Eurypon clavilectuarium, Santos, George Garcia, França, Fernando & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014

Santos, George Garcia, França, Fernando & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014, Three new species of Eurypon Gray, 1867 from Northeastern Brazil (Poecilosclerida; Demospongiae; Porifera), Zootaxa 3895 (2), pp. 273-284: 275-276

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Eurypon clavilectuarium

sp. nov.

Eurypon clavilectuarium   sp. nov.

( Figs 1–3 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 ; Table 1)

Type specimens: UFPEPOR 1534 (Holotype), Bacia Potiguar (04º 44.8945 ' S, 36 º 25.4571 ' W), Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, depth 108 m, trawl, Box 37, col. Petrobras, (23.V. 2011).

Diagnosis. Eurypon clavilectuarium   sp. nov. is the only Eurypon   described from the Atlantic with large choanosomal subtylostyles (1200–2000 µm long), and raphidiform styles (440 µm long).

External morphology ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A –B). Encrusting sponge (in calcareous nodules), up to 1 mm thick. Oscules not visible. Surface hispid due to evenly distributed projecting spicules. Consistency is fragile. Color in life is unknown and brownish-purple in ethanol. However, the specimens were collected in the same drag as Aiolochroia crassa (Hyatt, 1875)   and stored in the same container. It is possible that the A. crassa   pigments stained the Eurypon   specimens (as also reported for a specimen of Aulospongus   by Cavalcanti et al. 2014).

Skeleton ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C). Skeletal structure is hymedesmioid composed by long subtylostyles, two categories of echinating acanthostyles and raphidiform styles with their bases embedded in basal spongin and points protruding a long way through the surface, forming a dense erect palisade on the basal spongin.

Spicules ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A –G). Choanosomal subtylostyles ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A, E): long, smooth, slender, slightly curved and with bulbous to styloid base (1200–2000 / 8–24 µm); Acanthostyles I ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 B, F): varying from straight to slightly curved, with lightly bulbous base, short and curved spines (hook-shaped spines) more concentrated in the middle and apical part of spicules. Spination along the shaft is very sparse (195–600 / 7–17 µm). Acanthostyles II ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 C, G): straight, fusiform, base frequently styloid, totally microspined (spines are always recurved and arranged the same as previous category) (72–114 µm); Raphidiform styles ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 D): long, smooth, with styloid base, slender, ranging from straight to curved, some sinuous (260–439 / 1.9–3 µm).

Distribution ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Northeastern coast of Brazil, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil.

Depth. 108 m.

Etymology. The species is named clavilectuarium   (clavus = nail, lectuarius = of a bed), due to the long spicules perpendicular and projecting from the basal spongin on the substate, resembling a bed of nails.

Remarks. The new species belongs to the genus by the presence of choanosomal subtylostyles, echinating acanthostyles, subectosomal raphidiform styles, and an encrusting habit. Eurypon clavilectuarium   sp. nov. is the unique species of the genus from Atlantic which has large choanosomal subtylostyles (1200–2000 µm) and raphidiform styles (439 µm). The presence of two categories of acanthostyles in E. clavilectuarium   sp. nov. differs the following species from Atlantic: E. cinctum Sarà, 1960   ; E. clavatella Little, 1963   ; E. coronula (Bowerbank, 1874)   ; E. fulvum Lévi, 1969   ; E. lacazei ( Topsent, 1891)   ; E. lictor ( Topsent, 1904)   ; E. major Sarà & Siribelli, 1960   ; E. obtusum Vacelet, 1969   ; E. radiatum ( Bowerbank, 1866)   ; E. toureti ( Topsent, 1894)   ; E. viride ( Topsent, 1889)   . Except for E. radiatum   , all of these species present tylostyles which are not found in E. clavilectuarium   sp. nov. In addition, the following species differ by the presence of oxeas ( E. denisae   ; E. cinctum   ; E. fulvum   ; E. major   ; E. obtusum   ); tornotes ( E. lacazei   ; E. lictor   ; E. mucronale   ); isochelae ( E. toureti   ); and raphides ( E. viride   ) (see character list in Table 1).