, truncate. Furcal arms apically bifurcated, pointed. Anterior tendons positioned at base of furcal arms. Legs. Yellowish brown; procoxa apically with sparse and short pubescence, inner face with a subapical foveola; profemur f/p = 0.5–0.6, slightly stouter than meso- and metafemur; protibia t/f = 0.9–1.0; meso and metatibia ventrally pubescent along apical 1/3; posterior margin of mesotibia with 7–8 spines. Scutellum . Dark reddish brown, with dense vestiture. Elytra. L/w = 1.2–1.4; dark reddish brown, laterally more darkened from stria VIII to margin, vestiture longer than on pronotum. Wings. Length 2.1–2.2× that of elytra, l/w = 2.9–3.2 (N = 3); posterior margin with setae throughout, setae longer in anal region; stigmal patch oval-elongate, longer than wide, evenly rounded at apex, apically with a small sclerotization and 2 setae inserted (as described by Zherikhin & Gratshev, 1995 for some Acalyptini [nonfocal]; see also Franz, 2006: character 110); medial stripe long. Abdomen. Tergites complete. Sternite VII similar in length to V+VI. Terminalia. Sternum VIII ( Fig. 17 View Figs 17 – 20 ) with membrane of hemisternites situated near fold of intermembrane connecting sternum VII–VIII, subtending a transversally oriented, bifurcate, lobed median process (= spiculum relictum sensu Thompson, 1992; see also Wanat, 2007). Sternum IX ( Fig. 18 View Figs 17 – 20 ): the base of the spiculum gastrale, as specified in Franz & O’Brien (2001), corresponds to the apodeme, and the bifurcation is positioned at the basal end ( Wanat, 2007); with apodeme slightly narrowed near apex (2× as wide as aedeagal apodemes), apex widened; basal fork distally rounded. Tegminal apodeme deflexed ( Fig. 19 View Figs 17 – 20 ). Aedeagus ( Fig. 20 View Figs 17 – 20 ) with l/w = 3.0–3.5 (N = 4); in lateral view narrow, deflexed; in dorsal view slightly narrowed from midpoint to apex, margins rounded; dorsal tectum membranous; endophallus with approximately 6 mesal, spine-like, variously oriented and weakly sclerotized sclerites positioned along its basal 2/3, thereafter with paired, weakly sclerotized, papillate sclerites converging toward apex; aedeagal apodemes widened at their basal 1/3.

Description. Fe m a l e ( Figs 7 & 8 View Figs 7 – 11 ). Length 2.4–2.7 mm, width 1.2–1.3 mm, l/w = 2.1 (N = 2). Rostrum 0.5–0.6 mm, r/p = 0.6. Pronotum l/w = 0.9. F/p = 0.6; t/f = 0.9. Elytra l/w = 1.3–1.4. Anteroventral spines of protibia more slender than in males. Abdomen, including pygidium, as in other species of Perelleschus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013). Sternum VIII ( Fig. 21 View Figs 21 – 24 ): the apex as specified in Franz & O’Brien (2001) corresponding to the lamina of Velázquez de Castro et al. (2007); lamina elliptical, distal margin projected, rounded (not emarginate as in other species of Perelleschus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque, 2013); apodeme narrow, nearly straight. Coxites ( Fig. 22 View Figs 21 – 24 ) as in other species of Perelleschus sec. Franz & Cardona- Duque (2013). Spermatheca ( Figs 21 & 22 View Figs 21 – 24 ) similar to that of other species of Perelleschus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013); s urface striate; corpus basally slightly constricted; appendix triangular, opposed to gland (reservoir) insertion; collum and ramus only slightly separated; cornu apically slightly rounded, projected, apical 1/4–1/5 arranged in a tridimensional space, oriented in a clockwise or counterclockwise spiral.

Variation. Some specimens have a more darkened pronotum and light yellowish brown elytra (as observed in P. splendidus Franz & O’Brien sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque, 2013). The number of spines on the posterior margin of tibiae is slightly variable. The endophallic sclerites may extend along the apical half of the endophallus.

Type material. Holotype male (dissected), labelled: ‘COcal. [ Colombia, Caldas], Supía, Qda.[Quebrada] Piedras, desembocadura en el río Cauca , 5° 24' 43'' N; 75° 55' 43'' W, en inflorescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón [non-focal], Mar. 2/2009, leg. C. Bota & N. Uribe, CEUA 45735 ’ ( CEUA). GoogleMaps Paratypes, same label information as male holotype except for ‘ CEUA 45736’, ‘ CEUA 45737’, ‘ CEUA 45738’, ‘ CEUA 45739’, ‘ CEUA 45740’, ‘ CEUA 45741’, ‘ CEUA 45742’, ‘ CEUA 45743’ ( CEUA: 4 males, 4 females, 7 dissected), ‘ CEUA 71301’, ‘ CEUA 71302’, ‘ CEUA 71349’ (donated to ICN: 1 male, 2 females), ‘ CEUA 71303’, ‘ CEUA 71304’, ‘ CEUA 71350’ (donated to IAvH: 1 male, 2 females), ‘ CEUA 71305’, ‘ CEUA 71306’, ‘ CEUA 66681’ (donated to MEFLG: 1 male, 2 females), ‘ CEUA 71307’, ‘ CEUA 71308’, ‘ CEUA 66682’ (donated to UNAB: 3409 – 1 male, 3410 and 3411 – 2 females); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], Amalfi, Vereda el Jardín, 7°0 4' 34'' N; 74°57’22.2”W, 850 m, dentro de infrutescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón [non-focal] (DT 2956), Jul. 25/2007, leg. Cardona & Tuberquia CEUA 45746’, ‘ CEUA 45747’, ‘ CEUA 45748’ ( CEUA: 2 males, 1 female, 2 dissected); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], San Roque, Corr. [Corregimiento] San José del Nus, 6° 29' 14.6'' N; 74° 50' 49.2'' W, 823 m, borde de quebrada, en inflorescencia e infrutescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón [non-focal], Feb. 7/2009, leg. C. Bota, CEUA 45744’, ‘ CEUA 45745’ ( CEUA: 2 males, 2 dissected), ‘ CEUA 66683 (donated to ICN: 1 male), ‘ CEUA 66684’ (donated to UNAB: 3412 – 1 male); ‘COant [ Colombia, Antioquia], San Carlos, Vereda Paraguas, 6° 13' 18'' N; 74° 50' 46'' W, 832 m, dentro de infrutescencia de Carludovica cf. palmata [non-focal], Jun. 10/2007, leg. L. S. Barrientos, CEUA 45759’, ‘ CEUA 47813’, ‘ CEUA 47814’ ( CEUA: 3 males, 2 dissected); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], San Rafael, Vda. [Vereda] La Rápida, Finca Cantarrana 6° 15' 27.6''N; 75°0 1' 41.5''W, 1041 m, dentro de inflorescencia cerrada de Carludovica palmata [non-focal], May. 25/2007, leg. Cardona & Tuberquia, CEUA 47803’, ‘ CEUA 47815’, ‘ CEUA 47816’, ‘ CEUA 47817’, ‘ CEUA 47818’ ( CEUA: 3 males, 2 females, 5 dissected); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], San Luis, Río Claro, 5° 53' 32.1''N; 74° 51' 17.8''W, 324 m, bosque, en inflorescencia en fase masculina de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón [non-focal], Ago. 2/2009, leg. Bota, Cardona, Franz & Mazo, CEUA 47802’ ( CEUA: 1 male, 1 dissected); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], San Luis, Autopista Medellín-Bogotá, Qda. [Quebrada] La Habana, 29/Dic/2009, J. Cardona-D., CEUA 71309 / Manual en infrutescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz &Pavón [non-focal]’, ‘ CEUA 71310’, ‘ CEUA 71311’, ‘ CEUA 71312’ ( CEUA: 1 male, 3 females, 2 dissected); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], Anorí, Vda. [Vereda] El Zafiro, Finca El Pital, 7° 1' 48.7'' N; 75° 4' 25.6'' W, borde de bosque cerca a arrollo, en inflorescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón [non-focal], Nov. 24/2009, leg. C. Bota, CEUA 47810’, ‘ CEUA 47811’, ‘ CEUA 47812’ ( CEUA: 2 males, 1 female, 3 dissected); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], Remedios, Vereda La Cruz, Finca La Brillantina 6° 54' 57.2'' N; 74° 33' 59.5'' W, 500 m, en inflorescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón [non-focal], Dic. 26/2009, leg. Bota, Campuzano & Cardona, CEUA 47833’ ( CEUA: 1 male, 1 dissected); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], Remedios, Vereda La Cruz, Finca La Brillantina 6° 54' 57.2'' N; 74° 33' 59.5'' W, 500 m, potrero, en inflorescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón [nonfocal], Dic. 28/2009, leg. C. Bota, ‘ CEUA 47806’, ‘ CEUA 47807’ ( CEUA: 1 male, 1 female, 2 dissected). ‘ CEUA 47804’ (donated to UNAB: 3414 – 1 male, 1 dissected).

Type locality. Colombia, Caldas, Supía, Quebrada Piedras.

Etymology. Named in reference to the distinct shape of the spermatheca which resembles a ‘bent horn’, through the combination of the Greek word salpinx signifying ‘trumpet’ and the Latin word flexus which means ‘bent’ ( Brown, 1956).

Natural history. Specimens of Perelleschus salpinflexus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) have been abundantly collected on the eastern flange of the northern portion of the Central Cordillera in Colombia, towards the Magdalena Valley. Individuals of P. salpinflexus sec. Franz & Cardona- Duque (2013) were collected together with those of P. spinothylax sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) at all reported localities except for Amalfi, Remedios and Sup´ıa in the Antioquia and Caldas Departments, respectively. In addition, P. salpinflexus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) is sympatric with P. variabilis Franz & O’Brien sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) – a species previously recorded only in Ecuador – in Remedios, Antioquia, where adults of the two species were collected on the same inflorescence. P. salpinflexus sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) and P. spinothylax sec. Franz & Cardona-Duque (2013) develop in the reddish pulp of Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón [non-focal] infructescences, were they feed and pupate without (significantly) damaging the seeds ( Fig. 35 View Fig. 35 ).

At San Carlos and San Rafael, Antioquia, parasitoid wasps of the family Braconidae [non-focal] (Helconinae [non-focal]: cf. Nealiolus Mason [non-focal], and Euphorinae [non-focal]: cf. Holdawayella Loan [non-focal]) emerged from cut Carloduvica palmata [non-focal] infructescences. These wasps were parasitizing the immature stages of the species of Perelleschus sec. Franz & Cardona- Duque (2013). In San Carlos, the adult wasps emerged 2–3 days before natural exposure of the seed packages and were readily visible underneath the cuticle of the weevil larvae.

CEUA

CEUA

ICN

Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural

MEFLG

Museo Entomologico Francisco Luis Gallego

UNAB

Universidad Nacional, Facultad de Agronomia