Notaulax californica (Treadwell, 1906),

Tovar-Hernandez, Maria Ana Ana, Garcia-Garza, Maria Elena & de Leon-Gonzalez, Jesus Angel, 2020, Sclerozoan and fouling sabellid worms (Annelida: Sabellidae) from Mexico with the establishment of two new species, Biodiversity Data Journal 8, pp. 57471-57471: 57471

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.8.e57471

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:12E4F2DE-8A05-4A37-A0B5-DDAAE88DE23B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/9C345C42-CF03-56B4-9E33-874BCA435740

treatment provided by

Biodiversity Data Journal by Pensoft

scientific name

Notaulax californica (Treadwell, 1906)
status

 

Notaulax californica (Treadwell, 1906) 

Potamilla californica  Treadwell, 1906 ( Treadwell 1906): 1178.

Hypsicomus  sp.- Hartman 1942: 133 (holotype of P. californica  ).

Hypsicomus californicus  .- Hartman 1956: 258, 262, 270; Hartman 1969: 701-702 (holotype of P. californica  ).

Notaulax californica  .- Perkins 1984: 342-343, fig. 31 (holotype of P. californica  ).-- Yáñez-Rivera et al. 2020: 24-26, Figs. 12A-C.

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UANL 0335; recordedBy: Jesús Angel de León-González; individualCount: 4; Taxon: phylum: Annelida; class: Polychaeta; order: Sabellida Levinsen, 1883; family: Sabellidae Latreille, 1825; genus: Notaulax Tauber, 1879; specificEpithet: californica (Treadwell, 1906); Location: higherGeographyID: Pacific Ocean; higherGeography: Tropical Eastern Pacific; continent: America; waterBody: Gulf of California; country: México; countryCode: MX; stateProvince: Baja California Sur; municipality: Mulegé; locality: Bahia Concepcion , Playa Santispac ; verbatimLatitude: 26°45 ’52.58” N; verbatimLongitude: 111°53 ’14.88” W; Identification: identifiedBy: Jesús Angel de León-González; Event: samplingProtocol: By hand; eventDate: May 20, 1985; year: 1985; month: 7; day: 20; habitat: Dead coral; Record Level: language: Spanish; institutionID: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; collectionID: Colección Poliquetológica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; institutionCode: UANL; collectionCode: UANL, NL INV 0002-05-09GoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UANL 0336; recordedBy: Jesús Angel de León-González; individualCount: 14; Taxon: phylum: Annelida; class: Polychaeta; order: Sabellida Levinsen, 1883; family: Sabellidae Latreille, 1825; genus: Notaulax Tauber, 1879; specificEpithet: californica (Treadwell, 1906); Location: higherGeographyID: Pacific Ocean; higherGeography: Tropical Eastern Pacific; continent: America; waterBody: Gulf of California; country: México; countryCode: MX; stateProvince: Baja California Sur; municipality: Mulegé; locality: Bahia Concepcion , Playa Requeson ; verbatimLatitude: 26°38 ’15.01” N; verbatimLongitude: 111°49 ’52.80” W; Identification: identifiedBy: Jesús Angel de León-González; Event: samplingProtocol: By hand; eventDate: July 20, 1985; year: 1985; month: 7; day: 20; habitat: Dead coral; Record Level: language: Spanish; institutionID: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; collectionID: Colección Poliquetológica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; institutionCode: UANL; collectionCode: UANL, NL INV 0002-05-09GoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UANL 8134; recordedBy: José María Aguilar-Camacho and Irving Daniel Ramírez-Santana; individualCount: 5; Taxon: phylum: Annelida; class: Polychaeta; order: Sabellida Levinsen, 1883; family: Sabellidae Latreille, 1825; genus: Notaulax Tauber, 1879; specificEpithet: californica (Treadwell, 1906); Location: higherGeographyID: Pacific Ocean; higherGeography: Tropical Eastern Pacific; continent: America; waterBody: Gulf of California; country: México; countryCode: MX; stateProvince: Sinaloa; municipality: Ahome; locality: Topolobampo ; maximumDepthInMeters: 1 m; verbatimLatitude: 25°33.345'N; verbatimLongitude: 109°05.74'W; Identification: identifiedBy: María Ana Tovar-Hernández; Event: samplingProtocol: By hand; eventDate: August 9, 2011; year: 2011; month: 8; day: 9; habitat: Buoy fouling; Record Level: language: Spanish; institutionID: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; collectionID: Colección Poliquetológica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; institutionCode: UANL; collectionCode: UANL, NL INV 0002-05-09GoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UANL 8135; recordedBy: José María Aguilar-Camacho and Irving Daniel Ramírez-Santana; individualCount: 8; sex: 4 females, 4 males; lifeStage: Adult; reproductiveCondition: Ripe; Taxon: phylum: Annelida; class: Polychaeta; order: Sabellida Levinsen, 1883; family: Sabellidae Latreille, 1825; genus: Notaulax Tauber, 1879; specificEpithet: californica (Treadwell, 1906); Location: higherGeographyID: Pacific Ocean; higherGeography: Tropical Eastern Pacific; continent: America; waterBody: Gulf of California; country: México; countryCode: MX; stateProvince: Sinaloa; municipality: Ahome; locality: Topolobampo ; maximumDepthInMeters: 1 m; verbatimLatitude: 25°34.097'N; verbatimLongitude: 109°04.361'W; Identification: identifiedBy: María Ana Tovar-Hernández; Event: samplingProtocol: By hand; eventDate: August 9, 2011; year: 2011; month: 8; day: 9; habitat: Buoy fouling; Record Level: language: Spanish; institutionID: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; collectionID: Colección Poliquetológica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; institutionCode: UANL; collectionCode: UANL, NL INV 0002-05-09GoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UANL 8136; recordedBy: María Ana Tovar-Hernández; individualCount: 1; lifeStage: juvenile; Taxon: phylum: Annelida; class: Polychaeta; order: Sabellida Levinsen, 1883; family: Sabellidae Latreille, 1825; genus: Notaulax Tauber, 1879; specificEpithet: californica (Treadwell, 1906); Location: higherGeographyID: Pacific Ocean; higherGeography: Tropical Eastern Pacific; continent: America; waterBody: Gulf of California; country: México; countryCode: MX; stateProvince: Sinaloa; municipality: Mazatlán; locality: Mazatlan , Canal de Navegacion ; maximumDepthInMeters: 1 m; verbatimLatitude: 23°12 ’13’’ N; verbatimLongitude: 106°24 ’30.1’’ W; Identification: identifiedBy: María Ana Tovar-Hernández; Event: samplingProtocol: By hand; eventDate: March 24, 2009; year: 2009; month: 3; day: 24; habitat: Buoy fouling; Record Level: language: Spanish; institutionID: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; collectionID: Colección Poliquetológica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; institutionCode: UANL; collectionCode: UANL, NL INV 0002-05-09GoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UANL 8137; recordedBy: Tulio Fabio Villalobos-Guerrero TF and José María Aguilar-Camacho; individualCount: 1; Taxon: phylum: Annelida; class: Polychaeta; order: Sabellida Levinsen, 1883; family: Sabellidae Latreille, 1825; genus: Notaulax Tauber, 1879; specificEpithet: californica (Treadwell, 1906); Location: higherGeographyID: Pacific Ocean; higherGeography: Tropical Eastern Pacific; continent: America; waterBody: Gulf of California; country: México; countryCode: MX; stateProvince: Baja California Sur; municipality: La Paz; locality: La Paz, Club de Yates Palmira ; maximumDepthInMeters: 1 m; verbatimLatitude: 24°10.992'N; verbatimLongitude: 110°18.185'W; Identification: identifiedBy: María Ana Tovar-Hernández; Event: samplingProtocol: By hand; eventDate: August 15, 2011; year: 2011; month: 8; day: 15; habitat: Dock fouling; Record Level: language: Spanish; institutionID: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; collectionID: Colección Poliquetológica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León; institutionCode: UANL; collectionCode: UANL, NL INV 0002-05-09GoogleMaps 

Description

Figures 6-9 and 10A-F

Body shape and size. Specimens flattened dorso-ventrally along the body, ripe specimens with pyriform abdomen in transverse section. Body length 5.2-11.4 mm (X = 8.15 mm, n = 7), width 0.5-1.8 mm (X = 1.02 mm, n = 7).

Radiolar crown. Length 1.7-4.8 mm (X = 2.92, n = 7 mm) with 6-11 pairs of radioles (X = 9 pairs of radioles, n = 7). Base of radiolar crown (basal lamina or radiolar lobes) short, as long as the length of first three segments in lateral view (Fig. 8View Figure 8 I-J). Dorsal flanges prominent (triangular in side view), ventral flanges reduced (Fig. 8View Figure 8 B-C, I-J). Radioles not inrolled mid-ventrally. Radioles united by a palmate membrane as long as 1/2 the length of radiolar crown (Fig. 9View Figure 9 B) (or as long as two times the length of base of crown or basal lamina). Radioles not sectioned to count the number of skeletal cells (see remarks to genus level). Longest pinnules located at three quarters of the radiolar crown length. Radiolar tips with broad flanges and short, digitiform tips (Fig. 8View Figure 8 G), occupying the space of five pinnules. Radioles with 5-6 black ocelli in single rows on both outer sides of the radioles in smallest specimens (Fig. 8View Figure 8 C, E); 14-16 ocelli in largest specimen (Fig. 8View Figure 8 D), all bands of ocelli located at 3/4 of the radiolar crown length, each band as long as space of 4-6 pinnules. Dorsal lips as long as a half of the radiolar crown length, orange, erect, with mid-rib (Fig. 8View Figure 8 G). Ventral lips short, ear-shaped. Dorsal and ventral pinnular appendages absent.

Peristomium.  Anterior peristomial ring not exposed beyond collar (not visible), high, rounded, slightly longer ventrally. Posterior peristomial ring collar: dorsal collar margins fused to faecal groove (Fig. 8View Figure 8 I). Lateral collar margins entire (Fig. 8View Figure 8 J). Ventral collar margins incised, forming two shallow, rounded lappets (Fig. 9View Figure 9 A). Ventral sacs and parallel lamellae absent.

Thorax. Chaetiger 1: with straight oblique rows of spine-like notochaetae (Fig. 8View Figure 8 I-J). Spine-like chaetae from collar with variable shape: stouter, straight with blades terminated by an elongated conical hood inflated at the base, usually bent or wavy in the slender distal half; and slender, sharply curved at the end, provided on the convex side with a short obliquely-striated wing (Fig. 9View Figure 9 C and Fig. 10View Figure 10 A). Ventral shield rectangular, whitish (Fig. 7View Figure 7 B and D). Chaetigers 2-8: notopodia with superior groups of short, spine-like chaetae (Fig. 9View Figure 9 E and Fig. 10View Figure 10 C) and inferior groups of paleate chaetae without mucros (Fig. 9View Figure 9 D and Fig. 10View Figure 10 B). Neurochaetae avicular uncini, handles as long as two times the length of crest, developed breast and several rows of minute, similarly-sized teeth occupying half of crest (Fig. 9View Figure 9 D and Fig. 10View Figure 10 D); neuropodial companion chaetae with rounded denticulate head and long, gently tapering asymmetrical membrane. Ventral shields broad, rectangular, laterally indented by neuropodial tori (Fig. 7View Figure 7 B-C and Fig. 9View Figure 9 A).Fig. 10View Figure 10

Abdomen. Segments: 64-76 chaetigers in complete specimens (n = 2). Abdominal ventral shields dark brown, rectangular, divided longitudinally by faecal groove. Anterior abdominal segments with paleate notochaetae, nearly rounded with mucros as long as palea width (Fig. 9View Figure 9 F and Fig. 10View Figure 10 F) and elongate, narrowly-hooded chaetae. Avicular uncini similar to thoracic ones, but handles short (handle as long as the length of crest) and dentition covering 3/4 of the crest (Fig. 9View Figure 9 G and Fig. 10View Figure 10 E). Posterior abdominal segments with oval paleae with a mucro longer than three times the palea width and modified, elongate narrowly-hooded chaetae. Pygidium rounded with two black, large, reniform eyespots (Fig. 8View Figure 8 H).

Variation. The number of radiolar ocelli may change according to ontogeny. Smallest specimens from the same lot have only 5-6 ocelli per row, whereas largest specimens which are ripe have 14-16 ocelli per row.

Colour in live specimens. Body yellow-greenish with ventral shields cream-coloured (Fig. 6View Figure 6 A-B). Radiolar crown with basal half translucent-whitish (Fig. 7View Figure 7 B and D); distal half orange with rows of black ocelli located at three quarters of radiolar crown length (Fig. 6View Figure 6 B, Fig. 7View Figure 7 A-B and D).

Colour in preserved specimens. Body yellow (Fig. 8View Figure 8 I-J) or pale (Fig. 8View Figure 8 H), peristomium purple (Fig. 9View Figure 9 A) and collar and some areas of thoracic segments purple (Fig. 8View Figure 8 I-J). Basal half of radiolar crown purple or whitish (Fig. 7View Figure 7 B-C).

Tubes: Organic tubes, covered with fine sand anteriorly near mouth, translucent posteriorly (Fig. 6View Figure 6 A).

Diagnosis

Ventral margin of collar incised, forming rounded lappets. Short bands of radiolar ocelli (each band as long as the space of 4-6 pinnules), ocelli distributed in single rows of five ocelli (in smallest, juvenile specimen) to 16 ocelli ocelli (largest, ripe specimens), bands located at three quarters of the radiolar crown length (Table 2).

Biology

Females with oocytes in anterior abdomen and males with spermatozoa along abdomen (UANL 8135) with spherical nucleus and rounded cap-like acrosome.

Taxon discussion

Potamilla californica  was described from Monterey Bay, California by Treadwell (1906). It was included in Hartman (1942) as Hypsicomus  sp. and later as Hypsicomus californica  ( Hartman 1969). The original description is very brief and does not includes figures ( Treadwell 1906). In the description provided by Hartman (1969), it is mentioned that the collar is incised mid-ventrally and she emphasises the similarity of Hypsicomus lyra  Moore in Moore and Bush (originally described from Suruga Bay, Japan) and Hypsicomus californica  , except for the absence of radiolar ocelli in the second species. Later, Perkins (1984) had the opportunity to review and re-describe the holotype housed at the National Museum of Natural History (USNM 5222), transferring it to the genus Notaulax  and confirming the presence of radiolar ocelli.

Perkins (1984) also suggest that N. californica  is not the same as N. lyra  as suggested by Hartman (1969), mainly based of chaetal differences. However, to judge the original description of N. lyra  , there is another difference between both species: N. lyra  may present 5-20 ocelli exhibiting much irregularity in arrangement and seldom occupy the entire distance in individual radioles, ocelli may be widely separated, much crowded or even coalesced. Notaulax californica  has a low and consistent number of ocelli per radiole (5-6), these are always located at 3/4 of the radiolar length and close together one to another.

Fouling specimens here reviewed from the Gulf of California match with descriptions of the holotype provided by Hartman (1969) and Perkins (1984) to N. californica  , as well as those records by Yáñez-Rivera et al. (2020) to Bahía de Chamela Islands Sanctuary, Jalisco (Mexico). Some specimens are embedded within their tubes and are hard to remove from these in order to count abdominal segments.

Data available for species of Notaulax  suggest the presence of gonochorism, with gametes distributed in the abdominal segments, sperm developing in tetrads and having spherical heads: Notaulax midoculi  (Hoagland, 1919), N. nudicollis  , N. occidentalis  (Baird, 1865) ( Rouse and Fitzhugh 1994), N. lyra  (Moore and Bush, 1904) ( Sanders 2014) and N. tilosaula  (Schmarda, 1861) ( Tovar-Hernández et al. 2017). This is confirmed here to Notaulax californica  , as well as to the two new species described below.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Order

Sabellida

Family

Sabellidae

Genus

Notaulax

Loc

Notaulax californica (Treadwell, 1906)

Tovar-Hernandez, Maria Ana Ana, Garcia-Garza, Maria Elena & de Leon-Gonzalez, Jesus Angel 2020
2020
Loc

Potamilla californica

Treadwell 1906
1906
Loc

Hypsicomus

Grube 1870
1870