Argiope carvalhoi ( Mello-Leitão 1944 ), Martins & Santos, 2018

Martins, Pedro H. & Santos, Adalberto J., 2018, Morphology and taxonomy of the orb-weaving spider genus Mecynogea, and a peculiar species of Argiope (Araneae, Araneidae), Zootaxa 4415 (3), pp. 423-451 : 443-448

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Argiope carvalhoi ( Mello-Leitão 1944 )


Argiope carvalhoi ( Mello-Leitão 1944) revalidated, new combination

Figs 16 View FIGURE 16 , 20 View FIGURE 20 , 21 View FIGURE 21

Mecynogea carvalhoi Mello-Leitão, 1944: 8 (Female holotype from Barra do Tapirapés, Santa Terezinha, Mato Grosso, Brazil, A.L. de Carvalho leg., MNRJ 1538, examined). World Spider Catalog 2017 (nomen dubium)

Manogea porracea ( C.L. Koch, 1838) —synonymized by Levi 1997: 234. Silva-Moreira et al. 2010:18.

Diagnosis. The epigynum of Argiope carvalhoi resembles that of A. florida Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944 and A. blanda O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 in the shape of the median septum and the rim ( Levi 1968: fig. 100) and in the large septal lip ( Levi 1968: fig. 143) respectively. It can be distinguished from these species and the remaining species of the genus, except from the Australasian A. probata Rainbow, 1916 and A. protensa L. Koch 1872 , by the long and narrow abdomen, without lateral lobes ( Fig. 20B View FIGURE 20 ). Argiope carvalhoi can be distinguished from A. protensa by the shape of the epigynum, which is very elongated and have the copulatory openings facing dorsally in the latter species ( Levi 1983: figs 98–101). The epigynum of A. carvalhoi also differs from that of A. probata ( Levi 1983: figs 107–108) in the larger septal lip ( Fig. 21A View FIGURE 21 ) and narrower median plate in posterior view ( Fig. 21B View FIGURE 21 ).

Description. Male unknown.

Female. Holotype from Barra do Tapirapés , Santa Terezinha, Mato Grosso, Brazil ( MNRJ 1538 View Materials ). Carapace pale yellow in the cephalic region and light brown in the thoracic region ( Fig. 20A View FIGURE 20 ). Chelicerae pale yellow with numerous short, proximal-median macrosetae. Endites and labium pale yellow. Sternum pale yellow with three lateral depressions that coincide with brown markings. There are small tubercles between each depression, the anterior larger than the others, and an unpaired tubercle in the posterior portion. Palp pale yellow with numerous spiniform macrosetae. Legs with a pale-yellow background covered by numerous dark brown spots, more densely distributed on the first femur. All coxae pale yellow, the first with small ventral macrosetae. First trochanter with numerous short, prolateral macrosetae. Opisthosoma with two anteriorly directed humps, and a pair of dorsal lines extending from the anterior humps to the posterior apex, and a smaller band extending from the middle to posterior apex ( Fig. 20A View FIGURE 20 ). Venter light brown, with a pair of white bands extending from the epigastric groove to the spinnerets ( Fig. 20B View FIGURE 20 ). Total length 9.00; carapace 2.50 long, 2.20 wide in the thoracic area, 1.20 wide after the posterior median eyes. Femur I length 4.20, patella 1.20, tibia 3.30, metatarsus 4.20, tarsus 1.40 (right leg). Patella II 1.00, III 0.70, IV 1.10. Tibia II 3.10, III 1.50, IV 2.70. Epigynum in ventral view with a procurved rim connected to a straight and slender median septum, making an Y-shaped structure ( Fig. 21A View FIGURE 21 ). Septal lips well developed and projects laterally ( Figs 21A–B, E View FIGURE 21 ). Copulatory openings visible laterally ( Fig. 21E View FIGURE 21 ). Posterior margin of septum rounded in lateral view ( Fig. 21C–D View FIGURE 21 ). In posterior view, median septum connected to rim and septal lip emerging from copulatory openings ( Fig. 21B, E View FIGURE 21 ).

Remarks. The holotype of Mecynogea carvalhoi was not available at the time H.W. Levi was preparing his revision on Mecynogea ( Levi 1997) . Thus, based on the original description of the species ( Mello-Leitão 1944), he proposed it as a tentative synonym of Manogea porracea , a nomenclatural act not accepted subsequently ( World Spider Catalog 2017).

The holotype has a male embolus attached to each copulatory opening ( Fig. 21 A, B, D, F View FIGURE 21 ), indicating that the male embolus can serve as a mating plug, as observed in other species of the genus ( Uhl et al. 2010 and references therein). These detached emboli are the only parts of the male known at the moment, and both show a long pendant, a fork-like apophysis present in the embolus of several species of the genus ( Jäger 2012).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality, in northern Brazil ( Fig. 16 View FIGURE 16 )














Argiope carvalhoi ( Mello-Leitão 1944 )

Martins, Pedro H. & Santos, Adalberto J. 2018

Mecynogea carvalhoi Mello-Leitão, 1944 : 8

Mello-Leitão, 1944 : 8

Manogea porracea (

Levi 1997 : 234
Silva-Moreira et al. 2010 :18