Ceraticelus artemisiae , Prentice, Thomas R. & Redak, Richard A., 2009

Prentice, Thomas R. & Redak, Richard A., 2009, A new species of Ceraticelus Simon from southern California and a redescription of Ceraticelus phylax Ivie & Barrows, its probable sister species (Araneae: Linyphiidae), Zootaxa 2233, pp. 39-56: 48-54

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.190335

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/997CC11F-FFC1-010D-FF78-1FCF388BE160

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Ceraticelus artemisiae
status

sp. nov.

Ceraticelus artemisiae  sp. nov.

( Figures 14–29View FIGURES 11 – 16View FIGURES 17 – 23View FIGURES 24 – 28View FIGURE 29)

Ceraticelus  sp. # 1: Prentice et al. 1998: 188, 194, 196; Prentice et al. 2001: 96, 108.

Type material. HOLOTYPE MALE: U.S.A.: California: San Diego County: Miramar Naval Air Station (now, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar), SW corner of base, San Clemente Canyon, 93.0 m [32 ° 51 '02.6"N 117 °09' 33.2 "W] 31 May 1995, vacuum sample from coastal sage scrub, coll. R. Redak lab & T. Prentice ( CAS 9032932). ALLOTYPE FEMALE: same data as for holotype ( CAS 9032933). PARATYPES: California: San Diego County: Miramar Naval Air Station (now, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar), NE corner of base near W Sycamore Canyon, 290 m [32 ° 55 '03.0"N 117 °00' 10.6 "W] 23, 22 June 1998 ( CAS 9032934, 9032935), SW corner of base, San Clemente Canyon, 88.4 m [32 ° 50 ' 55.1 "N 117 ° 10 ' 30.4 "W] 13, 19 May 1996 ( AMNH), 13, 23 August 1995 ( AMNH); SW corner of base, San Clemente Canyon, 93 m [32 ° 51 '02.6"N 117 °09' 33.2 "W] 13, 31 May 1995 ( UCRC 51332), vacuum samples from coastal sage scrub, coll. R. Redak lab & T. Prentice.

Other material examined. U.S.A.: California: Riverside County: Santa Rosa Plateau, Sylvan Meadows, 570 m [33 ° 32 'N 117 ° 17 'W] 23 4 Ƥ, 7 July 1999 ( CAS: 13 (9032936) 1 Ƥ (9032937 )), 63 5 Ƥ, 30 June 1999, 1Ƥ, 25 June 1999, sweepnet, coll. C. Dunning; Southwestern Riverside Multispecies Reserve, Lake Skinner, 143.3 m [33 ° 36 '05.4"N 117 °01' 58.7 "W] 1 Ƥ, 5 December 1997, 143 m [33 ° 36 ' 10.7 "N 117 °01' 21.8 "W] 13, 12 June 1996, vacuum samples coastal sage scrub, coll. R. Redak lab & T. Prentice; Santa Margarita Ecological Preserve, near N entrance, 349.3 m [33 ° 27 ' 43 "N 117 ° 10 ' 11 "W] 53 11 Ƥ, 3 June 1997, 6Ƥ, 2 June 1997 ( CAS: 1 Ƥ (9032938 )), vacuum samples California sagebrush ( Artemisia californica  ), coll. R. Redak lab & T. Prentice; San Diego County: Miramar Naval Air Station (now, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar), NE corner of base near W Sycamore Canyon, 290 m [32 ° 55 '03.0"N 117 °00' 10.6 "W] 1 Ƥ, 20 August 1998, 183 3 Ƥ, 22 June 1998 ( AMNH: 1 Ƥ)); near NE corner of base between W Sycamore Canyon & Sycamore Canyon, 300 m [32 ° 55 ' 16.6 "N 117 ° 59 ' 43.2 "W] 1 Ƥ, 20 August 1998, 23 4 Ƥ, 22 June 1998; SW corner of base, San Clemente Canyon, 88.4 m [32 ° 50 ' 55.1 "N 117 ° 10 ' 30.4 "W] 153 32 Ƥ, 19 May 1996, 42Ƥ, 12 December 1995 ( AMNH: 1 Ƥ), 23 151 Ƥ, 23 August 1995 ( CAS: 1 Ƥ (9032939 )), 193 33 Ƥ, 24 May 1995, 193, June 1994; SW corner of base, San Clemente Canyon, 93 m [32 ° 51 '02.6"N 117 °09' 33.2 "W] 33 17 Ƥ, 7 May 1996, 3Ƥ, 1 December 1995, 28Ƥ, 16 August 1995, 283 40 Ƥ, 31 May 1995, 158Ƥ, June 1994; SW corner of base, San Clemente Canyon, 99.7 m [32 ° 51 '0 4.3 "N 117 °0 8 ' 50.2 "W] 1 Ƥ, 5 December 1995, 105.5 m [32 ° 51 '0 6.3 "N 117 °08' 42.2 "W] 183 47 Ƥ, 16 May 1995, vacuum samples coastal sage scrub, coll. R. Redak lab & T. Prentice; Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Alfa Two, coastal side of base, 47 m [33 ° 22 ' 49.3 "N 117 ° 33 '01.0"W] 3 Ƥ, 17 May 1996, 1Ƥ, 26 August 1995; SW corner of base N of San Onofree Creek & Basilone Rd., 37.2 m [33 ° 23 ' 23.8 "N 117 ° 33 ' 17.2 "W] 23 2 Ƥ, 13 May 1996, 5Ƥ, 21 August 1995, 33 7 Ƥ, 16 May 1995; Romeo Three, coastal side of base, 81.7 m [33 ° 21 ' 22.1 "N 117 ° 31 ' 33.7 "W] 13 1 Ƥ, 13 May 1996, 33 2 Ƥ, 15 May 1995; Alfa One, western side of base, 133.8 m [33 ° 24 ' 53.9 "N 117 ° 31 ' 49.3 "W] 6 Ƥ, 26 August 1995; Juliette, east side of base, 138.7 m [33 ° 19 ' 31.7 "N 117 ° 17 ' 40.3 "W] 1 Ƥ, 21 August 1995; Romeo Two, coastal side of base, 81.4 m [33 ° 20 ' 58.6 "N 117 ° 30 ' 52.4 "W] 33 19 Ƥ, 19 August 1995; Romeo Two, coastal side of base, 69.2 m [33 ° 21 '02.0"N 117 °03.6'"W] 3 Ƥ, 14 August 1995; Papa Three, S of Basilone Rd., 214.6 m [33 ° 22 ' 18.6 "N 117 ° 27 '16.0"W] 7 Ƥ, 14 August 1995, 13 19 Ƥ, June 1994; Romeo Two, coastal side of base, 100.3 m [33 ° 20 ' 23.7 "N 117 ° 29 ' 52.5 "W] 23 16 Ƥ, 14 August 1995, 83 12 Ƥ, 7 June 1995, 13 1 Ƥ, 8 June 1995; Delta, northwest side of base, 160.9 m [33 ° 28 '02.9"N 117 ° 28 ' 26.1 "W] 33 5 Ƥ, 26 May 1995; Romeo One, S of Basilone Rd., 246.6 m [33 ° 22 ' 36.6 "N 117 ° 26 ' 17.3 "W] 33 5 Ƥ, 23 May 1995, vacuum samples coastal sage scrub, coll. R. Redak lab & T. Prentice

Etymology. The specific name is taken from the genus name of California sagebrush, Artemisia californica  , the only plant species yet known from which specimens have been collected.

Diagnosis. Males of Ceraticelus artemisiae  sp. nov. are distinguished from males of all other species except C. phylax  by the right-angled narrow shape of the tibial apophysis (PTA: Fig 21View FIGURES 17 – 23) which lacks an inferior process as in C. emertoni  (Fig 33: Crosby & Bishop, 1925) and C. tibialis  (Fig 104: Crosby & Bishop, 1925) and has both vertical and horizontal components narrower and more equal in length than in C. limnologicus  (Figs 61, 62: Crosby & Bishop, 1925), C. creolus  ( Figs 27, 28View FIGURES 24 – 28: Crosby & Bishop, 1925), and C. crassiceps  (Fig 54: Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939), by the small dorsolateral-subbasal angular protrusion of the cymbium (Cap: Fig 21View FIGURES 17 – 23) which is much less developed than in C. limnologicus  (Figs 61, 62: Crosby & Bishop, 1925) and C. crassiceps  (Fig 54: Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939), and the wide sigmoid shape of the paracymbium (P: Figs 14View FIGURES 11 – 16, 22, 23View FIGURES 17 – 23) which is much narrower in all similar species. Males are distinguished from those of C. phylax  by the shorter and much wider cephalic lobe ( Figs 17, 18View FIGURES 17 – 23, respectively) the shorter distal finger of the tegular sclerite (fg: Figs 20, 22View FIGURES 17 – 23), and usually by the patterned abdomen ( Fig 19View FIGURES 17 – 23). Although the patterning of the abdomen distinguishes C. artemisiae  sp. nov. from all other species it is occasionally absent (more often in males than in females) and is therefore not considered to be a reliable character.

Females can be distinguished from those of all other species lacking dorsal scuta except C. bryantae Kaston  by the anterior position of the mesal loop of the copulatory ducts relative to the spermathecal apex (CD: Figs 26, 28View FIGURES 24 – 28), and from C. bryantae  by the outline of the spermathecae and copulatory ducts in ventral view (Fig 40: Kaston, 1945) and usually by the patterned abdomen ( Fig 25View FIGURES 24 – 28) which is immaculate in C. bryantae  . In cases when the abdominal pattern of C. artemisiae  sp. nov. and the cephalic infuscation of C. phylax  have faded completely in alcohol or are otherwise lacking, dissection may be necessary to confirm identity ( Fig 28View FIGURES 24 – 28; compare to Fig 10View FIGURES 7 – 10) if the ventral view of the epigynum is obscured in either species.

Description. Holotype male. Total length ~ 1.55. Carapace: length 0.79; width 0.60, light brownishyellowish orange with narrow marginal black or dusky border, upper portion of cephalic region lighter in color, pars thoracica with fine reticulate microsculpture, without cervical constriction, carapace rapidly rising in relatively flat incline to level between coxae II & III, then in low convex arc to base of cephalic lobe. Cephalic region: lobe wide and low, rising convexly in steep arc to highest point posterior of PME, convexly descending to flattened area just anterior to PME, concavely descending below most anterior convex point to clypeal border (refer to Fig 17View FIGURES 17 – 23); setae on each side between AME and PME directed medially; cephalic height 0.41, cephalic width 0.36, cephalic width/carapace width 0.61, clypeal height 0.24. Eyes: AER recurved, PER very slightly recurved, PME separated by ~ 2.4 diameters, PME –PLE 1.2 X PME diameter, PME, PLE, and ALE subequal in size, laterals contiguous, AME smallest, separated by ~ 0.5 diameters, positioned in middle of flattened region of lobe, black rings surrounding eyes. Chelicerae: relatively weak, outer margin slightly concave, cheliceral stridulatory stiae present but weakly developed (refer to Fig 16View FIGURES 11 – 16), fangs well developed, 5 promarginal teeth, 2 nd largest, 3 retromarginal denticles. Sternum and pedicel: as in C. phylax  males. Abdomen: setiferous dorsal scutum yellowish orange, narrower than abdomen, covering approximately 65 percent of length, more or less bilobed posteriorly (abnormal condition); setal bases surrounded by diminutive sclerites; two oblique and three transverse dark stripes present, connecting ventrolaterally on posterior half of abdomen, not connecting dorsally (refer to Fig 19View FIGURES 17 – 23), oblique stripes visible through scutum, transverse stripes distad of posterior edge of scutum, non-patterned membranous parts pale yellowish white; all ventral sclerites yellowish orange, epigastric scutum heavily sclerotized widely surrounding pedicel, not divided as in female, laterally extending slightly distad of epigastric furrow, posterolateral edges curving mesally, epigastric stridulatory striae and cuticular plectra (refer to Fig 15View FIGURES 11 – 16) as in C. phylax  ; inframammillary sclerite more weakly sclerotized, confined to ventral surface; non-sclerotized central region of venter pale yellowish white, only very lateral portions darkened. Legs: coloration yellowish-white, leg I length 1.82, leg II length 1.74, leg III length 1.40, leg IV length 1.80, femur I slightly shorter than carapace width, LLI/CW 3.08, tibia I longer than metatarsus I, TiI l/d 6.1, tibial spines absent, TmI 0.51, TmIV absent. Palps: patella and femur as in C. phylax  but respectively shorter, length patella 0.26, length femur 0.32; tibia with apophysis (refer to Fig 21View FIGURES 17 – 23) very similar to that of C. phylax  except proximal two setae on anterior surface of proximal shaft of apophysis separated by about length of each; tibial trichobothria not detected. Palpal bulb: cymbium with small dorsolateral-subbasal angular projection (refer to Figs 21, 22View FIGURES 17 – 23: Cap), not as broad mesolaterally as in C. phylax  but also with single transverse row of laterally curving setae, otherwise nearly identical; paracymbium (refer to Figs 14View FIGURES 11 – 16, 22, 23View FIGURES 17 – 23: P) as in C. phylax  , also with paracymbial membrane and scale-like structure (refer to Figs 14View FIGURES 11 – 16, 23View FIGURES 17 – 23: Pm, Psc). Conformation of palpal bulb nearly identical to that of C. phylax  except for the less expansive, less longitudinally rugose tegular sclerite and much shorter distal finger (refer to Figs 21, 22View FIGURES 17 – 23: Tscl, fg, respectively).

Allotype female. Total length ~ 1.50. Carapace: length 0.69, width 0.57, color and dusky marginal band as in male, with very slight cervical constriction, rising most abruptly posteriorly at flat incline to level between coxae II & III then to highest point just behind PME, in profile outline slightly flattening in posterior cephalic region before rise toward PME, pars thoracica with fine reticulate micosculpture, cephalic height 0.29, ocular width/carapace width 0.51, clypeal height 0.15. Eyes: PME ~1.0 diameter apart, PME and ALE subequal in size, PLE slightly smaller, PEs contiguous, AME smallest, ~ 0.3 diameters apart, black rings around eyes, eye region not darkened as in C. phylax  , AER straight, PER very slightly recurved. Chelicerae: more stout than in male, stridulatory striae not detected, 5 promarginal teeth, 3 retromarginal denticles. Sternum and pedicel: as in holotype. Legs: coloration as in holotype, leg I length 1.78, leg II length 1.68, leg III length 1.41, leg IV length 1.80, femur I slightly shorter than carapace width, LLI/CW 3.12, tibia I longer than metatarsus I, TiI l/d 5.6, tibial spines absent, TmI 0.59, TmIV absent. Abdomen: dark markings more pronounced than in male, six distinguishable bands darker and much more broadly developed, especially oblique bands (refer to Fig 25View FIGURES 24 – 28), all bands broadly converging laterally; imbricated stridulatory striae (refer to Fig 15View FIGURES 11 – 16) and cuticular stridulatory plectra as in holotype; coloration and arrangement of abdominal sclerites as in C. phylax  females except epigastric plates over book lungs darker than remainder of epigastric sclerite. Epigynum: (refer to Fig 26View FIGURES 24 – 28; compare to Fig 8View FIGURES 7 – 10) very similar to that of C. phylax  , convolution of copulatory tubes identical (refer to Fig 28View FIGURES 24 – 28; compare to Fig 10View FIGURES 7 – 10), with laterally positioned spermathecae directed anterolaterally and both mesal and lateral loops extending anterior to level of spermathecal apex (refer to Fig 26View FIGURES 24 – 28).

Variation. Males (n= 18). Total length ~ 1.50–1.85. Carapace: length 0.69–0.83 (mean 0.75), width 0.54– 0.63 (mean 0.58), in profile ( Fig 17View FIGURES 17 – 23) from base to base of lobe varying only slightly in convex contour. Cephalic region: upper portion of cephalic lobe often slightly lighter in color than the rest of carapace, cephalic height 0.37–0.46, cephalic width 0.32–0.42, cephalic width/carapace width 0.57–0.69 (mean 0.64), clypeal height 0.20–0.26; setae below AME usually directed anteriad to anterodorsad. Eyes: both AER and PER straight to slightly recurved, PME –PME ~2.0–3.0 diameters apart, PME –PLE ~1.0– 1.5 X PME diameter, PME, PLE, and ALE subequal in size, lateral eyes contiguous, AME smallest, subcontiguous to separated by ~ 0.75 diameters. Chelicerae: equipped with 3–5 promarginal teeth, 5 most common and 2–4 retromarginal denticles, 4 least common, stridulatory striae (striae detectable on cleared chelicerae at 400 X magnification under transmitted light) very weakly developed ( Fig 16View FIGURES 11 – 16), probably nonfunctional; palpal plectra not detected. Abdomen: as in C. phylax  , dorsal scutum varying greatly in shape and degree of development in both width and length but always present; dark patterned markings usually lighter and less broadly developed than in female, usually 5-7 bands present, often very faint, less often not visible; epigastric plates over book lungs often darker than remainder of scutum; imbricated stridulatory striae ( Fig 15View FIGURES 11 – 16) and coxa IV plectra as in C. phylax  . Legs: leg I more often longer than, occasionally equal to, and rarely shorter than leg IV, LFI/CW 0.93 – 1.00 (femur I and CW equal in one male), LLI/CW 3.08–3.39, tibia I longer than metatarsus I, TiI l/d ~6.0– 7.0, tibial spines absent, TmI 0.50–0.60, TmIV absent. Palps: patella long, slightly shorter than femur but more robust, both segments shorter than in C. phylax  , length patella 0.23–0.31, length femur 0.29–0.36, tibia short, horizontal portion of tibial apophysis to beginning of bend usually more or less parallel sided ( Fig 21View FIGURES 17 – 23) but occasionally posterior surface slightly bulging proximally, proximal two setae on anterior surface of horizontal portion of shaft varying in position but usually separated by approximately their length; tibial trichobothria not detected. Palpal bulb: distal finger of tegular sclerite (fg: Figs 20, 22View FIGURES 17 – 23) varying in degree of development but short in comparison to that of P. p h y l a x (fg: Figs 3, 5View FIGURES 1 – 6).

Females (n= 18). Total length ~ 1.45–1.80. Carapace: length 0.63–0.74 (mean 0.69), width 0.52–0.60 (mean 0.57), in profile ( Fig 24View FIGURES 24 – 28) rising most abruptly posteriorly at relatively straight incline to level between coxae II & III then gradually to highest point just behind PME, outline relatively straight to slightly concave just anteriad steep rise, cephalic height 0.27–0.33, ocular width/carapace width 0.47–0.53 (mean 0.51), clypeal height 0.12–0.17. Eyes: AER straight, PER straight to very slightly recurved, PME –PME ~ 0.7–1.3 diameters apart, PME –PLE ~ 0.4–0.8 X PME diameter, PME and ALE usually subequal, PLE usually very slightly smaller, occasionally PME and lateral eyes subequal, lateral eyes contiguous, PME smallest, subcontiguous to separated by 0.75 X AME diameter. Chelicerae: stridulatory striae not detected (cleared chelicerae at 400 X magnification), 3–5 promarginal teeth, 5 most common, 2–4 retromarginal denticles, 3 most common. Abdomen: pattern as described for allotype but often broken into to six or seven bands ( Fig 25View FIGURES 24 – 28), most anterior oblique band broadest and usually converging more ventrally than other bands, occasionally not converging, bands sometimes indistinct due to more pronounced lateral convergence, occasionally pattern indistinct or rarely absent (possibly an effect of preservation); epigastric plates over book lungs occasionally darker than remainder of sclerite. Legs and palps: length leg I usually less than, occasionally greater than or equal to length leg IV (16 /18, 1/18, 1/ 18 females, respectively), LLI/CW 2.95– 3.32, LFI/CW 0.87–0.97, tibia I longer than metatarsus I, TiI l/d 5.3–6.1, tibial spines absent, TmI 0.46–0.61, TmIV absent, palpal tibia with 2 trichbothria. Epigynum: very similar to that of C. phylax  (duct convolution identical) except mesal loop of the copulatory ducts always extending anteriad level of spermathecal apex (CD, S: Figs 26, 28View FIGURES 24 – 28), lateral loop either at the same level (CD: Fig 28View FIGURES 24 – 28) or anteriad level of the spermathecal apex.

Distribution. Specimens are known only from Riverside and San Diego counties in Southern California ( Fig 29View FIGURE 29) (also refer to ‘Distribution’ section for C. phylax  ).

Habitat. Ceraticelus artemisiae  sp. nov. is known primarily from coastal sage scrub communities (see Prentice et al. 1998: 188, 194; Prentice et al. 2001: 96). Both males and females have been collected in vacuum samples from California Sagebrush, Artemisia californica  (also refer to ‘Introduction’ and Habitat section for C. phylax  ).

Phenology. Males have been collected from early May to August, females from May to December (see Prentice et al. 1998: 188, 194). Several penultimate and a few antepenulimate males were taken in August samples, indicating that males are probably active at least into fall. Two males were collected by hand about mid-day in early May at MCBCP, which suggests that the species is most likely diurnal.

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

UCRC

University of California, Riverside

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Linyphiidae

Genus

Ceraticelus

Loc

Ceraticelus artemisiae

Prentice, Thomas R. & Redak, Richard A. 2009
2009
Loc

Ceraticelus

Prentice 2001: 96
Prentice 1998: 188
1998