Agonopterix tripunctaria , Buchner, Peter, 2015
treatment provided by
Agonopterix tripunctaria sp. nov.
Material: Holotype (figs. 1, 3– 6): ♂, Italia, L.d.Garda [Lago di Garda], Mt. Maderno, 250 m, e.l. Ferulago nodiflora [F. c a m p es t r i s] 25. 7.  63, leg. K. Burmann, A. nodiflorella prov. det. K. Burmann, DEEUR [ Depressariidae of Europe] specimen number 0 412, gen. prep. P. Buchner, coll. TLMF.
Paratypes: ♀, same locality as holotype, e.l. 4. 8.  63, leg. K. Burmann, coll. TLMF.
♂, Italia sept., Prov. Verona, Monte, 300 m, 18. 6. 1986, leg. K. Burmann, coll. TLMF.
♂, Monti Lessini, Monte, 400 m, 45 ° 34.00´N; 10 ° 50,00´E, 15. 9. 2001, leg. et coll. Toni Mayr.
♂, I[talia], Friuli v. Giulia UL 87 [in capital letters], GO Redipuglia loc: (alture di) Polazzo 4 -IV- 2001, Lucio Morin legit, A.? rotundella prov. det. L. Morin 2003, DNA barcode id. TLMF Lep 0 7167, gen. prep. DEEUR 1556 P. Buchner, coll. L. Morin.
♂, Slowenien [ Slovenia], Primorska, Zazid, südost. Kulturland, 410–430 m, 22. 3. 2014 LF [light trapped], leg. et coll. H. Deutsch.
♀, Slovenia, Koper, Crni Kal, 24. 4. 2004, leg. et coll. J. Liška [access by J. Šumpich].
♂, Slovenia, Črni Kal VL 14, Osp, 50 m, 15. 3. 1999, leg. Lasan, coll. J. Liška [access by J. Šumpich].
♂, Slovenia, Kozina, Prešnica, 30. 3. 2006, leg. et coll. J. Skyva [access by J. Šumpich].
2 ♂, Slovenia, Nanos, 400 m, 1. 4. 2006, leg. et coll. J. Skyva [access by J. Šumpich].
2 ♂, Slovenia, Nanos, 400 m, 3. 4. 2010, leg. et coll. J. Skyva [access by J. Šumpich].
♂, Croatia, South Velebit [in capital letters], 26. 7. 2006, lgt. L. Srnka, DNA barcode id. TLMF Lep 0 7106, gen. prep. DEEUR 0 991 P. Buchner, coll. L. Srnka.
♀, Croatia, South Velebit, 28. 4. 2012, lgt. Ignác Richter, DNA barcode id. TLMF Lep 0 7127, gen. prep. DEEUR 1175 P. Buchner, coll. Ignác Richter.
♀, Croatia, Krk Island, Baška, 250 m, 30. 4. 2002, leg. J. Šumpich, coll. NMPC.
♂, Graecia [ Greece], Pelop[onnes], Zachlouru (Kalav[ryta]) [in capital letters], ex l. 15. VII 1958 J. Klimesch, “Raupe an einer Umbellifere” [larva from an Apiaceae ], coll ZSM.
♂, Griechenland [ Greece], Delphi, 600m, 22.– 23. 3. 1993, leg. et coll. Dr Grünewald.
♀, Griechenland [ Greece], Pandeo-Gebirge, Rodolinos, 350 m, 0 6. 0 4. 2014, leg. et coll. J. Viehmann.
Diagnosis. A. nodiflorella (fig. 2), with which the new species was confused by Burmann, is indeed rather similar externally in wing pattern and size, but differs by the lack of the flesh-coloured tinge, the presence of a dark dot near the base and a more or less conspicuous concentration of dark scales along the veins on forewings, and also by narrower more pointed hindwings. Male genitalia of A. tripunctaria (figs. 7–9) are distinctly different from those of A. nodiflorella (fig. 11). Externally also similar to A. medelichensis (figs. 18–24, described in this paper, details see below). In male genitalia cuiller is similar to that of Agonopterix socerbi Šumpich, 2012 (fig. 10), but this is the only detail which corresponds. The combination of small socii, characteristic shape of cuiller and verrucose process of anellus is unique in male genitalia within Agonopterix . Female genitalia differ from most other species of Agonopterix by the strongly bulged anterior margin of sternite VIII with at least the anterior half of ostium within this bulge. Only A. silerella , A. medelichensis (see figs. 30–33) and A. selini are somewhat similar in this detail. In A. silerella (fig. 16) the bulge is more rounded and the ostium nearly entirely within the bulge and there are no diverging strips posterior from the ostium. In A. medelichensis the bulge starts more seamlessly and not gradually as in A. tripunctaria . Against A. selini the most distinctive detail is the number of turns of the ductus seminalis: 4 in A. tripunctaria and 8 in A. selini . (Buchner, P., unpublished).
Description. Imago (figs. 1 and 3–6): Wingspan 17–18.5 mm. Head light yellowish brown with tinge of pink, face yellowish. Labial palp yellowish, without dark rings or other markings, only second segment with some scattered brown scales on outer side. Antenna: scape and base dark brown with some interspersed yellowish scales, remainder of flagellum dark brown. Thorax without posterior crest, medium brown with flesh-coloured tinge; tegulae similar, but with reduced flesh-coloured tinge at caudal part. Forewing predominantly with scales of two slightly different colours: yellowish and brownish, both with flesh-coloured tinge; scales of each colour form small, diffuse groups, which are irregularly mixed and not forming any pattern, giving the forewing a somewhat scruffy appearance; only at distal end of veins, medium brown scales concentrated between veins, forming diffuse, slightly darker dots; basal field of forewing like the rest, indicated only with hint of weak brightening in posterior part; in centre of forewing three blackish dots: two at about one-third, oblique, proximal nearer to costa and larger, rarely confluent, sometimes surrounded by a few ochreous or whitish scales, especially at distal margin, third one at about one-half, usually surrounded by a few ochreous or whitish scales on proximal margin; cilia concolorous with wings. Hindwing moderately translucent at base, becoming increasingly opaque toward distal part, medium greyish brown, in translucent parts visible colour dependent on background; veins darker; cilia concolorous with wings. Legs and abdomen uniformly brownish, without particular pattern except abdomen with two rows of indistinct dark spots.
Variation: Within the examined specimens little variation was found. Only size of the three dark dots and the number of bright scales surrounding them vary to some extent.
Male genitalia (figs. 7–9): The most obvious detail is shape of cuiller: long, reaching or exceeding costa, slender, moderately curved, swollen shortly before end and asymmetrically tapering at very end, resembling lateral view of a bird’s head. Socii also differ from usual shape found in Agonopterix : rather small, outer margins nearly parallel-sided in standard preparation. The third distinctive feature is a bilobed verrucose extension of anellus lobe, directed toward transtilla in standard preparation (fig. 9). Altogether male genitalia are very distinct and can clearly separated from any other species.
Female genitalia (figs. 12–15): Anterior margin of sternite VIII strongly bulged, ostium oval, anterior half of ostium within this bulge; posterior to ostium two slightly diverging strips of sclerotisation. Ductus seminalis with about 4 turns. Ductus bursae rather smooth. Corpus bursae relatively small with a typical signum; signum oval (lateral extension 2.5 respectively 4 times longer than the longitudinal extension in the two females examined), rather small (maximum diameter about 1 / 4 diameter of bursa)
Remarks. Male genitalia: End of cuiller does not touch valva in natural position of genitalia, but in making preparation, spreading and flattening presses cuiller against valva and tips turn either inward (fig. 7) or outward (fig. 8). The two different positions are preparation artifacts and do not represent individual variation.
Female genitalia: Shape of signum shows a rather wide intraspecific variation in genus Agonopterix , so it is of only limited value for determination.
Genetic data. Barcodes under TLMF Lep 0 7106 (639 bp., ♂, Croatia, South Velebit, 44 ° 17.00´N; 15 ° 28,00´E, 26. 7. 2006, leg. et coll. Ľubomír Srnka, gen. prep. DEEUR 0991), 0 7127 (658 bp., ♀, Croatia, South Velebit, 1000m, 44 ° 17.00´N; 15 ° 28,00´E, 28. 4. 2012, leg. et coll. Ignác Richter, gen. prep. DEEUR 1175) and 0 7167 (658 bp., ♂, Italia, Friuli-Venezia, Giulia, 20 m, 45 ° 51.00´N; 13 ° 29,00´E, 4. 4. 2001, leg. et coll. Lucio Morin, gen. prep. DEEUR 1556 P. Buchner). Neighbor-joining analysis shows Agonopterix broennoeensis Strand, 1919 , as the nearest neighbor with 3.36 % p-distance.
Related species. Searching for the most closely related species based on neighbor-joining tree and genitalia patterns of both sexes has not achieved a satisfactory result in A. tripunctaria . Compared with the nearest neighbor, there are clear differences: A. broennoeensis is an Asteraceae-feeder, forewings are bright yellow with different markings, in male genitalia the cuiller is straight, blunt and ends markedly before costa, and in female genitalia the ostium is near the centre of sternite VIII. Looking further to the second nearest neighbor, there are two species with an equal p-distance of 3.52 %: Agonopterix scopariella (HEINEMANN, 1870) and Agonopterix irrorata (STAUDINGER, 1871). A. scopariella is a Fabaceae-feeder, only A. irrorata is an Apiaceae-feeder and corresponds with A. tripunctaria in this biological aspect. But genitalia of both species are distinctly different from those of A. tripunctaria . Starting the search based on genitalia the result is not much more satisfying: Female genitalia are close to those of A. silerella , but not male genitalia or genetic data. In male genitalia the striking shape of tip of cuiller is similar to that of A. socerbi , but this is apparently a coincidence, because transtilla and anellus are markedly different, as is the external appearance. Moreover, A. socerbi is well nested within the A. alpigena / selini group, confirmed by genitalia and genetic data, although within this group it is the only species with such a cuiller. This suggests that a single distinctive feature may develop independently in different groups. Likewise, because of the stochastic events giving rise to barcode differences, quite unrelated species may appear as near neighbors according to their barcode-distances. The conclusion on present evidence is that A. tripunctaria is a rather isolated species.
Distribution. So far known from Italy, Slovenia, Croatia and Greece. In Italy it had been collected from Mt. Maderno near Lago di Garda and Monti Lessini (Prov. Verona), in Slovenia from several localities (Primorska, Koper, Črni Kal, Kozina, Nanos), in Croatia from South Velebit, in Greece from Zachlorou (Peloponnes), Delphi and Pangeo Mountains (west Rhodopes).
Biology. Burmann reared one moths from larvae collected on Ferulago nodiflora (an Apiaceae now valid as F. campestris and well known as feeding plant of A. nodiflorella ) from Mt. Maderno, Italy (this specimen selected as holotype), and Klimesch from an undetermined Apiaceae from Zachlorou, Greece. No information is available on the appearance of the larva. Reared specimens emerged in midsummer, and worn specimens have been caught in spring, indicating that the species hibernates as adults.
Derivation of name. The only prominent markings of forewing, three black dots, were decisive for the species name “ tripunctaria ”, which means “with three points”.
Remarks. Burmann (1984) reports under A. nodiflorella :
South Tyrol: In addition to the only previous discovery, Naturns, light trapped ♂ 20.– 30.6.1935, there are now further reports from Vinschgau,..... So the northern limit of distribution of nodiflorella seems to reach the upper Vinschgau. Because Ferulago nodiflora is absent in the whole Vinschgau, nodiflorella must feed on another Apiaceae here.
Trient: Pietramurata 5.3. 1959. Not reported from province Trient formerly. (In the neighboring province Verona I caught nodiflorella near Ferrara di Monte Baldo early 3.1967 and late 4.1968, each one ♂ (det. Hannemann). From province Brescia I own a number of specimens reared from Ferulago nodiflora from Mt. Maderno, e.l. 25.7.– 9.8.1963, and 1 ♂ from Tresnico 19.6. 1963 (det. Hannemann).“ (translated from German)
In this paper there was a lot of confusion concerning A. nodiflorella . As far as can be checked, not one of these reports belong to this species. Apparently the fact that the reared specimens, which had been misidentified as A. nodiflorella were collected from Ferulago nodiflora (= Ferulago campestris ) reinforced the opinion that it was A. nodiflorella without any doubt, so not even the absence of Ferulago campestris in the Vinschgau was taken to indicate an error.
The specimens from Mt. Maderno belong to A. tripunctaria . The “♂ from Tresnico 19.6.1963 ” has not been found in TLMF, but one of the same collection, without abdomen, labelled as “ Italia L.d.Garda | Tresnico 350 m | 19.6. 1963 | leg.K. Burmann” and an additional label “ nodiflorella ♀ Mill | det. H. Pröse” is in fact A. hippomarathri . The specimens from "near Ferrara di Monte Baldo early 3.1967 and late 4.1968 " are in fact A. rotundella .
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.