Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday, 1833
Triapitsyn, Serguei V., 2010, Revision of the Palaearctic species and review of the Oriental species of Ooctonus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), with notes on extralimital taxa 2381, Zootaxa 2381 (1), pp. 1-74 : 54-60
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|Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday, 1833|
Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday 1833: 344 ; lectotype female [NMID], designated by Hincks 1952: 157, not examined [but photographs of the entire specimen were examined]; type locality: not specified by Haliday (1833), most likely either England or Ireland.
Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday : Walker 1846: 50 (brief diagnosis, distribution); Dalla Torre 1898: 431 (catalog); Hincks 1952: 157–158 (diagnosis, type information, distribution); Bouček 1965: 11 (listed from Moldova); Hellén 1974: 7– 8 (diagnosis, distribution including localities in Russia); Graham 1982: 227 (type information, valid species); Donev 1983: 31–32 (distribution); Donev 1988b: 186 (distribution); Donev 1990b: 69 (distribution); Pricop 2009a: 22–24 (distribution, illustration).
Ooctonus americanus Girault 1916a: 69–70 ; holotype female [USNM], examined; type locality: Rock Creek Park , Washington, District of Columbia, USA, syn. n.
Ooctonus acutiventris Soyka 1949: 37 ; holotype female [NHMW], examined; type locality: Hundsheim , Lower Austria, Austria, syn. n.
Ooctonus collinus Soyka 1949: 47–48 ; holotype female [NHMW], examined; type locality: Spitzerberg (South side) near Hundsheim, Lower Austria, Austria, syn. n.
Ooctonus stammeri Soyka 1949: 69 ; holotype female [NHMW], examined; type locality: Krkonoše Mountains, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland [indicated by Soyka (1949) as Riesengebirge, Schlesien ( Germany)], syn. n.
Ooctonus viennensis Soyka 1949: 70–71 ; holotype female [NHMW], examined; type locality: Leopoldsberg , Vienna, Austria, syn. n.
Ooctonus niger Soyka 1950: 131–132 ; holotype female [NHMW], examined; type locality: Krössbach , Neustift, Stubaital, Tirol, Austria, syn. n.
Ooctonus askhamensis Hincks 1952: 156 , fig. 3 (p. 157); holotype female [MMUE], examined; type locality: Askham Bog , Yorkshire Co., England, UK, syn. n.
Ooctonus wesmaeli Debauche : Boṭoc 1959: 81–82 (diagnosis, distribution); Donev 1988b: 186 (distribution).
Ooctonus askhamensis Hincks : Donev 1983: 33 (distribution).
Ooctonus sp. : Noyes & Valentine 1989: 42, 82–83 (illustrations).
Type material examined. Ooctonus acutiventris Soyka : Holotype female [ NHMW] on slide labeled: 1. “ Ooctonus acutiventris (Soyka) ♀ Type ”; 2. “ Type ”; 3. “ Hundsheim am Fenster aus Heu 12. Juli 1944 – lg. Soyka Coll. Soyka in Canadab. 1945”.
Ooctonus collinus Soyka : Holotype female [ NHMW] on slide labeled: 1. “ Ooctonus collinus (Soyka) ♀ Type”; 2. “Type”; 3. “Hundsheim, Spitzer Berg, Südseite, 2. Sept. 1941 lg. Novicky det. et prep. W. Soyka in Canadab. 1941”.
Ooctonus stammeri Soyka : Holotype female [ NHMW] on slide labeled: 1. “ Ooctonus stammeri (Soyka) ♀ Type”; 2. “Type”; 3. “46 Riesengebirge, Schlesien [several illegible words follow including “auf Wiesen”] 10. Aug. 1933 lg. Stammer 1300 m in Canadab.”. Soyka (1949) mentioned a female “Type” and 5 female “Cotypes” of this species; it is obvious that the latter were meant as modern paratypes, and therefore the “Type” is considered to be the holotype. These 5 female paratypes (from the same habitat as the holotype) were not found in NHMW.
Material examined. AUSTRIA. LOWER AUSTRIA, Hundsheim, W. Soyka: 10.x.1954 [1 ♀, NHMW] (identified by W. Soyka as O. viennensis ); 16.ix.1956 [1 ♀, NHMW] . TIROL: Gschnitztal , 16.ix.1948 E.
Pechlaner [1 ♀, NHMW] (incorrectly labeled by W. Soyka as a "para-type" of O. niger ). Krössbach, W. Soyka: 5.viii.1947 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 19.viii.1948 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 8.viii.1950 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 15.viii.1950 [1 ♀, NHMW]; viii.1950 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 7.viii.1953 [2 ♀, NHMW] (identified by W. Soyka as O. niger ); 4.ix.1953 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 22.viii.1955 [1 ♀, NHMW] (identified by W. Soyka as O. niger ); 19.viii.1956 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 22.viii.1956 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 1.viii.1957 [1 ♀, NHMW] (identified by W. Soyka as O. niger ); ix.1957 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 25.viii.1958 [2 ♀, NHMW]; 1.viii.1960 [1 ♀, NHMW]; x.1961 [2 ♀, NHMW]; 26.viii.1963 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 1.ix.1963 [3 ♀, NHMW]; vi.1964 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 10.viii.1964 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 27.viii.1964 [1 ♀, NHMW]; 22.viii.1966 [1 ♀, NHMW]; ix.1966 [1 ♀, NHMW]. Mieden Wahl, 23.viii.1959, W. Soyka [1 ♀, NHMW]. Stubaital, 2300 m, 3.ix.1953, W. Soyka [4 ♀, NHMW] (identified by W. Soyka as O. montanus ). BELGIUM. EAST FLANDERS, Sint-Martens-Latem, P. Grootaert: 2–29.viii.1981 [1 ♀, CNCI]; 27.ix– 8.xi.1981 [3 ♀, CNCI]. LIÈGE: Mont Rigi, 25.viii–1.ix.1983 [2 ♀, CNCI]. Wanze, Antheit, Corphalie, 14– 28.vii.1989, R. Detry [2 ♀, ISNB]. LUXEMBOURG: Buzenol, 8–24.ix.1981, P. Grootaert [1 ♀, CNCI]. Éthe, Neuve Forge, 18–21.v.1981, P. Grootaert [1 ♂, CNCI]. Near Éthe and Buzenol, P. Grootaert: 24.iii–7.iv.1981 [1 ♀, CNCI]; 24.ix–9.x.1981 [1 ♀, CNCI]. WALLOON BRABANT: Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve, 29.viii– 5.ix.1981, P. Dessart [1 ♀, ISNB]. Waterloo, 10–20.ix.1992, P. Dessart [1 ♀, ISNB]. CZECH REPUBLIC. CENTRAL BOHEMIA, Kostelec, 6–13.iv.1992, J. Macek [1 ♀, CNCI]. PRAGUE, Kunratice Potok, 13– 22.iv.1992, J. Macek [1 ♀, CNCI]. SOUTH MORAVIA: Ranspurk, Lanžhot, 7–9.viii.1991, L. Masner [1 ♀, CNCI]. Tvrdonice, Kyjovka River, 7.viii.1991, L. Masner [1 ♀, CNCI]. DENMARK. Zeeland Island: Bromme, 28.viii.1994, Munk, M. Sharkey [1 ♀, CNCI]. Feddet (near Praestö), 27.viii.1994 [2 ♀, CNCI]. FRANCE. GIRONDE, Sainte Colombe, 44°54'N 00°02'W, M. van Helden: 10.ix.1998 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 17.viii.2000 [1 ♀, UCRC]. HERAULT: La Gardiole (near Vic-la-Gardiole), 23.iv.1978, J.T. Huber [1 ♀, CNCI]. Montpellier: 17–23.ix.1980, J.F. Vayssières [1 ♂, CNCI]; 19–20.iv.1978, J.T. Huber [1 ♀, CNCI]. Near Montpellier, J.T. Huber: 7–12.iii.1978 [2 ♀, CNCI]; 19–22.iv.1978 [3 ♀, CNCI]; 8–12.viii.1978 [1 ♀, CNCI]; 25–28.xi.1978 [1 ♀, CNCI]. Villeneuve, 4.v.1978, J.T. Huber [2 ♀, CNCI]. VENDÉE, v–vi.?1952, H.L. Parker [1 ♀, USNM]. Location unknown (“S. France”), 14.iii.1950, H.L. Parker (“ Agrilus Hypericum shipment” apparently to University of California, Berkeley, California, USA quarantine) [1 ♀, EMEC]; intercepted [at customs] in New York, New York, USA on thyme cuttings from France, x.1951 [1 ♀, USNM] (misidentified by B.D. Burks as O. heterotomus Foerster ). GERMANY. NORTH RHINE–WESTPHALIA: Aachen, G. Mayr: 1 ♀ [ NHMW] (labeled by A. Foerster as “ O. anisotomus ” 1); 1 ♀ [ NHMW] (labeled by A. Foerster as “ O. varicolor ” 1 and identified by W. Soyka as O. atroflavus ).?Aachen area, G. Mayr: 1 ♀ [ NHMW] (det. A. Foerster); 1 ♀ [ NHMW] (paralectotype of O. heterotomus , identified by W. Soyka as O. acutiventris ). Leverkusen, 1.ix.1966, M. Boness [1 ♀, NHMW]. Nideggen, Eifel Hills, 11.iii.1959, M. Boness [1 ♀, NHMW]. GREECE. CENTRAL MACEDONIA, Lake Kerkini, Kerkini Marsh, 41°13’32.8’’N 23°05’04.2’’E, 45 m, G. Ramel: 14–20.iii.2007 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 18–24.iv.2007 [1 ♂, UCRC]. HUNGARY. Szama, 17.viii–4.ix.1985, N.D. Springat [1 ♀, CNCI]. ITALY. SARDINIA, OLBIA-TEMPIO, Tempio Pausania, Cusseddu, 9–16.x.1978 [1 ♀, CNCI]. MOLDOVA. Kishinev, 18.v.1958, V. Talitsky [1 ♀, ZIN] (det. Z. Bouček). RUSSIA. KRASNODARSKIY KRAY, Krasnodar, V.V. Kostjukov: 10–11.viii.2001 [1 ♀, ZIN]; 19– 20.viii.2001 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 25–26.viii.2001 [1 ♂, UCRC]. MOSKOVSKAYA OBLAST’: NOGINSKIY RAYON, Fryazevo, 26.vii–14.viii.2000, M.E. Tretiakov [1 ♀, UCRC]. PUSHKINSKIY RAYON, Mamontovka, 16.viii.2003, S.V. Triapitsyn (on Salix sp. ) [1 ♀, UCRC]. SAKHALINSKAYA OBLAST’, Sakhalin Island, 6 km E of Sokol, near Belaya River, 47°14.56’N 142°46.56’E, D.J. Bennett, T. Anderson: 31.vii.2001 [1 ♀, CAS]; 16.viii.2001 [2 ♀, CAS]. SWEDEN. KALMAR, Öland Island, Stenasa, 7–11.viii.1986, N. Ryrholm [2 ♀, CNCI]. SPAIN. NAVARRA, Artikutza, 590–610 m, L. Martínez de Murguía: 25.viii– 22.ix.1996 [1 ♀, CNCI]; 23.iii–20.iv.1997 [3 ♀, CNCI]. SWITZERLAND. BERNE, Lenk, Metschstand, 2099 m, 4.viii.1981, R. Detry [1 ♂, CNCI]. GENEVA, Jussy, 2.v.1980, J.T. Huber [1 ♀, CNCI]. ST. GAL- LEN, Turgall (near Unterwasser), 1440 m, 4.viii.1984, L. Masner [1 ♂, CNCI]. ZÜRICH, Dielsdorf, 650 m, 17.viii.1984, L. Masner [1 ♀, CNCI]. UNITED KINGDOM. ENGLAND: BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, Burnham Beeches, 12.vi.1914, C.O. Waterhouse [1 ♀, BMNH]. DORSET, Bournemouth, S.G.C. Brown: x.1979 [1 ♂, BMNH]; 3.xi.1979 [1 ♀, BMNH]; 5.xi.1979 [1 ♀, BMNH]; 10.xi.1979 [1 ♀, BMNH]; 19.xi.1979 [2 ♀, BMNH]; 20.xi.1979 [6 ♀, BMNH]; 8.x.1981 [7 ♀, BMNH]; 1982 [1 ♀, BMNH]. LINCOLNSHIRE, Maseham, Moorside (near Fulsby Wood), 22–25.viii.1986, J.S. Noyes [1 ♀, CNCI]. SUFFOLK: Acton, 16.ix.1915, C.O. Waterhouse [1 ♀, BMNH]. Covehithe, 10.x.1957, R.B. Benson (“em.[erged] 9–19.vi.1958 Ex. gall of Timaspis hypochaeridis (Kief.) on Hypochaeris radicata L.”) [1 ♀, BMNH]. SURREY, Box Hill (near Dorking): 4.ix.1988, S.L. Heydon [2 ♀, UCDC]; 4.ix.1988, J.S. Noyes [6 ♀, CNCI, 3 ♀, UCDC]. No locality indicated (presumed in England): 6.xi.1909, A.I. Steven [2 ♀, BMNH] (slide-mounted by F. Enock); [no data] [1 ♀, BMNH] (slide-mounted by F. Enock). WALES: DENBIGH, Abergele Coed y Gopa, 27.vii.1999, J.S. Noyes [1 ♂, CNCI]. GLAMORGAN: Kenfig Pool National Nature Reserve, J.S. Noyes: 6.viii.1988 [6 ♀, CNCI]; 4.viii.1994 [2 ♀, CNCI]. Oxwich National Nature Reserve, 5.viii.1994, J.S. Noyes [3 ♀, CNCI]. Pendoylan, Llanerch Vineyard, 9.ix.1999, S.V. Triapitsyn [1 ♀, UCRC]. Whiteford Burrows National Nature Reserve, 2.viii.1988, J.S. Noyes [7 ♀, CNCI].
Extralimital records. CANADA. ONTARIO, Guelph , University of Guelph Arboretum, 43°32’N 80°13’W, 14.v–21.vi.2006, L. Coote [20 ♀, UCRC] GoogleMaps . NEW ZEALAND. North Island: Aukland, Birkenhead , x.1980, J.F. Longworth [1 ♀, NZAC]. Tokerau, 4.x.1980, J.S. Noyes [7 ♀, BMNH; 19 ♀, NZAC]. Waitakere Ra, ix.1980, J.S. Noyes [1 ♀, NZAC] . USA. CALIFORNIA: HUMBOLDT, 1 mi. E of Blue Lake, 7– 10.iv.1983, J.D. Pinto [8 ♀, UCRC]. NAPA, 7 km NE of Moscowite Corners, Quail Ridge Reserve, 39°29’N 122°09’W, 200 m, 26.iv.1997, L.S. Kimsey [1 ♀, UCDC]. SONOMA: 3 mi. SW of Bodega Bay, Bodega Bay Marine Reserve , 4.v.1991, L.S. Kimsey [1 ♀, UCDC]. 1 mi. NE of Duncan Hills, 25.i.1984, F.G. Andrews [2 ♀, UCRC] GoogleMaps . ILLINOIS: JACKSON, Shawnee National Forest, ca. 2 mi. S of Murphysboro, 14.iv.2004, R. Rakitov [1 ♀, UCRC]. UNION, Shawnee National Forest, ca. 15 mi. S of Murphysboro , 14.iv.2004, S.V. Triapitsyn [1 ♀, UCRC] . MARYLAND: FREDERICK, Thurmont , 39°37’28’’N 77°26’17’’W, 28.v.2004, E.F. Drake [1 ♀, UCRC]. MONTGOMERY, Silver Spring, 11–20.vii.1980, E.E. Grissell [1 ♀, UCRC]. PRINCE GEORGE’S, Beltsville, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, 18.viii.1983, M.E. Schauff [1 ♀, USNM] GoogleMaps . MISSOURI, SHANNON, 10 km NNE of Mountain View , 37°03.44N 91°36.56’W, 320 m, 16–30.iv.2001, J.V. Maddox [2 ♀, CAS] GoogleMaps . NEW YORK, CORTLAND, McLean Bog , 42°32.687’N 76°15.995’W, 25– 26.v.2007, E.F. Drake [2 ♀, UCRC] GoogleMaps . OHIO, CLERMONT: Williamsburg , D.E. Russell: 24.viii.1994 [1 ♀, UCDC]; 19–26.iv.1997 [2 ♀, UCRC]; 39°05’N 84°02’W, 11–17.v.1997 [5 ♀, UCDC (4), UCRC (1)]. 2.4 km N of Williamsburg, 19–26.iv.1997, D.E. Russell [2 ♀, UCDC] GoogleMaps . OREGON: CURRY, Timeus Ranch (near Brookings), 42°06’N 124°17’W, 457–462 m, M. Wasbauer: 23.iv–6.v.1996 [2 ♀, UCDC, UCRC]; 22– 26.vi.1995 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 1–15.ix.1995 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 26–31.i.1996 [1 ♀, UCDC]; 1–7.viii.1996 [1 ♀, UCDC]. LINCOLN: Baychne, 49°26’N 125°05’W, 25–26.x.2003, J.D. Pinto [2 ♀, UCRC]. 2 mi. S of Newport, South Beach State Park, 23.viii.1984, M.E. Schauff, P. Hanson [5 ♀, USNM]. TILLAMOOK, 4 km W of Sandlake, 2.vii.1991, S.L. Heydon [2 ♀, UCDC] GoogleMaps . PENNSYLVANIA: BRADFORD, Wilawana, 21.vii.1938, R.H. Crandall [1 ♀, EMEC]. WARREN, Weldbank , 41°45.749’N 79°05.752’W, 29.v.2007, E.F. Drake [1 ♀, UCRC] GoogleMaps . TEXAS, SAN PATRICIO, Welder Wildlife Refuge , 28°06’42’’N 97°24’24’’W, 1.ii–1.iii.2004, S. Peck [1 ♀, UCRC] GoogleMaps . WASHINGTON: CLALLAM, Agnew, 24–28.vii.1997, J.D. Pinto [2 ♀, UCRC]. THUR- STON, Olympia, Evergreen State College Organic Farm , J. Longino : 25–27.ix.1996 [2 ♀, UCRC]; 6– 13.vi.1997 [8 ♀, UCRC]; 29.viii–5.ix.1997 [8 ♀, UCRC] .
Redescription. FEMALE (holotypes of the synonyms, and non-type specimens). Body length 750–1650 µm. Head and mesosoma very dark brown or black except eyes and ocelli pale or dirty pink; petiole yellowish or yellowish brown; gaster usually brown to dark brown but sometimes light brown (a little darker than legs); scape and pedicel mostly light brown, flagellum dark brown; legs yellowish brown except distal tarsomeres brown.
Lower face with weak sculpture, vertex with stronger sculpture.
Antenna ( Fig. 106 View FIGURES 106–110 ) slender, with radicle about 0.25x length of scape, remainder of scape 4.2–5.2x as long as wide, a little wider medially than basally or apically, longitudinally striate; pedicel usually about as long as F1 or slightly longer, but occasionally (in large specimens) a little shorter than F1; all funicle segments longer than wide, F1 and F2 more or less subequal in length and the longest funicle segments, F3 a little shorter and wider, F4–F6 shorter than F3 or F7 (F6 the shortest funicle segment), F1–F6 almost always without mps (very rarely [in one very large specimen from Mamontovka, Moscow Region, Russia] F6 with 1 mps on one of the antennae), F7 and F8 notably wider than preceding funicle segments, almost always with 2 mps each (very rarely [in one specimen from Montpellier, France] F8 with just 1 mps on one of the antennae); clava 2.5–3.0x as long as wide, shorter than scape plus radicle, usually about as long as combined length of F6–F8 but sometimes a little longer, and at least a little shorter than combined length of F1–F3 (usually notably shorter), with 7 mps.
Mesosoma ( Fig. 107 View FIGURES 106–110 ) with pronotum weakly sculptured; mesoscutum with strong reticulate sculpture; anterior scutellum with weak, inconspicuous sculpture, posterior scutellum ( Figs 108 View FIGURES 106–110 , 111 View FIGURE 111 ) mostly smooth except for a weak sculpture at lateral borders and sometimes also at anterior margin; metanotum smooth, with posterior margin slightly broadly rounded; propodeum ( Figs 108 View FIGURES 106–110 , 111 View FIGURE 111 ) mostly smooth, with median carina absent or very short (thus the median areole large, extending or almost extending to anterior margin of propodeum); lateral carinae subparallel, extending to anterior margin of propodeum.
Forewing ( Fig. 109 View FIGURES 106–110 ) 2.5–3.9x as long as wide (see “Variation” below); disc with a slight to strong brownish tinge throughout (more so as a sinuate, narrow, brownish strip behind venation, also extending beyond venation along posterior margin to a little more than half length of wing), densely setose but bare behind base of submarginal vein, truncate apically; longest marginal seta 0.12–0.31x greatest width of wing. Hind wing ( Fig. 110 View FIGURES 106–110 ) 12–19x as long as wide; disc with a slight brownish tinge and setose throughout (less so just behind apex of venation); longest marginal seta 1.3–2.4x greatest width of wing.
Pro- and mesocoxae smooth, metacoxa weakly sculptured.
Gaster at least a little longer than mesosoma; petiole 1.8–3.1x as long as wide, smooth, 0.9–1.2x as long as metacoxa; ovipositor occupying 0.6–0.9x length of gaster, a little exserted beyond apex of gaster (by at most 0.13x own length), 1.0–1.3x length of metatibia.
MALE. Similar to female except for the normal sexually dimorphic features and the following [range of body length is difficult to assess because of the limited material at hand]. Antenna ( Fig. 112 View FIGURES 112–114 ) longer than body, with scape (including radicle) 6.0–7.1x as long as wide, entire flagellum dark brown; forewing ( Fig. 113 View FIGURES 112–114 ) 2.9– 3.0x as long as wide; gaster shorter than in female, genitalia as in Fig. 114 View FIGURES 112–114 .
Diagnosis. Ooctonus vulgatus is characterized by the following unique combination of features: female antenna with mps almost always only on F7 and F8; posterior scutellum mostly smooth except for a weak, often inconspicuous sculpture at lateral borders and sometimes also at anterior margin; propodeum with median carina absent or very short (relatively longer in very large specimens), thus the median areole large, extending or almost extending to anterior margin of propodeum; petiole short, 0.9–1.2x as long as metacoxa.
Ooctonus vulgatus is very similar to the Nearctic species O. silvensis Girault ( Girault 1916a) , which has F2 of the female antenna notably shorter than F1 and about as long or slightly shorter than F3, and also generally darker legs, particularly meso- and metafemora and meso- and metatibiae.
Distribution. PALAEARCTIC: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark *, France *, Germany, Greece, Hungary *, Italy, Moldova, Poland, Russia, Spain *, Switzerland *, Sweden, UK ( England, Wales *); unconfirmed records (no material has been examined): Bulgaria ( Donev 1983 [also as O. askhamensis ], 1987, 1988c, 1988d, 1990b), Finland, Netherlands ( Hellén 1974), Ireland ( Walker 1846), Madeira Island ( Portugal) ( Graham 1979), Northern Ireland ( UK) ( Noyes 2003), Norway ( Mathot 1969), Romania ( Boṭoc 1959 [as O. wesmaeli ]; Pricop 2009a), and Serbia ( Donev 1988a). NEARCTIC*: Canada *, USA *. AUSTRALASIAN: New Zealand * (apparently unintentionally introduced there).
Hosts. Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus) ( Hemiptera : Aphrophoridae ) [as P. leucophthalmus (Linnaeus) ] ( Weaver & King 1954) [as O. americanus Girault ]. One specimen in BMNH, according to the label, was reared from a gall of Phanacis hypochaeridis (Kieffer) ( Hymenoptera : Cynipidae ) on Hypochaeris radicata in Covehithe, Suffolk Co., England, UK.
Variation. The synonymy of O. askhamensis under O. vulgatus is not as clearcut as most other synonymies proposed here, because the only three examined specimens of this nominal species (the holotype, the female collected by W. Soyka on 4.ix. 1953 in Krössbach, Austria, and the female collected by me on 16.viii. 2003 in Mamontovka, Russia) have wider forewings (length:width ratio 2.5–2.7:1) than for more typical females of O. vulgatus (length:width ratio 2.8–3.5:1). I correlate this difference with body size of the specimens, the ones attributable to O. askhamensis being larger (body length 1.25–1.65 mm) than typical O. vulgatus (body length 0.75–1.2 mm). All other morphological features of O. askhamensis are identical to those of O. vulgatus , hence the synonymy. The forewing length:width ratio does not seem to be a reliable diagnostic character for differentiation of European species of Ooctonus . Very small specimens tend to have relatively narrower forewings, e.g., in the female (ca. 0.9 mm long) collected by V.V. Kostjukov on 19– 20.viii. 2001 in Krasnodar, Russia, this ratio is about 3.5:1, whereas very large specimens tend to have relatively wider forewings, e.g., in the female (1.65 mm long) from Krössbach that fits the description of O. askhamensis , this ratio is about 2.6:1. In the 1.25 mm long, dry mounted holotype of O. askhamensis , the forewing length:width ratio is about 2.5:1 ( Hincks 1952). In an aberrant, small female specimen collected by J.T. Huber on 19–20.iv. 1978 in Montpellier, France, the forewing length:width ratio is about 3.9:1.
Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien
Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History
Museum of Manchester University
Canadian National Collection Insects
University of California, Riverside
Essig Museum of Entomology
Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Zoological Museum
California Academy of Sciences
R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology
New Zealand Arthropod Collection
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.
Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday, 1833
|Triapitsyn, Serguei V. 2010|
|Noyes, J. S. & Valentine, E. W. 1989: 42|
|Donev, A. 1983: 33|
|Donev, A. 1988: 186|
|Bo toc, M. 1959: 81|
|Hincks, W. D. 1952: 156|
|Soyka, W. 1950: 132|
|Soyka, W. 1949: 37|
|Soyka, W. 1949: 48|
|Soyka, W. 1949: 69|
|Soyka, W. 1949: 71|
|Hincks, W. D. 1952: 157|
|Debauche, H. R. 1948: 124|
|Girault, A. A. 1916: 70|
|Pricop, E. 2009: 22|
|Donev, A. 1990: 69|
|Donev, A. 1988: 186|
|Donev, A. 1983: 31|
|Graham, M. W. R. de V. 1982: 227|
|Hellen, W. 1974: 7|
|Boucek, Z. 1965: 11|
|Hincks, W. D. 1952: 157|
|Dalla Torre, C. G. de 1898: 431|
|Walker, F. 1846: 50|
|Hincks, W. D. 1952: 157|
|Haliday, A. H. 1833: 344|