van der Hammen, L., 1959, Berlese's Primitive Oribatid Mites, Zoologische Verhandelingen 40, pp. 1-93: 41-42

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Steganacarus  Ewing, 1917

Hoplophora  , Berlese, 1892d, fasc. 67 (5).

Steganacarus  Ewing, 1917, pp. 125, 130.

Atropacarus  Ewing, 1917, pp. 125, 130.

Trachyhoplophora  Berlese, 1923, p. 257.

Species of the present genus have been listed with the genera Hoplophora  C. L. Koch, Hoploderma  Michael, Steganacarus  Ewing, Atropacarus  Ewing, and Trachyhoplophora  Berlese.

C. L. Koch used the name Hoplophora  in 1836 when he described two species: Hoplophora decumana  (now Oribotritia  ) and Hoplophora stricula  (now Steganacarus  ). In 1842 C. L. Koch published a diagnosis of the genus:, and designated Hoplophora laevigata C. L. Koch  (1841) as type.

Because the name Hoplophora  appeared to be preocupied (Hoplophora Perty, Orthoptera  ), Michael (1898) gave the new name Hoploderma  to the genus. In the present case it is of no importance that Michael regarded laevigata  as a possible synonym of " Phthiracarus  " nudus  , so that we can follow the general use that laevigata  is also the type of Hoploderma  .

Opinion 204 of the "Opinions and declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature" deals with Koch's designation of types. In the present case (type-species described in 1841, two other species in 1836) it will be necessary to submit an application to the Commission for the use of the Plenary Powers, because adoption of the rules (i.e. to place Oribotritia  in the synonymy of Hoploderma  ) would lead to instability and confusion; the possibility of this use is mentioned in the opinion in question.

Because Hoploderma  Michael (1898) has laevigata  as type, it must be placed in the synonymy of Phthiracarus  Perty (1839) of which, according to Jacot (1930, p. 211), the type ( P. contractilis Perty  , 1841) is a synonym of laevigata  . Further notes on the genus Phthiracarus  are given below.

Although the name Hoploderma  has been in use for some time for the present genus, most authors followed Jacot (1930) in accepting the correct name Steganacarus  Ewing, 1917 (type: Hoplophora anomala Berlese  ). Ewing (1917) also described the genus Atropacarus  (type: Hoplophora stricula C. L. Koch  ); this genus is not yet sufficiently characterized. In 1923 Berlese created Trachyhoplophora  , a subgenus of Phthiracarus  (!), with Hoplophora magna  Nicolet as type; because magna  is related to anomala  , Trachyhoplophora  becomes a synonym of Steganacarus  .

Berlese's species can be arranged in some groups that are based on the general habitus: anomalus  , magnus  , applicatus  ( Steganacarus  s.str.); phyllophorus  (related to Hoplophorella  , but dif ferent in the arrangement of the anal hairs); clavigerus  , vitrinum  , remigerus  , somalicus  (? Atropacarus  ); pardinus  and rapax  (which have a superficial resemblance to anomalus  and magnus  , but are different in several characters).













van der Hammen, L. 1959


Berlese 1924