Guadana, Rheims, 2010

Rheims, Cristina Anne, 2010, A new genus of huntsman spiders from the Neotropical region (Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropodinae), Zootaxa 2650 (1), pp. 33-46 : 34-35

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2650.1.3

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5309112

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/9D11495D-743E-FFE4-FF3C-FAB565C8D503

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Guadana
status

gen. nov.

Guadana gen. nov.

Etymology. The generic name is a Spanish noun meaning “sickle” and denoting the shape of the tegular apophysis of the male palps. The gender is feminine.

Type species: Guadana manauara sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Species of the genus Guadana gen. nov. resemble those of Sparianthina Banks by the roughly pentagonal shape of the opisthosoma ( Figs 1–6 View FIGURES 1–6 ; Jäger et al. 2009, figs74–75); presence of intermarginal denticles arranged in a single row and occupying most of the cheliceral groove ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 7–12 ; Jäger et al. 2009, figs 10, 26); long toothed female pedipalp claw ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 7–12 ; Jäger et al. 2009, fig. 13); only two pairs of ventral spines on tibiae; and single lateral spines on metatarsi I–II; and by the male palps, with large, slightly retrolateral VTA, tegulum shifted proximo-retrolaterad; and presence of a DTA (e.g., Figs 13 View FIGURES 13–19 , 20 View FIGURES 20–21 ; Jäger et al. 2009, figs. 2, 56, 69). They can be distinguished from the latter genus by the sickle shape of the DTA and by the embolus without basal projections in the male palps ( Figs 13 View FIGURES 13–19 , 20 View FIGURES 20–21 , 25, 27 View FIGURES 24–28 , 29 View FIGURES 29–33 , 34 View FIGURES 34–38 ) and by the presence of epigynal ledges ( Figs 17 View FIGURES 13–19 , 22 View FIGURES 22–23 , 31 View FIGURES 29–33 , 36 View FIGURES 34–38 ) on the female epigynes.

Description. Total length of males 5.4–11.2, of females 6.8–13.6. Prosoma as long as wide or slightly wider than long. Cephalic region very slightly higher than thoracic region, flattening posteriorly. Fovea conspicuous on posterior third of prosoma. Eyes arranged in two recurved rows, the anterior more strongly recurved. AME larger than ALE and more separated from each other than from ALE. PME smaller than PLE and as separated from each other than from PLE ( Figs 1–6 View FIGURES 1–6 ). Clypeus low, less than AME diameter. Chelicerae longer than wide. Cheliceral grove with three promarginal teeth, the median one largest, and 4–6 retromarginal teeth, three subequal and the rest smaller. Intermarginal denticles present, arranged in a single row throughout most of the cheliceral grove ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 7–12 ). Internal margin with one single strong setae at base of fang. Labium rebordered, as wide as long. Endites slightly convergent, longer than wide, with dense scopulae on internal margin. Serrula with a single row of denticles ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 7–12 ). Sternum as long as wide, slightly projected between coxae IV. Female pedipalp with single, pectinate claw, with 5–6 long teeth ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 7–12 ). Legs laterigrade (2143). Spination in males: femora I–III: p1-1-1; d0-1-1; r1-1-1; femur IV: p1-1-1; d0-1-1; r0-0-1; tibiae I–II: p1-0-1; d1-1-1; r1-0-1; v2-2-0; tibia III: p1-0-1; d1-0-1; r1-0-1; v2-2-0; tibia IV: p1-0-1; d0-0-1; r1-0-1; v2-2- 0; metatarsi I–II: p1-0-0; r1-0-0; v2-2-0; metatarsus III: p1-1-0; r1-1-0; v2-2-0; metatarsus IV: p1-1-2; r1-1-2; v2-2-0. Spination in females as in males except tibiae I–IV: d0. Trochanter deeply notched. Metatarsi I–IV distally with dorsal trilobate membrane with median hook shorter than lateral projections ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 7–12 ). Tarsi and anterior half of metatarsi slightly scopulate. Tarsal organ capsulate with oval opening, located dorsally at the distal end of tarsi. Trichobothria present on dorsal tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi, arranged in several rows. Bothria with dorsal plate, with one or two distal groves, projected over smooth basal plate. Tarsi with pair of pectinate claws, with 7–8 short and slightly curved teeth ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 7–12 ), and claw tufts. Opisthosoma slightly pentagonal, longer than wide, with two pairs of rounded muscular impressions, the anterior pair much smaller than posterior ( Figs 1–6 View FIGURES 1–6 ). Male epiandrium with scattered epiandrous spigots ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 7–12 ). Six spinnerets: ALS contiguous, conical and bi-segmented. Basal segment elongate and cylindrical, distal segment short and truncated. PMS conical and short. PLS conical and bi-segmented. Basal segment elongate and cylindrical, distal segment short and truncated. Palp: tibia slightly longer than half of cymbium length with three prolateral and one dorsal spine (e.g. Figs 14 View FIGURES 13–19 , 25 View FIGURES 24–28 ); VTA present, slightly retrolateral (e.g. Figs 21 View FIGURES 20–21 , 25 View FIGURES 24–28 , 30 View FIGURES 29–33 ); RTA distal, with large dorsal branch bearing projections at tip and simple ventral branch (e.g. Figs 14 View FIGURES 13–19 , 25 View FIGURES 24–28 , 30 View FIGURES 29–33 ); cymbium slightly elongate with large oval alveolus and no dorsal scopula; subtegulum ring-like, notched at the base of embolus ( Figs 15–16 View FIGURES 13–19 ); embolus with wide, projected base, curving prolaterally, bifid or simple ( Figs 13 View FIGURES 13–19 , 20 View FIGURES 20–21 , 34 View FIGURES 34–38 ) or with wide base, distally truncated and slightly curved retrolaterally ( Figs 22 View FIGURES 22–23 , 24 View FIGURES 24–28 , 29 View FIGURES 29–33 ); conductor hyaline and laminar, distally as wide as base (e.g. Figs 13 View FIGURES 13–19 , 20 View FIGURES 20–21 , 29 View FIGURES 29–33 ) or much wider ( Figs 34–35 View FIGURES 34–38 ). Epigynum: epigynal field slightly wider than long or as wide as long, divided in lateral lobes and median septum (e.g., Figs 17 View FIGURES 13–19 , 26 View FIGURES 24–28 ); median septum with epigynal ledges (e.g. Figs 26 View FIGURES 24–28 , 36 View FIGURES 34–38 ), that can be fused ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 13–19 ); lateral lobes smooth ( Figs 17 View FIGURES 13–19 , 22 View FIGURES 22–23 , 36 View FIGURES 34–38 ) or rimmed ( Fig 31 View FIGURES 29–33 ). Vulva: copulatory ducts long and narrow, extending posteriorly ( Figs 19 View FIGURES 13–19 , 28 View FIGURES 24–28 , 33 View FIGURES 29–33 , 38 View FIGURES 34–38 ) towards spermathecae; spermathecae globular ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 13–19 ), elliptical ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 24–28 ) or convoluted ( Figs 27 View FIGURES 24–28 , 32 View FIGURES 29–33 ); fertilization ducts short and hook-like ( Figs 18 View FIGURES 13–19 , 27 View FIGURES 24–28 , 32 View FIGURES 29–33 , 37 View FIGURES 34–38 ).

Distribution. South America: Amazonian Forests of Ecuador, Peru and Brazil ( Fig. 39 View FIGURE 39 ).

Composition. Six species: Guadana manauara sp. nov.; G. neblina sp. nov.; G. panguana sp. nov.; G. quillu sp. nov.; G. tambopata sp. nov.; G. urucu sp. nov..

Remarks. No cladistic study has ever tackled the family Sparassidae as a whole and thus, the subfamily classification still follows that proposed by Simon (1897) with very little change. Nevertheless, the subfamily Heteropodinae Thorell has been intensely studied by Jäger (e.g. 1998; 1999; 2000; 2002) and several characters have been proposed to define the subfamily and its species. These include the presence of intermarginal denticles in the chelicerae, the long toothed female palpal claw and the two recurved eye rows ( Jäger 1998). In addition, I consider characteristic for all Heteropodinae the presence of a VTA, that can be median (e.g. Pseudopoda Jäger and Bhutaniella Jäger ) or slightly retrolateral (e.g. Heteropoda Latreille and Barylestis Simon ), a simple ventral branch on the RTA and only one lateral spine on each side of metatarsi I– II. Species of Guadana gen. nov. exhibit all of these diagnostic characters and thus the genus is placed in this subfamily.

Despite being previously left out of Heteropodinae ( Jäger et al. 2009) , the description of Guadana gen. nov. strongly suggests that the Neotropical genus Sparianthina Banks should also be placed in the subfamily for it exhibits all diagnostic characters currently ascribed to Heteropodinae . Additionally, both genera seem to be more closely related to each other than to the remaining Asian Heteropodinae . The intermarginal denticles are arranged in a single row ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 7–12 ; Jäger et al. 2009, figs 10, 26) and the trilobate membrane shows a median tooth clearly smaller than the lateral projections ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 7–12 ; Jäger et al. 2009, fig. 11) as opposed to the clustered arrangement of denticles (e.g., Jäger 2006, figs 19, 21) and similar sized lobes of the trilobate membrane (e.g., Jäger 2006, fig. 7) seen in the Asian genera. Also, the roughly pentagonal shape of the opisthosoma as well as the similarity of the male palps point towards this close relationship.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Sparassidae