Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948

Silva, Fernando A. B. & Valois, Marcely, 2019, A taxonomic revision of the genus Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948 (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilini), Zootaxa 4629 (3), pp. 301-341 : 307-308

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4629.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1D47B452-0A40-4BC5-9BBA-C06DEB298C9A

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4335192

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/9D12E557-3A5F-FF99-95F1-FB29FA6CC0C1

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948
status

 

Key to adult male Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948  

1. Femora completely black.............................................................................. 2

- Femora bicolored, central portion pale yellow, with dark spots at least on the tips ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 E–F)........................ 4

2(1). Pronotum uniformly colored, completely orange ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 ). Brazil (Acre, Mato Grosso), Bolivia and Peru........................................................................... Scybalocanthon aereus ( Schmidt, 1922)   (in part)

- Pronotum bicolored, with yellow and black areas ( Figs. 1L View FIGURE 1 , N–O).............................................. 3

3(2). Elytra black. Pronotum usually with three or five black spots ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 N–O). In some individuals from Loja ( Ecuador), spots are missing. Ecuador................................................... Scybalocanthon maculatus ( Schmidt, 1920)  

- Elytra brown. Pronotum with transverse black spot of butterfly or bat shape ( Fig. 1L View FIGURE 1 ). Colombia and Ecuador....................................................................... Scybalocanthon kelleri Pereira & Martínez, 1956  

4(1). Pronotum with a longitudinal dark band on midline ( Figs. 1G View FIGURE 1 , 2B View FIGURE 2 ).............................................. 5

- Pronotum uniformly colored or, if bicolored, lacking longitudinal dark band on midline............................. 6

5(4). Elytra bicolored, with black spot on the anterior portion ( Fig. 1G View FIGURE 1 ). Eighth elytral stria lacking carina at the anterior portion. Brazil (Amapá, Pará), French Guiana, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago..... Scybalocanthon cyanocephalus ( Harold, 1868)  

- Elytra brown or dark yellow, with black spot almost inconspicuous on its margin ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ). Eighth elytral stria with thin carina at the anterior portion ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ). Brazil (Amazonas, Amapá, Roraima), Venezuela, Suriname, and French Guyana.......................................................................... Scybalocanthon pygidialis ( Schmidt, 1922)  

6(4). Black spots on the tips of femora covering approximately 1/15 length of femora ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 )............................ 7

- Black spots on the tips of femora covering approximately 1/5 length of femora, central portion with elliptical yellow spot ( Fig. 3F View FIGURE 3 )................................................................................................ 16

7(6). Pronotum with four black spots, two central spots with triangular shape, and one rounded spot on each side ( Fig. 1K View FIGURE 1 ). Ecuador................................................................. Scybalocanthon kaestneri ( Balthasar, 1939)  

- Pronotum uniformly colored, lacking spots, or with one elliptical spot on the central portion......................... 8

8(7). Eighth elytral stria lacking carina at the anterior portion....................................................... 9

- Eighth elytral stria with very fine and sharp carina at the anterior portion ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 )................................ 11

9(8). Elytral striae impressed, punctures conspicuous ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ). Ecuador.............. Scybalocanthon chamorroi   new species

- Elytral striae weakly impressed, punctures inconspicuous ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 )............................................ 10

10(9). Ventral margin of parameres with an excavation at the basal portion extending one-half of the paramere length. Apex of parameres arrow shaped ( Fig. 4A View FIGURE 4 ). Brazil (Acre) and Bolivia....................... Scybalocanthon acrianus   new species

- Ventral margin of parameres straight, lacking excavation. Apex of parameres subrectangular ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ). Brazil (Amazonas) and Ecuador.................................................................. Scybalocanthon adisi   new species

11(8). Left paramere lacking acute projection on dorsal margin and lacking bilobate excavation on ventral margin ( Figs. 4E, S View FIGURE 4 ).. 12

- Left paramere with acute projection on dorsal margin and bilobate excavation on ventral margin ( Figs. 4I, O, R, W View FIGURE 4 )..... 13

12(11). Ventral margin of parameres curved outward on its apical one-half ( Fig. 4E View FIGURE 4 ). Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia.................................................................................... Scybalocanthon arnaudi   new species

- Ventral margin of parameres straight on its apical one-half ( Fig. 4S View FIGURE 4 ). Peru...... Scybalocanthon pinopterus ( Kirsch, 1873)  

13(11). Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere wide and deep, extending at least one-half of the paramere margin in the lateral view ( Fig. 4O View FIGURE 4 ). Ecuador and Colombia................................ Scybalocanthon martinezi   new species

- Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere short, not reaching one-half of paramere margin in the lateral view ( Figs. 4I, W View FIGURE 4 )............................................................................................. 14

14(13). Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere extending along one-third of the paramere margin ( Fig. 4W View FIGURE 4 ). Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Pará)....................... Scybalocanthon uniplagiatus ( Schmidt, 1922)    

- Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere extending along one-fourth of the paramere margin ( Figs. 4I, R View FIGURE 4 )... 15

15(14). Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere deeper than wide in lateral view ( Fig. 4I View FIGURE 4 ). Colombia............................................................................. Scybalocanthon federicoescobari   new species

- Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere wider than deep in lateral view ( Fig. 4R View FIGURE 4 ). Brazil (Pará, Tocantins) ........................................................................ Scybalocanthon papaxibe   new species

16(6). Pronotum uniformly colored, or with faint brown spot close to anterior or posterior margin (as Figs. 1C, E, M View FIGURE 1 ).......... 17

- Pronotum bicolored, with distinct and variable spots........................................................ 21

17(16). Elytra uniformly colored, completely dark brown or black ( Figs. 1D, M View FIGURE 1 )........................................ 18

- Elytra bicolored, with yellow and black areas (as Figs. 1D, E, S View FIGURE 1 )............................................... 19

18(17). Elytra usually dark brown or black ( Fig. 1M View FIGURE 1 ). Ventral margin of parameres with an excavation on basal half.Apex of parameres arrow-shaped ( Fig. 4M View FIGURE 4 ). Brazil (Minas Gerais and São Paulo)................... Scybalocanthon korasakiae Silva, 2011    

- Elytra usually light brown ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 ). Ventral margin of parameres straight, lacking excavation. Apex of parameres subrectangular ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 C–D). Brazil (Acre, Mato Grosso), Bolivia and Peru........ Scybalocanthon aereus ( Schmidt, 1922)   (in part)

19(17). Elytra with horizontal yellow spot only on the central portion ( Fig. 1E View FIGURE 1 ). Brazil (Bahia)......................................................................................... Scybalocanthon batesi   Vaz-de-Mello & Silva, 2017

- Most of elytral surface yellow, brown or black spot only on elytral margin and anterior portion of elytra ( Figs. 1J, S View FIGURE 1 )..... 20

20(19). Body surface with metallic sheen ( Fig. 1J View FIGURE 1 ). Parameres subrectangular, lacking excavation on the ventral margin ( Fig. 4J View FIGURE 4 ). Venezuela................................................................. Scybalocanthon haroldi   new species

- Body surface opaque or with silky sheen ( Fig. 2S View FIGURE 2 ). Parameres arrow-shaped, with an excavation on the ventral margin ( Fig. 4Q View FIGURE 4 ). Argentina, Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná), and Paraguay....... Scybalocanthon nigriceps ( Harold, 1868)  

21(16). Elytral disk bicolored, with yellow and black spots on disk ( Fig. 1H View FIGURE 1 ). Colombia.................................................................................................... Scybalocanthon darlingtoni ( Paulian, 1939)  

- Elytra unicolored, completely dark brown or black, or light colored with narrow black margin....................... 22

22(21). Central portion of dorsal surface of head yellow ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 C–G) or completely silky brown. Pygidium bicolored, central portion with elliptical black spot ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ). Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima), Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru......................................................... Scybalocanthon sexspilotus ( Guérin-Méneville, 1855)  

- Head completely dark brown or black. Pygidium unicolored.................................................. 23

23(22). Eighth elytral stria with very fine and sharp carina on anterior portion (as in Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ). Elytral surface opaque. Pronotum usually with three spots along midline (anterior spot triangular in shape; posterior spots rounded in shape) and one rounded spot on each side of midline ( Fig. 1N View FIGURE 1 ). In some individuals, anterior and posterior spots fused on midline ( Fig. 1O View FIGURE 1 ). Parameres narrowed at the central portion in the lateral view ( Fig. 4N View FIGURE 4 ). Ecuador................... Scybalocanthon maculatus ( Schmidt, 1920)  

- Eighth elytral stria lacking carina. Elytra with metallic sheen. Pronotum differently colored. Parameres not narrowed at the central portion in the lateral view ( Figs. 4V, P View FIGURE 4 )............................................................. 24

24(23). Pronotum with three black spots (two rounded spots on each side of midline anteriorly and one quadrate spot on midline posteriorly) ( Fig. 2J View FIGURE 2 ). In some individuals, anterior spots are missing, in others spots are fused and two smaller additional spots are present laterally ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 H–I), endophallus with microbristles right beside the FLP sclerite ( Fig. 5V View FIGURE 5 ). Colombia and Ecuador............................................................... Scybalocanthon trimaculatus ( Schmidt, 1922)  

- Pronotum with two black spots along midline (anterior spot irregular in shape with three angular projection posteriorly; posterior spot quadrate in shape with three small angular projection anteriorly) ( Fig. 1Q View FIGURE 1 ). In some individuals, anterior spot absent or reduced ( Fig. 1R View FIGURE 1 ), endophallus lacking microbristles right beside the FLP sclerite ( Fig. 5O View FIGURE 5 ). Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama............................................................ Scybalocanthon moniliatus ( Bates, 1887)