Eurypon suassunai, Santos, George Garcia, França, Fernando & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014

Santos, George Garcia, França, Fernando & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014, Three new species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 from Northeastern Brazil (Poecilosclerida; Demospongiae; Porifera), Zootaxa 3895 (2), pp. 273-284: 277-280

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3895.2.8

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:12702F5B-4E55-4CCA-8664-1F6269EF06EA

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A108FC07-FFEB-FFB5-FDF5-FE3FC44DF929

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Eurypon suassunai
status

sp. nov.

Eurypon suassunai   sp. nov.

( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 4– 5 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 ; Table 1)

Type specimens: UFPEPOR 1532 (Holotype), off Canavieiras City, Camamu-Almada Basin (15 ° 35 ' 5.91 " S, 38 ° 46 ' 36.35 " W), Bahia State, Brazil, (X. 2011). UFPEPOR 1533 (paratype), off Canavieiras City, Camamu-Almada Basin (15 ° 33 ' 30.56 " S, 38 ° 45 ' 14.53 " W), Bahia State, Brazil, (X. 2011).

Diagnosis. Eurypon suassunai   sp. nov. is the only Eurypon   from the Atlantic which combines subtylostyles, acanthostyles I, acanthostyles II with bulbous base, and raphidiform styles.

External morphology ( Fig 4 View FIGURE 4 A –B). Thin transparent encrustation, about 1 mm thick. Oscules not visible. Surface hispid due to evenly distributed projecting spicules. Consistency is fragile. Color in life is orange (formaldehyde) and pale in ethanol.

Skeleton ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 C –D). Ectosomal skeleton is absent. Tips of the choanosomal spicules protrude externally ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 C –D). The choanosomal skeleton has a hymedesmioid structure. The raphidiform styles are dispersed in the subectosomal region. Acanthostyles I and II are most abundant on basal layer of spongin ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 D).

Spicules ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 A –I). Choanosomal subtylostyles ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 A, G): long, smooth, slender, slightly curved and with bulbous base (690–1660 / 5–17 µm); Acanthostyles I ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 B, E): varying from straight to slightly curved, with lightly bulbous base, short and curved spines (hook-shaped spines) more concentrated in the middle and apical part of spicules (159–354 / 7–13 µm); Acanthostyles II ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 C, F): are short and robust, often straight, with bulbous base, totally microspined with short and curved spines (hook-shaped spines) (54–129 µm); Raphidiform styles ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 D, H, I): smooth, thin, most are straight, the styloid base ranges from the shape of a crown (171–345 / 1–5 µm).

Distribution ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Northeastern coast of Brazil, Bahia State, Brazil.

Depth. Shallow water.

Etymology. This species is named in honor of the Late the famous writer Ariano Vilar Suassuna for his defense of the culture of the Brazilian Northeast.

TABLE 1. Comparative micrometric data on the spicules and overview of distribution of the living species of Eurypon Gray, 1867   for the Atlantic. Values are in micrometers (µm), expressed minimum –maximum or minimum – mean –maximum length/width. References are numbered in parentheses and listed at the foot of the table.

TABLE 1. (continued)

Species Specimen Depth (m) Spicules (µm) location

Acanthostyles Subectosomal Choanosomal Choanosomal Other spicules Styles Tylostyles Subtylostyles

E. lictor ( Topsent, 1904)   (3) Azores 1600 - - 2000 / 23 - 575 – 1000 / 4–5 (tornote) 50 / 13–15 (trichodragmata)

E. mixtum ( Topsent, 1928)   (5) Ceuta, Spanish 650– 2165 I) 1000 - Not recorded Not recorded - Morocco II) 100–320

E. major Sarà & Siribelli, 1960   (10) Naples and 14–40 80–220 / 4–10.5 - 1115–2210 / - 480–700 / 4–7.5 (oxea)

Western Europe 10–17

E. mucronale ( Topsent, 1928)   (5) Azores 2460 I) 700–900 / 25 – - - Not recorded 400–490 / 12–17 (tornote)

30

II) 125–280 / 20

E. obtusum Vacelet, 1969   (10) Mediterranean 250 70–170 / 5–7.5 - Not recorded / - 400–430 / 2.5–3 (oxea)

Sea 10–12

E. pilosella ( Topsent, 1904)   (3) Azores 550– 1360 I) 2000–3000 / - - 300–480 / 5–6 - 25–30 (microspined) II) 170–300 / 15–

25

E. radiatum ( Bowerbank, 1866)   (11) Azores, Shetlands Not recorded 100–400 I) 800 / 10–15 - - - and Hebrides II) 350

E. scabiosum ( Topsent, 1927)   (6) Azores 650–919 I) 1000 / 24 - - 470–630 / 3– 4 - II) 80–300 / 6–13

E. simplex (Bowerbank, 1874)   (7) Roscoff and 60–260 I) 218 / 8 - - 2116 / 27 - Faroes II) 105

E. topsenti ( Burton, 1954)   (13) Western 900 - 1200 / 8 1600 / 14 - 60 (trichodragmata)

Caribbean

E. toureti ( Topsent, 1894)   (8) Gulf of Mexico Not recorded 50–60 - Not recorded - 10–12 (isochelae)

E. viride ( Topsent, 1889)   (9) Gulf of Mexico, 80–800 85 - 1000 - 70 (raphide)

Mediterranean

and Azores

References: (1) Little (1963); (2) Lévi (1969); (3) Topsent (1904); (4) Topsent (1891); (5) Topsent (1928); (6) Topsent (1927); (7) Bowerbank (1874); (8) Topsent (1894); (9) Topsent (1889); (10) Aguilar-Camacho & Carballo (2013); (11) Bowerbank (1866); (12) Arndt (1935); (13) Burton (1954).

Remarks. Eurypon suassunai   sp. nov. belongs to the genus in having choanosomal subtylostyles, echinating acanthostyles and an encrusting habit with a hymedesmioid skeleton. The closest species to E. suassunai   sp. nov. is E. clavilectuarium   sp. nov. because both shares the same spicules. However, in E. clavilectuarium   sp. nov. the subtylostyles are longer and stouter (1200–2000 / 8–24) than those of E. suassunai   sp. nov. (690–1600 / 5–17) and in the former, the tyle of the acanthostyles II are styloid against bulbose tyle of the last. Except from both, no others species of Eurypon   in Atlantic have raphidiform styles. Furthermore, the presence of two categories of acanthostyles distinguishes E. suassunai   sp. nov. from eleven species of the Atlantic: E. cinctum   ; E. clavatella   ; E. coronula   ; E. fulvum   ; E. lacazei   ; E. lictor   ; E. major   ; E. obtusum   ; E. radiatum   ; E. toureti   ; E. viride   (Table 1).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Poecilosclerida

Family

Raspailiidae

Genus

Eurypon

Loc

Eurypon suassunai

Santos, George Garcia, França, Fernando & Pinheiro, Ulisses 2014
2014
Loc

E. obtusum

Vacelet 1969
1969
Loc

E. major Sarà & Siribelli, 1960

Sara & Siribelli 1960
1960
Loc

E. topsenti (

Burton 1954
1954
Loc

E. mixtum (

Topsent 1928
1928
Loc

E. mucronale (

Topsent 1928
1928
Loc

E. scabiosum (

Topsent 1927
1927
Loc

E. lictor (

Topsent 1904
1904
Loc

E. pilosella (

Topsent 1904
1904
Loc

E. toureti (

Topsent 1894
1894
Loc

E. viride (

Topsent 1889
1889
Loc

E. simplex

Bowerbank 1874
1874
Loc

E. radiatum (

Bowerbank 1866
1866