Aglaophenia latecarinata Allman, 1877

Calder, Dale R., 2019, On a collection of hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the southwest coast of Florida, USA, Zootaxa 4689 (1), pp. 1-141: 92-93

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4689.1.1

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scientific name

Aglaophenia latecarinata Allman, 1877
status

 

Aglaophenia latecarinata Allman, 1877 

Fig. 22bView FIGURE 22

Aglaophenia pelasgica  .—A. Agassiz, 1865: 139 [incorrect subsequent spelling].

Aglaophenia late-carinata Allman, 1877: 56  ; 1885: 151, pl. 23, figs. 5–6.— Fraser, 1943: 94; 1944: 378, pl. 82, figs. 368a–e. Aglaophenia perpusilla Allman, 1877: 48  , pl. 29, figs. 5–7.— Wallace, 1909: 137.

Aglaophenia minuta  .— Wallace, 1909: 137.

Aglaophenia mammillata  .— Wallace, 1909: 137.

Aglaophenia latecarinata  .— Bogle, 1975: 34, figs. 1A–D, maps 1, 2.

Type locality. USA: Gulf of Mexico, on gulfweed ( Allman 1877: 56)  .

Material examined. Fort Myers Beach, 26°27’18”N, 81°57’38”W, on stranded Sargassum fluitans  , 11 February 2012, 18° C, one colony or colonies, up to 9 mm high, without corbulae, coll. D. Calder, ROMIZ B4402.

Remarks. Aglaophenia latecarinata  was originally described, on “Gulf Weed” ( Sargassum  ) from the Gulf of Mexico, in a brief footnote by Allman (1877). A fuller account of the species was given later ( Allman 1885) based on dry specimens from the same collection, that of “Miss H. Gatty” (Horatia Katherine Frances Gatty, 1846–1945). It was said by him to be “…quite a characteristic form of the hydroid fauna of the floating Sargasso field of the North Atlantic.” Indeed, A. latecarinata  is the principal hydroid dominant on Sargassum fluitans  , with hydroids being a prime component of the pelagic Sargassum  fauna ( Morris & Mogelberg 1973; Calder 1995). Originally spelled late-carinata  , the specific name has been corrected to latecarinata  (ICZN Art. 32.5.2.3). A. Agassiz (1865) had earlier reported this species, from the Dry Tortugas, as Aglaophenia pelasgica  . It was unclear whether he was assigning it to Hydra pelagica Bosc, 1797  or Aglaophenia pelagica Lamouroux, 1816  . In any case, both are species inquirenda.

Aglaophenia latecarinata  is a hydroid species inhabiting surface and relatively shallow waters, and records of it from bathyal and abyssal depths are certainly based on specimens captured near-surface during deployment of sampling gear ( Vervoort 1972: 204, as Aglaophenia cf. perpusilla  ) or on sunken Sargassum ( Fraser 1944: 380)  . Meanwhile, A. latecarinata  has often been reported from benthic habitats as well as from gulfweed, the substrate of the species as described by Allman (1877). A genetic comparison of truly bottom-dwelling specimens with those on pelagic seaweeds is warranted. The need for such an appraisal is highlighted by recent molecular analyses. Moura et al. (2012) concluded that benthic specimens assigned to A. latecarinata  from Brazil were genetically distinct from other species assigned to the genus. They proposed that Aglaophenia  as presently constituted is polyphyletic when that benthic population is assigned to it. In an earlier account ( Leclère et al. 2007) based on the same material, however, the genus was said to be monophyletic even though A. latecarinata  was quite divergent from other included species.

Strandings of pelagic Sargassum  are infrequent on beaches of southwest Florida, and A. latecarinata  was found only once during this study. Recent studies on seasonal movements of floating Sargassum  provide an explanation for this scarcity. Data from satellite imagery suggest that an expanding accumulation of these algae in the northwest Gulf of Mexico during winter is advected by the Loop Current into the Gulf Stream and on into the Atlantic during summer ( Gower & King 2011). Inasmuch as the Loop Current remains well to the west of the southwest Florida coast, little pelagic Sargassum  normally washes ashore here. The data of Sanchez-Rubio et al. (2018) also reflect the relative paucity of these macroalgae nearshore in the study area.

Detailed accounts of this diminutive species, comprising an important part of the “displaced benthos” ( Hedgpeth 1957) on pelagic gulfweed, are given elsewhere (e.g., Bogle 1975; Calder 1995, 1997, 2013; Ansín Agís et al. 2001).

Reported distribution. Gulf coast of Florida. Dry Tortugas (A. Agassiz 1865: 139, as Aglaophenia pelasgica  ; Wallace 1909: 137, as Aglaophenia minuta  , A. perpusilla  , and A. mammillata  ; Fraser 1943: 94, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ; 1944: 380, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).—The Quicksands ( Allman 1877: 48, as Aglaophenia perpusilla  ).—Eastern Dry Rocks off Key West, on reefs ( Fraser 1944: 380, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).—Southern Straits of Florida, 24°17’N, 82°34’W, 320–437 m + 24°24’N, 80°52’W, 221–231 m ( Bogle 1975: 36).

Elsewhere in western North Atlantic. Haiti (A. Agassiz 1865: 139, as Aglaophenia pelasgica  ).— USA: North Carolina, 100 miles (161 km) S of Cape Hatteras (A. Agassiz 1865: 139, as Aglaophenia pelasgica  ).— USA: Gulf of Mexico ( Allman 1877: 56, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ; 1885: 152, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: South Carolina, E of Charleston, 32°43’25”N, 77°20’30”W, 233 ftm (426 m), on (sunken) algae ( Fewkes 1881a: 132, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).—Gulf Stream, on gulfweed ( Nutting 1895: 30, as as Aglaophenia minuta  ).— Bahamas: Great Bahama Bank ( Nutting 1895: 30, as Aglaophenia minuta  ; Nutting 1900: 97, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).— Sargasso Sea, 30°N, 70°W, on Sargassum  ( Versluys 1899: 47, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Gulf Stream E of Delaware, 38°31’N, 69°08’W + Gulf Stream E of New Jersey, 39°09’N, 72°17’W ( Nutting 1900: 97, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).— Bahamas: near Little Cat Island ( Nutting 1900: 98, as Aglaophenia minima  ).— USA: off South Carolina, 33°38’N, 77°36’W, 15 ftm (27 m) ( Nutting 1900: 98, as Aglaophenia mammillata  ).—Sargasso Sea, 28°46’N, 55°10’W + 30°25’N, 56°09’W + 35°18’N, 41°00’W ( Jäderholm 1903: 294, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).— Bermuda, on Sargassum  ( Congdon 1907: 483, as Aglaophenia minuta  ; Smallwood 1910: 137, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).— USA: Massachusetts, Woods Hole + Vineyard Sound, on Sargassum  ( Hargitt 1908: 109, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).— USA: Louisiana, very common on gulfweed ( Cary & Spaulding 1909: 6, as Agalaophenia minuta  ).— USA: North Carolina, Bogue Bank, on Sargassum  ( Fraser 1912b: 378, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).— Mexico: Yucatan Channel, 22°47’N, 86°10’W, on Sargassum  ( Stechow 1912: 370, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Louisiana, south of Marsh Island, 27°10’N, 91°50’W, on Sargassum  ( Stechow 1912: 370, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— Cuba: Straits of Florida, 23°14’N, 84°08’W, on Sargassum  ( Stechow 1912: 370, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— Bahamas: Straits of Florida, 25°52’N, 79°35’W, on Sargassum  ( Stechow 1912: 370, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Florida, Straits of Florida, 26°14’N, 79°48’W, on Sargassum  ( Stechow 1912: 370, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).—Sargasso Sea: 36°52’N, 43°50’W, on Sargassum  ( Stechow 1912: 370, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).—Sargasso Sea: on floating seaweed ( Broch 1913: 7, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).—Sargasso Sea: 30°21’N, 45°20’W, on Sargassum ( Ferdinandsen & Winge 1920: 103)  .—North Atlantic Drift: 40°39’22”N, 36°58’30”W to 42°02’26”N, 41°45’15”W ( Bedot 1921: 40).—Sargasso Sea: 31°38’N, 42°38’W ( Bedot 1921: 40).— Bermuda: on floating Sargassum  +Agar’s Island + Challenger Bank ( Bennitt 1922: 252, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).—Sargasso Sea: on Sargassum  ( Hentschel 1922: 4, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).—Gulf Stream (?): on Sargassum ( Leloup 1932: 164)  .—Sargasso Sea: on Sargassum  , 34°25’N, 40°05’W + 33°19’N, 43°55’W + 31°56’N, 48°25’W + 30°20’N, 53°10’W + 20°05’N, 71°20’W + 23°50’N, 66°46’W + 25°10’N, 64°56’W + 27°09’N, 61°23’W + 30°50’N, 54°35’W + 41°31’N, 41°56’W + 33°30’N, 60°30’W + 31°25’N, 73°35’W + 39°30’N, 34°00’W + 40°00’N, 40°00’W + 24°00’N, 43- 44°W + 24°30’N, 38°00’W ( Timmermann 1932: 298–303, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— Guatemala: off Puerto Barrios, on Sargassum  ( Timmermann 1932: 299, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: South Carolina, off Murrells Inlet, 33°30’N, 79°00’W, on Sargassum  ( Timmermann 1932: 301, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— Bonaire: Plaja Oranje Pan + Zuidpunt ( Leloup 1935a: 57).— Curaçao: Boca Grandi, on Sargassum ( Leloup 1935a: 57)  .— Aruba: Boca Prins, on Sargassum ( Leloup 1935a: 57)  .—Sargasso Sea: 30°N, 54°W + 35°07’N, 63°35’W ( Leloup 1935a: 57).—North Atlantic Drift: 43°04’N, 31°W ( Leloup 1935a: 57; Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76).— USA: Florida, off Hollywood, on Sargassum ( Leloup 1935a: 57)  .—Sargasso Sea: on pelagic Sargassum  , 23°57’N, 67°45’W + 27°13’N, 62°16’W ( Leloup 1935b: 4).— Bahamas: Cay Sal Bank, on benthic algae ( Leloup 1937: 113).—Sargasso Sea: on Sargassum  , 29°50’N, 74°W + 30°11’N, 71°08’W + 32°07’N, 66°35’W ( Leloup 1937: 113).—Gulf Stream, on pelagic Sargassum  + Sargasso Sea, on pelagic Sargassum  (Burkenroad, in Parr 1939: 23, as Aglaophenia minuta  ).— USA: Gulf Stream, 130–167 miles (209–269 km) S of Nantucket Island, on gulfweed ( Fraser 1943: 94, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: North Carolina, E of Cape Hatteras ( Fraser 1943: 94, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— Haiti: Jérémie, on gulfweed ( Fraser 1943: 94, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Rhode Island, Block Island, near North Light, 13 ftm (24 m) ( Fraser 1944: 380, as Aglaophenia latecarinata  ).— USA: Gulf Stream off mid-Atlantic states, 39°57’50”N, 70°51’15”W, 150 ftm (274 m) + 39°05’30”N, 70°44’30”W, 1525 ftm (2789 m) + 39°58’N, 70°06’W, on Sargassum  + 38°25’N, 72°40’W, on Sargassum  + 38°59’N, 70°07’W, 1544 ftm (2824 m) ( Fraser 1944: 380, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Florida, off Hollywood, on Sargassum  ( Fraser 1944: 380, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Louisiana, Grand Isle, on Sargassum  ( Fraser 1944: 380, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ; 1945: 22, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Texas, Gulf coast, on Sargassum  ( Fraser 1944: 380, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).—Sargasso Sea: on Sargassum ( Vervoort 1946: 338)  .— USA: Louisiana, Grand Isle, on Sargassum  ( Behre 1950: 7, as Aglaophenia minuta  and A. late-carinata  ).— USA: Texas, St. Joseph Island, on Sargassum  + Port Aransas, on Sargassum  and tar ( Deevey 1950: 347, as Agaophenia perpusilla  ).—Unstated location: on buoys ( Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1952: 185, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Mississippi, Mississippi Sound, on floating Sargassum  ( Fincher 1955: 92 as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— USA: Florida, Florida Current off Miami ( Adams 1960: 81, as Aglaophenia latecerinata  ).— French Guiana: on a hydroid ( Leloup 1960, as Aglaophenia latecarinata  ).— USA: Texas, Lower Laguna Madre, on Sargassum  ( Breuer 1961: 166, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— Venezuela: Sucre, Chacopata ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76).— Aruba: Boca Prins, on Sargassum ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76)  .— Curaçao: Boca Grandi, on Sargassum ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76)  .—Klein Bonaire: East Coast Landing ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76).— Bonaire: Punt Vierkant, on Sargassum ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76)  .— Venezuela: Islote Aves, northern lagoon ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76).— St. Eustatius, Schildpaddenbaai, on Sargassum ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76)  .— Saint-Barthélemy: Fourche, Five Island ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76).— Sargasso Sea, 35°07’N, 63°35’W, on Sargassum ( Van Gemerden-Hoogeveen 1965: 76)  .— Virgin Islands of the United States: St. Thomas ( Vervoort 1968: 72).— Virgin Islands of the United States: St. Croix, Frederiksted ( Vervoort 1968: 72).— USA: Gulf Stream (Weis 1968: 556, as Aglaophenia  ).— USA: Texas, Galveston, on Sargassum  ( Defenbaugh 1972: 388, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ; Defenbaugh & Hopkins 1973: 117, as Aglaophenia latecarinata  ).— USA: Texas, Flower Garden Bank ( Defenbaugh 1974: 101, as Aglaophenia late-carinata  ).— Colombia: Santa Marta area ( Wedler 1975: 340; Bandel & Wedler 1987: 42).—Sargasso Sea + Gulf Stream, several stations between Florida and New Jersey, on Sargassum natans  I, S. natans  VIII, S. fluitans  III, S. fluitans  X, S. filipendula  , S. polyceratium  , S. pteropleuron  , Sargassum  sp. ( Rackley 1974: 49).— Bahamas: Little Bahama Bank, on Sargassum ( Bogle 1975: 35)  .—Northern Straits of Florida, on Sargassum ( Bogle 1975: 35)  .— Mexico: Arrowsmith Bank ( Bogle 1975: 36).— USA: Florida, southern Straits of Florida ( Bogle 1975: 36).— Belize: Carrie Bow Cay, on Sargassum ( Spracklin 1982: 250)  .— Colombia: Bahía de Cartagena ( Flórez González 1983: 123).—Sargasso Sea: Hydrostation “S” off Bermuda, 31°45’N, 64°10’W, on pelagic Sargassum  ( Butler et al. 1983: 231, as Aglaeophenia latecarinata  ).— USA: South Carolina, inner (17–18 m), middle (32–36 m) and outer (46–69 m) continental shelf + Georgia, inner (17–22 m), middle (23–29 m) and outer (59–67 m) continental shelf ( Wenner et al. 1984: 21, 40).— Bermuda: on Sargassum ( Calder 1986: 139)  .— Belize: Twin Cays ( Calder 1991b).— Bermuda: on Sargassum  , Natural Arches Beach + 2 km SE of Castle Roads + Church Bay ( Calder 1995: 540).— Bermuda: Whalebone Bay, on Sargassum  + Town Cut + Shelly Bay Beach, on Sargassum  and plastic + Atlantic Ocean 2 km off Natural Arches Beach + Challenger Bank + Flatts Inlet, on Sargassum  + Fort St. Catherine’s Beach, on Sargassum (Calder 1997: 55)  .— USA: North Carolina, near 34°10’N, 76°13’W, on Sargassum ( Stachowicz & Lindquist 1997: 116)  .— Bermuda: Challenger Bank + Argus (=Plantagenet) Bank ( Calder 2000: 1134).— Cuba: Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, cayos Esquivel and Mendoza, 1 m + Ciudad de La Habana province, Cojimar, on Sargassum  ( Ortiz 2001a: 64, as Aglaophenia cf. latecarinata  ).— Panama: Bocas del Toro area, Hospital Point, 09°20’01.9”N, 82°13’07.7”W, 2–13 m + Cayo Solarte Sud, 09°18’45.3”N, 82°12’46.6”W, 2–3 m + Boca del Drago, 09°25’36.3”N, 82°19’30.1”W, 1–3 m + Cayos Zapotilla, 09°15.564’N, 82°02.750’W, 7–8 m + Swan’s Key, 09°27’12.2”N, 82°18’01.8”W, 1–4 m ( Calder & Kirkendale 2005: 483).— Cuba: Playa Antonio (Península de Guanahacabibes), on Sargassum ( Varela et al. 2005: 178)  .—French Lesser Antilles: Guadeloupe, Grande-Terre, Pointe Plate, 16°27.220’N, 61°32.128’W, 15–20 m, on sponge + Grande-Terre, Les Ancres, 16°27.002’N, 61°32.320’W, 15–18 m, on bivalve shells ( Galea 2010: 31).— Colombia: offshore waters ( Posada et al. 2010: 75, 77).— Cuba: Golfo de Batabanó ( Castellanos-Iglesias et al. 2011: 24).— USA: Florida, off St. Lucie Inlet + Fort Pierce, Fort Pierce Inlet State Park, on Sargassum ( Calder 2013: 46)  .—French Lesser Antilles: Martinique ( Galea 2013: 50).—Caribbean Sea ( Wedler 2017b: 144, figs. 164–166A, B).— Mexico: Alacranes Reef, on algae, sponges ( Mendoza-Becerril et al. 2018b: 130).— Panama: Bocas del Toro area, STRI (Smithsonian Tropical Research Station) docks/weather station ( Miglietta et al. 2018b: 108).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Hydrozoa

Order

Leptothecata

Family

Aglaopheniidae

Genus

Aglaophenia

Loc

Aglaophenia latecarinata Allman, 1877

Calder, Dale R. 2019
2019
Loc

Aglaophenia pelasgica

Agassiz, A. 1865: 139
Loc

Aglaophenia late-carinata

Fraser, C. M. 1944: 378
Fraser, C. M. 1943: 94
Wallace, W. S. 1909: 137
Allman, G. J. 1885: 151
Allman, G. J. 1877: 56
Allman, G. J. 1877: 48
Loc

Aglaophenia minuta

Wallace, W. S. 1909: 137
Loc

Aglaophenia mammillata

Wallace, W. S. 1909: 137
Loc

Aglaophenia latecarinata

Bogle, M. A. 1975: 34