Aphonopelma steindachneri (Ausserer, 1875)

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 231-241

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/9BF2AB42-4C31-6C64-4A26-56CE8987C3C1

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Aphonopelma steindachneri (Ausserer, 1875)
status

 

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma steindachneri (Ausserer, 1875)  Figures 133, 134, 135, 136, 137

Eurypelma steindachneri  Ausserer, 1875: 199; male holotype from Wruck Canyon, SE San Ysidro, San Diego Co., California, 32.548946 -117.006135 4, elev. 237ft., unknown collection date, coll. Dr. Steindachner; deposited in NHMW. [examined by Prentice pers. comm. and see Prentice (1997)]

Delopelma steindachneri  Petrunkevitch, 1939: 253.

Rhechostica steindachneri  Raven, 1985: 160.

Aphonopelma steindachneri  Smith, 1995: 147.

Aphonopelma steindachneri  - male neotype designated (APH_1023) from Wruck Canyon, San Ysidro, off Cactus Rd., San Diego Co., California, 32.55002 -116.99192 1, elev. 398ft., 16.v.2010, coll. Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, Jordan Satler; deposited in AUMNH.

Aphonopelma phanus  Chamberlin, 1940: 24; male holotype from Laguna Beach, Orange Co., California, 33.542248 -117.783110 5; elev. 18ft., vii.1931, coll. unknown; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica phanus  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma phanus  Smith, 1995: 128.

Aphonopelma phanum  . syn. n.

Aphonopelma reversum  Chamberlin, 1940: 8; male holotype, male paratype, three female paratypes from San Diego, San Diego Co., California, 32.715738 -117.161085 6, elev. 54ft., 1935, coll. unknown; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica reversum  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma reversum  Smith, 1995: 133. syn. n.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma steindachneri  (Fig. 133) is the only member of the Steindachneri  species group in the Unite States and can be identified by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear DNA identifies Aphonopelma steindachneri  as a strongly supported phylogenetically distinct monophyletic lineage, supported as the sister lineage to all other species of Aphonopelma  in the United States (Fig. 8). Aphonopelma steindachneri  males and females are easily differentiated from all other species in California by the combination of their reduced scopulation on metatarsi three and four, their black color, and size. The most significant measurement that distinguishes male and female Aphonopelma steindachneri  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species is the extent scopulation on metatarsus IV. Male Aphonopelma steindachneri  possess a smaller L4 scopulation extent (21%-31%) than Aphonopelma eutylenum  (62%-74%), Aphonopelma iodius  (62%-88%), and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  sp. n. (70%-76%). Female Aphonopelma steindachneri  possess a smaller L4 scopulation extent (24%-34%) than Aphonopelma eutylenum  (62%-75%), Aphonopelma iodius  (59%-83%), and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (67%-82%).

Description.

Originally described by Ausserer (1875).

Description of male neotype

(APH_1023; Fig. 134). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, kept alive to mature, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Black and faded black. Cephalothorax: Carapace 17.21 mm long, 16.01 mm wide; Hirsute; densely clothed with faded black iridescent pubescence mostly appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises gradually from foveal groove toward ocular area; AER slightly procurved, PER strongly recurved; normal sized chelicerae; carapace much more round than syntopic species; clypeus slightly extends forward, but mostly straight; LBl 2.01, LBw 2.29; sternum hirsute, clothed with black, densely packed setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black pubescence with numerous longer red/orange setae interspersed; possessing a dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972). Legs: Hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in a mix of black or faded black pubescence, femurs are darker. Metatarsus I slightly curved. F1 17.01; F1w 4.03; P1 6.89; T1 14.86; M1 12.95; A1 7.88; F3 13.76; F3w 4.47; P3 6.11; T3 11.59; M3 13.73; A3 7.60; F4 16.28; F4w 4.08; P4 6.25; T4 14.12; M4 18.43; A4 8.42; femur III is slightly swollen. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 54.2%; leg IV (SC4) = 31.4%. Three ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; eight ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered/thin tapered setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and two spinose setae on the prolateral tibia; PTl 9.855, PTw 2.95. When extended, embolus tapers and gently curves to the retrolateral side near apex; embolus very slender, no keels.

Variation (7).Cl 12.74-19.08 (15.197 ± 0.84), Cw 12.19-17.33 (14.029 ± 0.75), LBl 1.53-2.20 (1.77 ± 0.09), LBw 1.77-2.91 (2.123 ± 0.15), F1 13.84-17.76 (15.367 ± 0.59), F1w 3.1-4.31 (3.621 ± 0.17), P1 5.69-7.38 (6.231 ± 0.25), T1 12.58-15.12 (13.684 ± 0.4), M1 10.6-14.12 (11.837 ± 0.5), A1 6.64-8.71 (7.49 ± 0.26), L1 length 49.48-63.09 (54.61 ± 1.96), F3 11.58-14.89 (12.794 ± 0.47), F3w 3.43-4.89 (4.053 ± 0.2), P3 4.66-6.22 (5.437 ± 0.23), T3 9.39-11.77 (10.309 ± 0.39), M3 11.31-14.94 (12.511 ± 0.52), A3 6.58-8.72 (7.356 ± 0.27), L3 length 43.72-56.54 (48.407 ± 1.83), F4 13.38-17.36 (14.827 ± 0.58), F4w 3.06-4.52 (3.624 ± 0.2), P4 4.96-6.38 (5.604 ± 0.21), T4 11.63-15.45 (12.823 ± 0.54), M4 15.04-20.16 (16.714 ± 0.73), A4 7.31-9.01 (7.997 ± 0.23), L4 length 52.75-68.36 (57.966 ± 2.26), PTl 8.359-10.514 (9.091 ± 0.31), PTw 2.45-3.05 (2.708 ± 0.08), SC3 ratio 0.401-0.542 (0.479 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.22-0.314 (0.282 ± 0.01), Coxa I setae = tapered/thin tapered, F3 condition = slightly swollen.

Description of female exemplar

(APH_1022; Figs 135-136). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Black/faded black. Cephalothorax: Carapace 20.22 mm long, 17.96 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with black/grey pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and slightly procurved; pars cephalica region rises from thoracic furrow more strongly than syntopic species, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER and PER not normal due to apparent developmental issues, with what appears to be an extra ALE merged with the ALE on the left side (see Fig. 135A); broad anterior margin of carapace; large chelicerae, clypeus extends forward on a curve; LBl 2.33, LBw 2.77; sternum very hirsute, clothed with dark black setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short black setae with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972); ventral side with shorter black setae. Spermathecae: Paired and separate, tapering and curving medially towards capitate bulbs, relatively shorter than other syntopic species, with wide bases that are not fused. Legs: Very hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in medium and long black/faded black pubescence, femurs darker. F1 14.61; F1w 4.73; P1 7.18; T1 11.86; M1 8.74; A1 6.32; F3 12.18; F3w 4.35; P3 5.78; T3 8.37; M3 9.44; A3 6.33; F4 14.79; F4w 4.49; P4 5.93; T4 11.13; M4 13.10; A4 7.09. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 60.8%; leg IV (SC4) = 30.7%. Three ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; ten ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered/thin tapered setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; three spinose setae on the prolateral tibia.

Variation (6).Cl 16.59-20.22 (18.295 ± 0.53), Cw 14.55-17.96 (16.215 ± 0.52), LBl 1.97-2.43 (2.178 ± 0.09), LBw 2.27-2.77 (2.458 ± 0.09), F1 11.91-14.61 (13.75 ± 0.39), F1w 3.98-4.73 (4.41 ± 0.12), P1 5.57-7.18 (6.538 ± 0.24), T1 8.95-12.03 (11.19 ± 0.47), M1 7.46-8.74 (8.207 ± 0.23), A1 6.24-7.33 (6.608 ± 0.16), L1 length 40.13-48.99 (46.293 ± 1.35), F3 10.46-12.21 (11.417 ± 0.29), F3w 3.71-4.35 (3.967 ± 0.09), P3 4.79-6.50 (5.662 ± 0.23), T3 7.62-8.91 (8.312 ± 0.17), M3 7.87-9.44 (8.897 ± 0.24), A3 6.33-6.93 (6.595 ± 0.1), L3 length 37.25-43.66 (40.882 ± 0.89), F4 12.85-14.79 (13.858 ± 0.29), F4w 3.94-4.49 (4.157 ± 0.08), P4 5.08-6.89 (5.93 ± 0.25), T4 10.37-11.44 (11.083 ± 0.16), M4 11.71-13.73 (12.688 ± 0.32), A4 6.86-7.54 (7.175 ± 0.1), L4 length 47.11-52.78 (50.735 ± 0.89), SC3 ratio 0.513-0.608 (0.574 ± 0.01), SC4 ratio 0.245-0.344 (0.3 ± 0.01), C1 setae = tapered/thin tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 136.

Material examined.

United States: California: Kern: above Frazier Park Ranger Station, 34.800403 -118.996582 5, 5700ft., [AUMS_3298, 18/7/1987, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Caliente Creek, 20 miles N Hwy 58 + 2.5 mils N of Twin Oaks country store, Piute Mtns, 35.345195 -118.386352 5, 3348ft., [AUMS_2603, 11/6/1989, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Erskine Creek (Canyon), Erskine Creek road, 35.593637 -118.445971 5, 2933ft., [AUMS_3322, 10/1970, 1♀, J. Anderson, AUMNH]; N of Tehachapi, off Tehachapi Loop (Woodford-Tehachapi Rd), 35.20873 -118.55061 1, 2821ft., [APH_3100, 17/7/2012, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Amy Skibiel, AUMNH]; near Lake Isabella, off Kern River Canyon Rd, near Bod fish and Lake Isabella Blvd intersection, 35.5912 -118.51563 1, 2662ft., [APH_3096-3098, 14/7/2012, 3♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Jim Starrett, Amy Skibiel AUMNH]; S of Tehachapi, off Sand Canyon Rd - off Hwy 58, 35.16025 -118.32507 1, 4144ft., [APH_3099, 17/7/2012, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Amy Skibiel, AUMNH]; Los Angeles: 27832 Stonehill Way, Canyon Country, 34.42464 -118.45257 2, 1525ft., [APH_0362, 6/7/2008, 1♂, Anette Pillau, AUMNH]; [APH_0413, 23/8/2008, 1♀, Anette Pillau, AUMNH]; Azusa, 3 miles west in Fish Canyon, 34.135573 -117.940972 5, 581ft., [APH_2694, 23/9/1956, 1♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; Benedict Canyon, Santa Monica Mtns, 34.092508 -118.42897 5, 548ft., [APH_2722, 1967, 3♂, unknown, AMNH]; Canyon Country, Fitch Ave, 34.44963 -118.43426 2, 1820ft., [APH_1632, unknown, 1♀, Anette Pillau, AUMNH]; Chatsworth, 34.250636 -118.61481 5, 1007ft., [APH_2342, 24/7/1962, 1♂, Chamberlin, AMNH]; [APH_2350, 14/8/1966, 1♀, Chamberlin, AMNH]; [APH_2353, 25/9/1966, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; corner of Avenue 50 and Figueroa Street, Los Angeles, 34.104913 -118.202204 4, 502ft., [APH_2673, 10/10/1962, 1♂, C. Feldmeth, AMNH]; E of Valyermo (Angeles National Forest), junction of Big Pines Hwy and Big Rock Creek Rd, 34.43123 -117.83439 1, 4074ft., [APH_1044, 30/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Placerita Canyon, 34.373899 - 118.450673 5, 2188ft., [APH_2670, 23/9/1965, 1♂, J. Kelley, AMNH]; San Fernando Valley, 34.182785 -118.43996 6, 702ft., [APH_2715, 8/1959, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Sierra Madre, 34.161673 -118.052846 7, 955ft., [APH_2465, unknown, 1♂, Chas Camp, AMNH]; Orange: Laguna Beach, 0.5 miles from Hwy-133 and CA-1, 33.54846 -117.78093 4, 84ft., [APH_0043, 31/8/2003, 1 juv, Felix Martin, AUMNH]; Limestone Canyon, Limestone Canyon Reserve, 33.764025 -117.710106 5, 806ft., [AUMS_2296, 22/7/1997, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; N of Laguna Beach, off Hwy 133, Laguna Coast Wilderness Park, James Dilley Greenbelt Preserve, off Mariposa Trail, 33.59678 -117.75917 1, 350ft., [APH_3104-3105, 20/7/2012, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Amy Skibiel, AUMNH]; San Juan ranger station, up trail toward Chiquito Spring, 33.647262 -117.433319 6, 2537ft., [AUMS_2595, 25/6/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Santiago Canyon Road at Limestone SPVR gate, 33.752467 -117.691955 6, 971ft., [AUMS_2630, 22/7/1997, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Riverside: 1 mile W of Winchester, Icenogle residence, 33.707049 -117.101768 4, 1461ft., [AUMS_2304, 17/7/1989, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; 2163 Mt. Vernon Ave, Riverside, 33.990875 -117.316626 2, 1372ft., [AUMS_2589, 7/1991, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; 3231 October Ct, Corona, 33.875017 -117.505452 2, 790ft., [APH_1369, 7/9/2011, 1♂, Alan Bond, AUMNH]; Box Spring Mtns- backside toward 215 Freeway, 33.956553 -117.285374 6, 1923ft., [AUMS_2311, 19/7/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Box Spring Mtns, North Side, 34.005987 -117.302515 6, 1773ft., [AUMS_2584, 6/8/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Myrtle Rd. and California, Calimesa, 33.9973 -117.03894 5, 2535ft., [AUMS_2648, 8/2002, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Calvert St, Winchester, Green Acres community, W of Hemet, 1/2 mile NE of Hwy 79 and 74 junction, 33.7425 -117.067883 4, 1619ft., [APH_1047, 15/7/2009, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; floor of Icenogle shop (at his home), 33.713802 -117.091508 4, 1545ft., [AUMS_2592, 7/7/1997, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Gavilon Hills-Amalfi Ave and Loonsberry, 33.82904 -117.379834 5, 1559ft., [AUMS_2307, 25/8/1998, 1♀, M. Blva, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner-below U5 toward lake, 33.603475 -117.056291 5, 2040ft., [AUMS_2312 , 28/9/1997, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, 0.3 miles S of loop road to B7, 33.620919 -117.014227 4, 2068ft., [AUMS_2313, 17/7/1997, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, 0.3 miles W of road to Ultz, 33.571286 -117.067755 5, 1500ft., [AUMS_2305, 17/7/1997, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, 0.4 miles south of Loop Road, 33.569122 -117.060326 4, 1475ft., [AUMS_2253, 18/8/1999, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, just W of B9, No Shore Crossing Road, 33.580192 -117.036497 5, 1516ft., [AUMS_2306, 4/8/1997, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, Rawson Canyon, 0.4 miles S of Loop Rd, 33.596439 -117.022658 4, 1550ft., [AUMS_3302, 4/8/1997, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2303, 4/8/1997, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, Rawson Canyon, 0.45 miles S of loop rd., N side of Black Mtn., 33.631487 -117.004912 4, 2136ft., [AUMS_3314, 21/7/1997, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, Rawson Rd., on way out to Hwy 79, 33.628617 -117.062839 5, 1597ft., [AUMS_2596, 28/9/1997, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lamb Canyon off Hwy 79, ~1 mile N junction Gilman Springs Road, 33.859831 -117.006355 5, 2188ft., [AUMS_2318, 21/3/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Mockingbird Canyon (Mockingbird reservoir), 33.891344 -117.412145 5, 981ft., [AUMS_2664, unknown, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Morena Valley, 33.943057 -117.229709 6, 1627ft., [AUMS_2295, 4/8/1997, 1♂, Rob Vellu, AUMNH]; Mt. Vernon Ave, 33.991438 -117.316665 5, 1387ft., [AUMS_2591, 20/8/1991, 1♂, Lisa Fry, AUMNH]; Mt. Vernon area of Riverside, 34.004119 -117.313596 5, 1139ft., [AUMS_2308, 6/7/1997, 1♂, Michael Adams, AUMNH]; S of Hemet, NE of Lake Skinner, off De Portola Rd and Crown Valley Rd, 33.64249 -116.99219 1, 2329ft., [APH_1039, 27/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Tom Prentice, AUMNH]; San Jacinto Mtns, .5 miles W of Pinyon Pines Fire Station, .5 miles S Hwy 74 (Ribbonwood CP GR), 33.569305 -116.493135 4, 4469ft., [AUMS_2621, 9/7/2003, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; W side Box Spring Mtns, Mt. Vernon Ave-2163 M. Adams, 33.991205 -117.316559 5, 1380ft., [AUMS_2316, 28/7/1992, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Winchester, 33.706966 -117.084473 5, 1486ft., [APH_2325, 9/8/1968, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; [APH_2351, 4/8/1968, 1♂, Chamberlin, AMNH]; [AUMS_2586, 7/1991, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Winchester, Double Butte area, 33.713817 -117.0916 4, 1558ft., [APH_1048, 16/6/2009, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Winchester, Grand Ave., .5 miles E of jct of Leon Rd, 33.71436 -117.111327 4, 1508ft., [AUMS_2597, 9/8/1999, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Winchester, Icenogle home, 33.706838 -117.084548 4, 1475ft., [AUMS_2299, 5/5/1992, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2309, 26/7/1997, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2310, 3/7/1985, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2598, 17/8/1999, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2601, 1/9/1997, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2645, 22/7/1996, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; San Bernardino: San Bernardino (San Bernardino National Forest), in hills N of city, off Quail Canyon Rd and Del Rosa, 34.17506 -117.24981 1, 2402ft., [APH_1046, 1/6/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; San Diego: 4670 Vista St., San Diego, 32.762575 -117.103569 4, 367ft., [APH_2354, 23/6/1931, 1♀, Major Duncan, AMNH]; 7808 Vista Lazanja, San Diego, 32.978869 -117.161645 2, 327ft., [APH_0441, 18/11/2008, 1 juv, Sandy Lamb, AUMNH]; Camp Pendleton, 33.313998 -117.314552 6, 359ft., [AUMS_2298, 1999, 1♀, Dan, AUMNH]; Camp Pendleton, Santa Margarita Rd., 33.32354 -117.325895 5, 107ft., [AUMS_2599, 17/8/1999, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Daley Ranch, Escondido, 33.20605 -117.070667 1, 1550ft., [APH_0987, 9/2009, 1♀, Kyle Dickerson, AUMNH]; E of Alta Rd on Otay Mountain Truck Rd, 32.575022 -116.893226 4, 1524ft., [APH_0178, 8/2007, 1♂, Dorian LaPaglia, AUMNH]; El Cajon, 32.794773 -116.962527 5, 436ft., [APH_2332, 18/7/1930, 1♂, E. Pearson, AMNH]; El Monte County Park, NE of Flinn Springs, off El Monte Park Rd, 32.88992 -116.84796 1, 540ft., [APH_1030, 19/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Elliot Reserve, Elliot Chaparral Reserve, 32.891876 -117.095075 5, 651ft., [AUMS_2297, 8/8/1997, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; En canto, 32.711739 -117.061755 5, 318ft., [APH_2326, unknown, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; Escondido, at jct I-15 and Deer Springs Rd, 33.19611 -117.12774 5, 1006ft., [APH_0047, 2/2/2002, 1♀, Garth Hansen, AUMNH]; Jamul, off Jamul Dr, 32.72953 -116.87247 1, 882ft., [APH_0991-0992, 4/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Jamul, off Millar Ranch Rd, next to San Diego National Wildlife Refuge, 32.72892 -116.93993 1, 374ft., [APH_0993, 4/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; La Jolla, 32.84722 -117.27333 5, 105ft., [APH_2340, 8/11/1930, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2689, 26/8/1945, 1♂, Gardell Marshall, AMNH]; Lake Morena County Park, off Buckman Springs Rd, 32.684 -116.52038 1, 3091ft., [APH_0994-0995, 5/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; MNAS - 6C8, 33.093381 -116.608165 7, 3414ft., [AUMS_2492, 12/8/1997, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; MNAS - 6C8, W exposure hill slope, 33.093381 -116.608165 7, 3414ft., [AUMS_2593, 6/6/1997, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; N of I-8 and E of Alpine, on Viejas Grade Rd, 32.86061 -116.6763 1, 2966ft., [APH_1072, 12/8/2010, 1♂, Peter Scott, AUMNH]; near Lake Henshaw, on Co. Hwy 57, E of Palomar Mtn and W of Lake Henshaw, 33.26411 -116.76653 1, 3347ft., [APH_1074, 14/8/2010, 1♂, Peter Scott, AUMNH]; near Palomar Mountain, on Co. Hwy 57, 33.29249 -116.82854 1, 4559ft., [APH_1073, 14/8/2010, 1♂, Peter Scott, AUMNH]; off Kitchen Creek Rd, N of I-8 (N of Pacific Crest Natl. Scenic Trail), 32.75287 -116.45063 1, 3896ft., [APH_1026-1027, 18/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Otay, 32.559473 -116.973468 6, 486ft., [APH_2333, 5/7/1930, 1♀, J.L. Keltner, AMNH]; Otay Mesa, San Ysidro, 32.559473 -116.973468 5, 488ft., [AUMS_4192, 30/7/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Pine Valley, 32.82144 -116.529184 5, 3763ft., [APH_2347, 25/7/1927, 1♂, Kelsey, AMNH]; Point Loma, 32.70003 -117.246684 5, 318ft., [APH_2323, 1/8/1928, 1♀, Fred L. Keltuer, AMNH]; [APH_2338, 13/4/1936, 1♀, N.L. Johnson, AMNH]; Poway, 32.94456 -117.04873 1, 745ft., [APH_1011-1012, 12/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Ramona, Eben-Haezer Nevarez chicken farm, 33.00327 -116.87647 1, 1574ft., [APH_1013, 13/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; San Diego, 32.715329 -117.157255 6, 59ft., [APH_2324, 1932, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2327, 17/10/1934, 2♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2330, 1935, 2♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2331, 16/8/1926, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2334, 16/6/1932, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2335, 2/1/1925, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2336, 20/8/1927, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2337, 1/6/1927, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2339, unknown, 2♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2344, 7/8/1932, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2345, unknown, 4♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2346, 27/9/1920, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2348, unknown, 1♂, E. Denton, AMNH]; [APH_2349, 21/5/1932, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; San Diego Wild Animal Park, 33.09325 -116.98494 1, 642ft., [APH_0396-0397, 31/7/2008, 2♂, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; 54th and Montezuma, San Diego, 32.771159 -117.079432 5, 400ft., [APH_2343, 23/8/1960, 1♂, D. Irwin, AMNH]; San Diego, Mission Trails Regional Park, 32.84078 -117.04901 1, 585 ft., [APH_1032, 20/5/2010, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; San Luis Rey picnic area off 76, across San Luis Rey river on E hill slope, 33.249722 -116.7892 5, 2578ft., [AUMS_2300, unknown, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; San Ysidro area, just W of Cactus Rd., N of Calle la Linea, Wruck Canyon, SW slope, 32.550384 -116.99306 5, 387ft., [AUMS_2600, 14/9/1997, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; San Ysidro area, Wruck Canyon, W of Cactus Rd, 32.550352 -116.998292 5, 359ft., [AUMS_2293, 16/9/1997, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2302, 16/9/1997, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; San Ysidro, Otay Mesa, 0.5 miles E of school, 32.559473 -116.973468 5, 488ft., [AUMS_2646, 30/7/1994, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Santee, in hills N of where Carlton Hills Blvd ends, 32.86146 -116.99485 4, 780ft., [APH_0145, 9/7/2007, 1 juv, Gilbert Quintana, AUMNH]; [APH_0146, 5/2007, 1♀, Gilbert Quintana, AUMNH]; [APH_0147, 7/7/2007, 1♂, Gilbert Quintana, AUMNH]; [APH_0148, 9/7/2007, 1♂, Gilbert Quintana, AUMNH]; South Coronado Island, 32.685885 -117.183089 5, 7ft., [APH_2328, 19/8/1928, 1♂, C. Searl, AMNH]; SW of San Marcos (Lake San Marcos area), off Rancho Santa Fe Rd and Melrose Dr, 33.1095 -117.22002 1, 538ft., [APH_1033, 21/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Sweetwater, 32.633742 -117.079092 5, 81ft., [AUMS_2301, 8/unknown, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; Sweetwater Reserve/Sweetwater Regional Park, 32.672235 -117.021893 5, 96ft., [AUMS_2294, 9/97, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2602, 13/8/1997, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Torrey Pines State Preserve, 32.91788 -117.25008 1, 352ft., [APH_1034, 21/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; W of Alta Rd, S of Donovan State Prison Rd, 32.5755 -116.920052 4, 625ft., [APH_0179, 31/8/2007, 1♂, Dorian LaPaglia, AUMNH]; Wilderness Gardens Preserve, E of Pala, off Hwy 76 E of I-15, 33.35043 -117.0287 1, 557ft., [APH_1036, 24/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Wruck Canyon, San Ysidro, 32.550352 -116.998292 5, 359ft., [AUMS_3347, 10/8/1998, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Wruck Canyon, San Ysidro, off Cactus Rd, 32.55002 -116.99192 1, 398ft., [APH_1022-1024, 16/5/2010, 2♀, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, Jordan Satler, AUMNH]; Ventura: 1958 Smokey Ridge Ave, Westlake Village, 34.19675 -118.78803 2, 1349ft., [APH_0012, 14/7/2005, 1♂, Roy Dunn, AUMNH]; Los Padres National Forest, Dry Creek, 8 miles off I-5 thru Hungry Valley, 34.726379 -118.933743 5, 4629ft., [AUMS_3295, 1/8/1987, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Los Padres National Forest, off Gold Hill Rd, W of Hungry Valley State Vehicle Recreation Area, 34.72644 -118.92672 1, 4766ft., [APH_1043, 29/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Thousand Oaks, 34.21538 -118.80325 1, 1402ft., [APH_0317, 7/10/2007, 1♀, Anette Pillau, AUMNH]; 1640 Calle Yucca, Thousand Oaks, 34.20203 -118.90031 2, 751ft., [APH_0011, 25/7/2005, 1♂, Tracy Kolnick, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma steindachneri  is distributed from northern Baja California, north into California along the Southern Californian Coast Ranges, bounded by the Mojave Desert, across the Tehachapi Mountains, and into the southern portions of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Fig. 137). This species is found in the following Level III Ecoregions: Southern California/Northern Baja Coast, Southern California Mountains, and Sierra Nevada. Aphonopelma steindachneri  can be found in syntopy with Aphonopelma eutylenum  , Aphonopelma iodius  , and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  across its distribution. The breeding season, when mature males abandon their burrows in search of females, occurs during the summer ( July–August).

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma steindachneri  is widely distributed across Southern California and is very common. The species is likely secure although some localized populations in urbanized areas (e.g., Los Angeles and San Diego) are likely threatened by human encroachment and development.

Remarks.

Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma steindachneri  possess a smaller L3 scopulation extent (40%-54%) than Aphonopelma eutylenum  (72%-93%), Aphonopelma iodius  (78%-96%) and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (71%-82%); by possessing a larger T1/F3 (≥1.01; 1.01-1.11) than Aphonopelma eutylenum  (≤1.00; 0.93-1.00) and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (≤1.02; 0.95-1.02, with slight overlap). Other important ratios that distinguish females: Aphonopelma steindachneri  possess a smaller L3 scopulation extent (51%-61%) than Aphonopelma eutylenum  (77%-91%), Aphonopelma iodius  (72%-95%), and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (69%-92%); by possessing a smaller M1/M4 (≤0.67; 0.62-0.67) than Aphonopelma eutylenum  (≥0.67; 0.67-0.78) and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (0.70-0.74). For both males and females, certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no others are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional two-dimensional PCA morphospace and three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), male and female Aphonopelma steindachneri  separate from all of their syntopic species in the iodius  species group ( Aphonopelma eutylenum  , Aphonopelma iodius  , and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  ). PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥95% of the variation in all analyses.

Prentice (1997) determined the type locality of Aphonopelma steindachneri  by examining Dr. Steindachner’s collection notes and through communication with Dr. Jürgen Gruber (NHMW). Aphonopelma steindachneri  is the oldest name available for this species but the types were apparently lost at some point following Prentice’s (1997) rediscovery and confirmation of them as Aphonopelma steindachneri  . Prentice examined these types and recorded various measurements, spine patterns, and made note of the deformed eye pattern of the female specimen in the Austria collection. The specimens had been mislabeled, but Prentice was informed that the museum records indicated they had been the types of Aphonopelma steindachneri  . According to Prentice, every measurement and other descriptive value given by Ausserer (1875) matched precisely those of the specimens in his possession. Prentice had Ausserer’s work translated which indicated that the types collected by Dr. Steindachner were from a site near the Mexican border in San Diego (perhaps Otay Mesa or Wruck Canyon). Based on this information, we have designated a neotype for Aphonopelma steindachneri  from APH_1023 (see above). Aphonopelma steindachneri  has been mentioned in the literature numerous times but interestingly, always from localities outside of California. Specimens from New Mexico, redescribed by Smith (1995), were apparently part of the Koch collection now residing at the BMNH but these specimens are not Aphonopelma steindachneri  . Of particular note, the original Aphonopelma steindachneri  female described by Ausserer (1875) had an ocular deformity, a condition also present in our female exemplar (APH_1022; see Fig. 135A). This is an uncommon feature in Aphonopelma  and suggests that perhaps both Ausserer’s and our specimens originated from the same population (Otay Mesa/Wruck Canyon). Additionally, we examined the holotypes and freshly collected topotypic material of Aphonopelma phanum  and Aphonopelma reversum  . Our morphological and molecular analyses fail to recognize these two species as separate, independently evolving lineages. As a consequence, we consider Aphonopelma phanum  and Aphonopelma reversum  junior synonyms of Aphonopelma steindachneri  .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Aphonopelma

Loc

Aphonopelma steindachneri (Ausserer, 1875)

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E. 2016

2016
Loc

Delopelma steindachneri

Petrunkevitch 1939

1939
Loc

Aphonopelma steindachneri

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma steindachneri

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma phanus

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma phanus

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma phanum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma reversum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma reversum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Rhechostica steindachneri

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Rhechostica phanus

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Rhechostica reversum

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Eurypelma steindachneri

Koch 1850

1850