Aphonopelma eutylenum Chamberlin, 1940

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 77-88

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A11559A6-38AE-AC1B-C611-DB76B49EA1FB

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scientific name

Aphonopelma eutylenum Chamberlin, 1940
status

 

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma eutylenum Chamberlin, 1940  Figures 40, 41, 42, 43, 44

Aphonopelma eutylenum  Chamberlin, 1940: 9; male holotype and female allotype from San Diego, San Diego Co., California, 32.715738 -117.161085 6, elev. 54ft., 1935, coll. unknown; deposited in AMNH. One male from San Diego, San Diego Co., California, 32.715738 -117.161085 6, elev. 54ft., 20.vii.1925, coll. unknown; deposited in AMNH. One female paratype from San Diego, San Diego Co., California, 32.715738 -117.161085 6, elev. 54ft., 28.v.1927, coll. unknown; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica eutylenum  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma eutylenum  Smith, 1995: 99.

Aphonopelma chambersi  Smith, 1995: 86; male holotype from Garner Valley, S of Idyllwild-Pine Cove, Riverside Co., California, 33.635459 -116.643974 5, elev. 4475ft., no collecting date, coll. Aaron Chambers; deposited in BMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Aphonopelma clarum  Chamberlin, 1940: 10; male holotype from mountains near Claremont, Los Angeles Co., California, 34.137812 -117.718194 4, elev. 1571ft., no collecting date, coll. R.V. Chamberlin; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica clarum  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma clarum  Smith, 1995: 89. syn. n.

Aphonopelma cryptethus  Chamberlin, 1940: 16; male holotype from Los Angeles, Los Angeles Co., California, 34.052234 -118.243685 6, elev. 309ft., 9.v.1908, coll. unknown; deposited in AMNH. Female allotype from Claremont, Los Angeles Co., California, 34.096676 -117.719778 5, elev. 1166ft., 9.v.1908, coll. unknown; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica cryptethus  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma cryptethum  Smith, 1995: 95. syn. n.

Aphonopelma sandersoni  Smith, 1995: 138; male holotype and female allotype from San Bernardino Mountains., San Bernardino Co., California, 34.180742 -117.164638 7, elev. 3137ft., x.1995, coll. R. Douglas; deposited in BMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Aphonopelma sullivani  Smith, 1995: 149; male holotype from Coachella Valley, Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, 33.767209 -116.359868 6, elev. 277ft., ix.1991, coll. Michael Sullivan; deposited in BMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma eutylenum  (Fig. 40) is a member of the iodius  species group and can be identified by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (CO1) identifies Aphonopelma eutylenum  as a strongly supported phylogenetically distinct monophyletic lineage (Figs 7-8), supported as the sister lineage to Aphonopelma iodius  and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  sp. n. Aside from measurements, no pronounced morphological features are useful for distinguishing Aphonopelma eutylenum  from closely related phylogenetic species. Significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma eutylenum  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are T3 and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Male Aphonopelma eutylenum  can be distinguished by possessing a larger L4 scopulation extent (62%-77%) than Aphonopelma steindachneri  (21%- 31 %) and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  sp. n. (34%-48%); and by possessing a smaller T1/T3 (≤1.23; 1.16-1.23) than Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (≥1.25; 1.25-1.31) and Aphonopelma steindachneri  (≥1.28; 1.28-1.36). There are no significant measurements that separate male Aphonopelma eutylenum  from Aphonopelma chalcodes  and Aphonopelma iodius  . Significant measurements that distinguish female Aphonopelma eutylenum  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are F1 and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma eutylenum  can be distinguished by possessing a larger L4 scopulation extent (62%-75%) than Aphonopelma steindachneri  (24%-34%); and by possessing a smaller F1/M3 (≤1.52; 1.41-1.52) than Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (≥1.52; 1.52-1.61). There are no significant measurements that separate female Aphonopelma eutylenum  from Aphonopelma chalcodes  and Aphonopelma iodius  . Females of Aphonopelma xwalxwal  are unknown at this time and cannot be compared.

Description.

Originally described by Chamberlin (1940).

Redescription of male exemplar

(APH_1088; Fig. 41). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live crossing road, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Black, grey, and faded brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 16.30 mm long, 15.89 mm wide; Hirsute; densely clothed with light brown iridescent pubescence mostly appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises gradually from foveal groove, gently arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER and PER not in normal placement - looks to be developmental issues; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus extends forward on a curve; LBl 1.94, LBw 2.08; sternum hirsute, clothed with black, densely packed setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black/brown pubescence with numerous longer red/orange setae interspersed; possessing a dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972). Legs: Hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in a mix of black or faded black pubescence, femurs are darker. Metatarsus I slightly curved. F1 16.12; F1w 4.16; P1 6.93; T1 13.24; M1 13.41; A1 9.02; F3 14.19; F3w 4.41; P3 5.82; T3 10.82; M3 14.44; A3 8.30; F4 16.77; F4w 4.10; P4 6.71; T4 13.76; M4 18.16; A4 9.02; femur III is slightly swollen. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 83.5%; leg IV (SC4) = 71.6%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; four ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV; one large megaspine is present on the retrolateral tibia at the apex of the mating clasper - this can be seen when viewing the prolateral face of the mating clasper. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and two spinose setae on the prolateral tibia; PTl 9.361, PTw 3.47. When extended, embolus tapers and gently curves to the retrolateral side near apex; embolus very slender, no keels; distinct ventral bulge at the shift from bulb to embolus.

Variation (8).Cl 12.01-18.42 (15.497 ± 0.73), Cw 10.92-16.38 (14.213 ± 0.68), LBl 1.53-2.14 (1.846 ± 0.09), LBw 1.57-2.38 (2.113 ± 0.11), F1 12.67-16.86 (15.34 ± 0.5), F1w 2.85-4.51 (3.799 ± 0.2), P1 4.94-7.22 (6.028 ± 0.28), T1 10.52-13.62 (12.456 ± 0.42), M1 10.08-14.57 (12.415 ± 0.59), A1 6.71-9.18 (8.328 ± 0.32), L1 length 45.83-61.45 (55.503 ± 1.95), F3 10.75-14.19 (12.924 ± 0.45), F3w 3.21-4.77 (3.944 ± 0.19), P3 3.98-5.98 (5.186 ± 0.28), T3 8.82-11.26 (10.247 ± 0.36), M3 10.59-14.7 (13.179 ± 0.67), A3 6.75-8.48 (7.771 ± 0.26), L3 length 41.73-54.29 (49.353 ± 2.08), F4 12.93-16.82 (15.241 ± 0.54), F4w 2.85-4.41 (3.656 ± 0.19), P4 4.61-6.71 (5.734 ± 0.26), T4 10.79-14.21 (12.781 ± 0.53), M4 13.84-18.71 (16.776 ± 0.77), A4 7.42-9.47 (8.556 ± 0.31), L4 length 49.65-65.06 (59.139 ± 2.5), PTl 7.375-10.727 (8.984 ± 0.35), PTw 2.319-3.47 (3.082 ± 0.14), SC3 ratio 0.728-0.93 (0.827 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.626-0.772 (0.701 ± 0.02), Coxa I setae = tapered, F3 condition = slightly swollen.

Description of female exemplar

(APH_1031; Figs 42-43). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Faded brown/black. Cephalothorax: Carapace 16.55 mm long, 15.05 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with light brown pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER procurved, PER slightly recurved; large chelicerae, clypeus extends forward on a curve; LBl 2.05, LBw 2.38; sternum hirsute, clothed with dark brown setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short black setae with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972); ventral side with shorter black/dark brown setae. Spermathecae: Paired and separate with wide bases, tapering and curving medially towards capitate bulbs, with smaller bulges laterally and medially. Legs: Very hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in medium and long brown pubescence, femurs darker. F1 13.77; F1w 4.14; P1 5.95; T1 10.15; M1 8.89; A1 7.44; F3 10.84; F3w 3.83; P3 5.29; T3 8.95; M3 9.07; A3 7.29; F4 13.70; F4w 3.86; P4 5.51; T4 11.43; M4 12.70; A4 8.14. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 88.2%; leg IV (SC4) = 74.7%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; seven ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and five spinose setae on the prolateral tibia.

Variation (8).Cl 15.23-20.84 (18.248 ± 0.72), Cw 13.33-17.78 (16.206 ± 0.61), LBl 1.95-2.81 (2.353 ± 0.12), LBw 2.28-3.04 (2.675 ± 0.1), F1 12.87-15.78 (14.599 ± 0.5), F1w 3.62-4.94 (4.357 ± 0.2), P1 5.38-7.34 (6.479 ± 0.25), T1 9.82-13.05 (11.243 ± 0.42), M1 8.36-10.75 (9.565 ± 0.33), A1 6.6-7.92 (7.36 ± 0.17), L1 length 43.43-54.02 (49.137 ± 1.72), F3 10.53-13.35 (12.208 ± 0.42), F3w 3.3-4.67 (4.044 ± 0.16), P3 5.12-7.26 (5.776 ± 0.27), T3 8.3-9.93 (8.82 ± 0.2), M3 8.64-11.06 (9.958 ± 0.36), A3 6.49-7.87 (7.084 ± 0.16), L3 length 39.24-48.1 (43.845 ± 1.2), F4 13.21-16.57 (14.909 ± 0.53), F4w 3.42-4.73 (4.106 ± 0.19), P4 5.51-7.40 (6.312 ± 0.32), T4 10.5-12.84 (11.509 ± 0.31), M4 11.84-15.26 (13.32 ± 0.48), A4 6.94-8.82 (7.779 ± 0.26), L4 length 48.62-60.13 (54.192 ± 1.91), SC3 ratio 0.772-0.906 (0.851 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.628-0.747 (0.683 ± 0.02), Coxa I setae = tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 43.

Material examined.

United States: California: Imperial: 1.5 miles N Gordons Well off of I-8, 32.7636 -114.966431 2, 248ft., [APH_0152, unknown, 1 juv, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; E of Brawley, off of Hwy 78, 32.969167 -115.259444 5, 3ft., [APH_3116, 10/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; East Mesa, 33.058096 -115.324147 5, 46ft., [AUMS_3332, 30/5/1995, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; East Mesa Exit of I-8, 2.1 miles N of I-8, 32.73013 -114.955351 4, 158ft., [AUMS_2358, 26/10/1993, 1♂, Greg Ballmer, AUMNH]; East Mesa, 1/2 mile E of Highline Canal and 3/10 mile S of Hwy 78, 32.968133 -115.290717 1, 37ft., [APH_3211, 15/11/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; East Mesa, 5.4 miles E of Hwy 115 E of Wander Linder Exit of I-8, 32.788365 -115.207479 4, 50ft., [AUMS_3303, 30/5/1995, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; East Mesa, 5.4 miles E of Hwy 115 E of Wan der Linder Exit, 2.1 miles N, 32.790359 -115.240569 4, 63ft., [AUMS_3341, 30/5/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Hwy 78, 1.0 miles east of Highline Canal, 32.970575 -115.28374 4, 30ft., [AUMS_2356,-2357 3/11/1998, 2♂, Greg Ballmer, AUMNH]; Hwy 78, 3.35 miles E of East Highline Canal, N of 78 ~0.4 miles, 32.972797 -115.242665 4, 90ft., [AUMS_2674, unknown, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; off I-8 split, W of Devils Canyon, W of Ocotillo, 32.67371 -116.10147 1, 2238ft., [APH_1028-1029, 18/5/2010, 1♂, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Pinto Wash, 32.708139 -115.715525 5, 13ft., [APH_2690, 5/3/1961, 1♂, Laurie Breese, AMNH]; 15 miles west of Glamis , 33.008844 -115.321813 5, -7ft., [APH_2154, 4/10/1961, 1♀, 1♂, Findlay E. Russell, AMNH]; Los Angeles: Claremont College - Frary Dining Hall on steps, 34.10018 -117.710527 4, 1225ft., [AUMS_3308, 11/11/1991, 1♂, Martin Ramirez, AUMNH]; Claremont, Mt. Baldy Rd and Mills Ave, 34.13823 -117.7072 1, 1660ft., [APH_1087, 8/10/2010, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Claremont, Thompson Creek Trail, 34.13716 -117.71389 1, 1582ft., [APH_1088-1089, 8/10/2010, 3♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Dylan Burke, Warren Burke, AUMNH]; [APH_2023-2027, 8/10/2010, 5♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Glendora Ridge Rd., Angeles National Forest, 34.221163 -117.739386 6, 3666ft., [AUMS_2686, 17/11/1991, 1♂, John Adams, AUMNH]; Glendore, 34.136118 -117.865337 5, 774ft., [APH_2687, 18/10/1963, 1♂, R. Ayre, AMNH]; Morris Lake, 34.192644 -117.865749 5, 1207ft., [APH_2711, 8/1956, 1♂, Gay J. Kay, AMNH]; Palos Verde, 33.768911 -118.373032 5, 1132ft., [AUMS_2496, unknown, 1♂, C. Grover, AUMNH]; Phillips Ranch Rd., N of Freeway, 34.028759 -117.772093 5, 862ft., [AUMS_2498, 10/1992, 1♂, Dianna Hansen, AUMNH]; Pico Rivera, 33.983069 -118.096735 5, 163ft., [AUMS_3336, 4/10/1963, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; San Gabriel Mtns (N of Azusa), 34.2175 -117.8553 1, 1697ft., [APH_0895, 6/2007, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; San Gabriel Mtns., near jct. Mt. Baldy Rd. and Glendora Ridge Rd., 0.8 miles up Glendora Ridge Rd. to dirt road winding around mtn., 34.228259 -117.670819 5, 4532ft., [AUMS_2490, 24/6/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Orange: 21263 Mohler Drive, Anaheim, 33.853135 -117.755736 2, 617ft., [APH_2707, 1963, 2♂, F.W. Handsfield Jr., AMNH]; Brea, 33.916706 -117.899988 5, 362ft., [AUMS_2487, 15/10/1975, 1♂, Jim Lawrence, AUMNH]; Caspers Wilderness Park (San Juan Capistrano), 33.5572 -117.556783 1, 709ft., [APH_0981, 9/2009, 1♀, Kyle Dickerson, AUMNH]; El Toro (Marine Corps Air Station MCAS), 33.673927 -117.72924 5, 340ft., [AUMS_2588, 26/9/1966, 1♂, 1st Lt Jim Hardy, AUMNH]; Hidden Hills area, (Laguna Nigel) near San Juan Capistrano, 33.529839 -117.685743 5, 525ft., [AUMS_3309, 20/11/1991, 1♂, Scott Elgnam, AUMNH]; Laguna Beach , 33.542248 -117.783109 5, 16ft., [APH_2155, 26/7/1931, 1♀, R.V. Chamberlin, AMNH]; [APH_2472, 26/5/1931, 1 juv, Wilton Ivie, AMNH]; Laguna Hills, 33.599722 -117.699444 5, 372ft., [AUMS_2481, 28/10/1967, 1♂, Tom Simms, AUMNH]; Laguna Niguel, 33.522526 -117.707553 5, 407ft., [AUMS_2488, unknown, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; Lookout Point, Corona del Mar, 33.592518 -117.877554 5, 0ft., [APH_2708, 16/10/1962, 1♂, Jerry Parrish, AMNH]; San Cle mente, E of Avenida Pico, off The Christianitos Trail, 33.455 -117.57523 1, 388ft., [APH_1035, 22/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; San Jauquin Hills, S of Lagunas Reservoir, off Hwy 133, 33.607836 -117.75685 5, 397ft., [AUMS_3316, 7/5/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; San Juan Capistrano, 33.501693 -117.662551 5, 127ft., [AUMS_3327, 23/8/1964, 2♀, 1♂, J.H. Menees, AUMNH]; Santa Ana, 33.745573 -117.867931 5, 112ft., [APH_2153, 17/7/1931, 2♀, R.V. Chamberlin, AMNH]; Starr Ranch, between Caspers and Clev. Nat Forest, 33.632326 -117.555835 5, 999ft., [AUMS_2399, 13/8/1997, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Starr Ranch, N Perusker and Bell Canyon Rd, 33.626176 -117.556666 5, 919ft., [AUMS_2404, 4/8/1997, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Riverside: 1 mile N of Winchester, 33.72247 -117.081149 4, 1558ft., [APH_2171, 13/10/1968, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; 1 mile NW of Winchester, 33.71869 -117.096162 5, 1745ft., [AUMS_2590, 3/9/1990, 1♀, Gary Larson, AUMNH]; 2 miles N of Winchester, 33.734766 -117.076361 5, 1556ft., [AUMS_2491, 30/10/1995, 1♂, Ken Harbridge, AUMNH]; 2 miles NE of Winchester, 33.734476 -117.074678 5, 1562ft., [AUMS_3301, 13/10/1995, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; 7 miles E of Hemet - off Hwy 74 in San Jacinto Mtns, 33.72003 -116.7916 1, 2625ft., [APH_3114, 22/7/2012, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; at base of Double Butte, Washington Ave, 1/2 mile N of Winchester town center, 33.714 -117.085 1, 1492ft., [APH_3207, 28/10/2013, 1♂, Patrick Parker, AUMNH]; [APH_3208, 6/11/2013, 1♂, Kim Johnson, AUMNH]; Box Spring Mtns, 33.972945 -117.29587 6, 2351ft., [AUMS_2585, 7/1991, 2♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Cajalco Canyon, 8.6 miles southeast of Corona at Lake Mathews, 33.829201 -117.462018 4, 1368ft., [APH_2692, 3/11/1963, 1♂, W. A. Powder, AMNH]; Chino Canyon, on road to Palm Springs Aerial Tramway (Valley Station), 3 miles W of junction with Hwy 111 San Jacinto Mtns, 33.8447 -116.60125 1, 1971ft., [APH_3138, 10/9/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Chino Canyon, Palm Springs Aerial Tramway (Valley Station), San Jacinto Mtns, 33.838433 -116.6132 1, 2532ft., [APH_3137, 22/9/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [APH_3139, 4/9/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [APH_3140, 5/9/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Deep Canyon, 33.664423 -116.372819 5, 764ft., [AUMS_2629, unknown, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; E of Perris Valley Airport, Perris, 33.760961 -117.202485 5, 1417ft., [AUMS_2628, 19/7/1994, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; East of Sun City off I-215, Sun Mtns east, 33.702126 -117.171559 5, 1849ft., [AUMS_3285, 5/2/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Garner Valley, off Fobes Ranch Rd - off Hwy 74, S of Lake Hemet, 33.63184 -116.63173 1, 4501ft., [APH_3111-3113, 22/7/2012, 2♂, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Amy Skibiel, AUMNH]; just S of the Garner Valley, outside Nightingale, off Piñon Flats Transfer Station Rd - off Hwy 74, Sawmill Trailhead, 33.5802 -116.45131 1, 4047ft., [APH_3106-3110, 21/7/2012, 2♂, 3♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Amy Skibiel, AUMNH]; Lake Elsinore, near J Bethlee home, 33.668144 -117.327394 5, 1293ft., [AUMS_2503, 9/1998, 1♂, J. Bethlee, AUMNH]; Lake Mathews, 33.828903 -117.437512 5, 1401ft., [AUMS_3284, 14/4/1968, 1♂, M. Cline, AUMNH]; Lake Mathews, heading N on Cajalco Rd., 0.5 mile E of junction La Sierra Ave., 33.827762 -117.451927 4, 1397ft., [AUMS_2517, 12 /11/1998, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, at entrance gate, 33.590905 -117.07877 5, 1408ft., [AUMS_2499, 26/11/1997, 1♂, Tom Ash, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, below U3 on rd. above oaks, 33.604263 -117.038208 5, 1567ft., [AUMS_2681, 29/10/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, below U5, above lake, 33.609043 -117.037303 5, 1661ft., [AUMS_2507, 28/9/1997, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, between road and B9, 33.580808 -117.088785 5, 1353ft., [AUMS_2255, 16/8/1998, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, by 90 deg. turn in dirt rd., S. of U7?, S side of lake, 33.575862 -117.066618 5, 1539ft., [AUMS_2501, 3/9/1987, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, found on N side of lake E of Borel rd, 33.588117 -117.028523 5, 1517ft., [AUMS_2581, 18/8/1999, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, Rowson Canyon, 1.5 miles N of middle gate, 0.8 miles S of Loop Rd., 33.573703 -117.066585 4, 1519ft., [AUMS_2505, 28/9/1997, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, S of B5, close to lake, 33.569155 -117.064281 5, 1534ft., [AUMS_2506, 28/9/1997, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, S side, 33.578777 -117.057225 5, 1535ft., [AUMS_2518, 11/9/1997, 1♂, Adam Bucklin , AUMNH]; Lake Skinner, SE of H2O, 33.573965 -117.025814 5, 1605ft., [AUMS_3325, 3/9/1997, 1♀, Adam Backlin, AUMNH]; Lamb Canyon, 33.855805 -117.015244 5, 1590ft., [AUMS_2587, 23/7/1988, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lamb Canyon - N of jct 79 and Gilman Springs Rd., 33.858779 -117.016279 5, 1627ft., [AUMS_2401, 14/10/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lamb Canyon (S of Beaumont), off Hwy 79, 33.85507 -117.00342 1, 1911ft., [APH_1041-1042, 27/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Tom Prentice, AUMNH]; Lamb Canyon, Hwy 79, 33.853149 -117.007918 5, 1660ft., [AUMS_2407, 27/6/1987, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Mt Vernon Park, base of Sugarloaf Mtn, 33.988098 -117.295535 5, 2078ft., [AUMS_2497, 30/9/1992, 1♀, James Adams, AUMNH]; Murrieta, 33.553914 -117.213923 5, 1103ft., [AUMS_2655, 13/10/2001, 1♂, Bill, AUMNH]; [AUMS_3297, 8/9/1996, 1♂, C. Webster, AUMNH]; P.L. Boyd Deep Canyon Reserve, 0.1 miles above reserve gate, 33.66925 -116.372791 4, 701ft., [AUMS_2337, 21/9/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; P.L. Boyd Deep Canyon Reserve, 0.1 miles below reserve gate, 33.672099 -116.372355 4, 670ft., [AUMS_2335, 27/9/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; P.L. Boyd Deep Canyon Reserve, 0.55 miles N of reserve station, 33.655658 -116.373614 4, 883ft., [AUMS_2336, 22/9/1995, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; P.L. Boyd Deep Canyon Reserve, 0.6 miles below reserve gate, 33.677492 -116.370089 4, 615ft., [AUMS_2334, 27/9/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2368, 21/9/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; P.L. Boyd-Deep Canyon Reserve, 1.1 miles below reserve gate, 33.571489 -116.248672 4, 540ft., [AUMS_3293, 21/9/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Perris, 33.782519 -117.228648 5, 1468ft., [AUMS_2400, 20/7/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2409, 20/7/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Perris, between I-215 and Perris Valley Airport, just N of Hwy 74 exit, 33.770547 -117.208584 5, 1417ft., [AUMS_2486, 19/7/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Perris, E of Perris Valley Airport, 33.774681 -117.210995 5, 1419ft., [AUMS_4196, 20/7/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Perris, E of Per ris Valley Airport, W of I-215, 33.766645 -117.21044 5, 1416ft., [AUMS_2403, 20/7/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Perris, field between Perris Valley airport and 74G exit (north of exit), off I-215, 33.765075 -117.201682 5, 1415ft., [AUMS_3311, 24/10/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Perris, Rd 11 to I-215 between 74E exit and Perris exit, W of I-215, 33.775744 -117.239759 5, 1529ft., [AUMS_2405, 20/9/1993, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2483, 23/9/1993, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Pinyon Pines area, Palm Canyon Dr, 2 mils N of junction with Hwy 74, Santa Rosa Mtns, 33.609067 -116.471767 1, 4054ft., [APH_3142, 16/8/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Pinyon Pines, Piñon Rd just N of junction with Hwy 74, Santa Rosa Mtns, 33.583867 -116.455383 1, 4036ft., [APH_3141, 16/8/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; S of Corona, off I-15 west side, Weirick Rd exit (Temescal Canyon), 1.5 miles W, 33.796868 -117.531405 5, 1732ft., [AUMS_2685, 4/9/1995, 1♀, John Hermesman, AUMNH]; S of Hemet, NE of Lake Skinner, off De Portola Rd and Crown Valley Rd, 33.64276 -116.992 1, 2307ft., [APH_1038, 27/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Tom Prentice, AUMNH]; [APH_1040, 27/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Tom Prentice, AUMNH]; S side of Lake Skinner, 33.574388 -117.054156 5, 1533ft., [AUMS_2504, 11/9/1997, 1♂, Adam Bucklin, AUMNH]; San Jacinto mountains, Palms to Pines Hwy 74, above Palm Desert, 33.664336 -116.398965 5, 1240ft., [AUMS_2480, 2/4/1988, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Santa Rosa Mtns, W side of Deep Canyon, Hwy 74, 1 mile S of jct with Carrizo Road, 33.5947 -116.422467 1, 3733ft., [APH_3206, 17/10/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Santa Rosa Plateau, 33.545816 -117.270534 5, 1779ft., [AUMS_2314, 25/10/1998, 1♂, Connell Dunning, AUMNH]; Santa Rosa Plateau (reserve), jct of Clinton Keith and Tenaja Rd. (bend), 33.52847 -117.273132 5, 1800ft., [AUMS_2509, 29/9/1998, 1 juv, Connell Dunning, AUMNH]; Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, Lomas Trail 1.2 miles E of Clinton Keith Rd, 33.522687 -117.271312 4, 1949ft., [AUMS_2679, 29/9/1998, 1♂, C. Dunning, AUMNH]; Sun Mtns., Sun City, 33.717019 -117.216043 5, 1623ft., [AUMS_2493, unknown, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Temecula, 33.493639 -117.148365 5, 1047ft., [APH_2686, 8/6/1965, 1♂, Helen Wheeler, AMNH]; Temescal Canyon (Valley), N of Weirick Rd, exit off I-15, Bedford Motorway, 33.807554 -117.513595 5, 1008ft., [AUMS_3321, 24/9/1995, 1♂, John Hermesman, AUMNH]; UC Riverside - backside between Ent. Annex I and Boden Lab, 33.971765 -117.325971 5, 1091ft., [AUMS_2519, 13/12/1998, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Winchester, 33.706966 -117.084473 5, 1486ft., [APH_2167, 18/11/1967, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; [APH_2168, 1/10/1967, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; [AUMS_2402, unknown, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2478, 11/9/1990, 2♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Arabian Gardens Mobile Estates, Indio, 33.72995 -116.24115 4, 9ft., [AUMS_2376, 9/1988, 1♂, Thomas R. Prentice, AUMNH]; San Bernardino: 1255 Colony Dr., Upland (base of Mt. Baldy), 34.1553 -117.672217 1, 2102ft., [APH_2035, 7/17/2011, 1♀, Jolene Stewart, AUMNH]; 620 Greenwood Avenue, Devore, 34.242532 -117.419506 2, 2690ft., [APH_0189, 25/9/2007, 1♂, Joshua Gutierrez, AUMNH]; Hwy 38, 1.8 miles W jct of Forest Falls, 34.099825 -116.98744 4, 3926ft., [AUMS_2484, 24/8/1990, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; N of Rancho Cucamonga, off Hermosa, 34.16862 -117.58182 1, 2565ft., [APH_1085, 8/10/2010, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; N of Rancho Cucamonga, off Hermosa, 34.16742 -117.58117 1, 2477ft., [APH_1086, 8/10/2010, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; San Bernardino (San Bernardino National Forest), in hills N of city, off Quail Canyon Rd and Del Rosa, 34.174 -117.252 1, 2299ft., [APH_1045, 1/6/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; San Diego: 0.5 W of most SW shore of Otay Lake, 32.608062 -116.939954 2, 491ft., [APH_0305, 27/10/2007, 1 juv, Dorian LaPaglia, AUMNH]; 12 miles south of San Diego, 32.556071 -117.075033 5, 30ft., [APH_2476, 15/10/1935, 1♂, W.J. Baerg, AMNH]; 2/10 mile W of Yaqui Pass road (S3), at the Anza-Borrego State Park sign, 3 miles S of jct with Borrego Springs Rd, 33.170767 -116.337967 1, 1207ft., [APH_3209, 8/11/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Anza Borrego desert, on S22 (Borrego Salton Seaway) W of Salton City, 33.30525 -116.208333 1, 957ft., [APH_3144, 9/11/2013, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, Molly Taylor, AUMNH]; Anza Borrego desert, W outside Borrego Springs off of Hwy S22, 33.228106 -116.410867 1, 1523ft., [APH_3143, 9/11/2013, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, Molly Taylor, AUMNH]; Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, Borrego Springs, 32.908056 -116.491047 6, 5115ft., [APH_2165, 31/10/1961, 1♂, Dalton E. Merkel, AMNH]; Anza-Borrego State Park, 33.039933 -116.402333 1, 2584ft., [APH_0982-0984, 9/2009, 2♀, 1♂, Kyle Dickerson, AUMNH]; [APH_2697, 12/1962, 1♂, Merkel, AMNH]; [APH_2704-2705, 12/1962, 3♂, Merkel, AMNH]; [APH_2716, 11/1962, 2♂, Merkel, AMNH]; [APH_2719, 10/1962, 1♂, Merkel, AMNH]; Anza-Borrego, Yaqui Pass, 33.151285 -116.346386 5, 1800ft., [AUMS_2680, 10/5/1987, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Borrego Valley, Borrego Springs Road, 8/10 mile SE of jct with Jaqui Pass road (S3), 33.204 -116.318417 1, 543ft., [APH_3210, 8/11/2013, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Camp Pendleton, range 313A - HOLF, 33.313998 -117.314552 6, 353ft., [AUMS_2610, 20/8/unknown, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; Camp Pendleton, HOLF, San Mateo Creek, 33.469175 -117.475198 6, 415ft., [AUMS_2611, 20/8/1999, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; Camp Pendleton, plot C30, 33.313998 -117.314552 6, 353ft., [AUMS_2675, 30/5/1996, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Camp Pendleton, San Mateo Creek, 33.434796 -117.523894 6, 321ft., [AUMS_2317, 1990, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2644, 1999, 1♂, Dan Holland, AUMNH]; [AUMS_3328, unknown, 1♂, Dan Holland, AUMNH]; Camp Pendleton, San Onofre Cr., 33.234926 -117.389044 6, 146ft., [AUMS_2582, 29/9/1999, 1♀, Dan Holland, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2258, 9/1999, 2♀, Dan Holland, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2251, 29/9/1999, 1♂, Dan Holland, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2397, 9/1999, 1♀, Dan Holland, AUMNH]; [AUMS_3348, 12/9/1999, 1♂, Dan Holland, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2315, 9/1999, 1♂, Dan Holland, AUMNH]; Chula Vista, 32.640023 -117.084004 5, 67ft., [AUMS_2502, 10/8/1997, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; De Luz, off De Luz Rd, NW of Fallbrook, 33.42858 -117.32127 1, 384ft., [APH_1037, 24/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; El Cajon, 32.794773 -116.962527 5, 433ft., [APH_2147, 4/5/1926, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; Encanto, 32.711739 -117.061755 5, 230ft., [APH_2146, 18/8/1928, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2170, 12/11/1931, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Growmont, 32.799285 -116.999051 5, 715ft., [APH_2169, 17/8/1931, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; La Mesa, 32.767829 -117.023084 5, 541ft., [APH_2152, 1/8/1938, 1♂, H. Stredwick, AMNH]; [APH_2162, 20/7/1925, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2163, 4/8/1925, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2164, 25/4/1927, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; Laguna Beach , 33.542248 -117.783109 5, 16ft., [APH_2158, 20/7/1930, 1♂, Edward Lawrance, AMNH]; Lake Henshaw, on Hwy 76, 33.22337 -116.75292 1, 2801ft., [APH_1016-1017, 15/5/2010, 1♀, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Lake Henshaw, on Hwy 76 at Lake Henshaw campground, 33.23073 -116.76336 1, 2929ft., [APH_1014-1015, 15/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Las Flores, 33.154632 -117.207187 5, 568ft., [APH_2145, 30/8/1936, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Lemon Grove, 32.742552 -117.031417 5, 453ft., [APH_2156, 10/10/1930, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2157, 5/8/1926, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; off S6/Hwy 76, E of Rincon, W of S6 turnoff for Palomar Mtn, 33.29765 -116.92304 1, 2468ft., [APH_1020-1021, 15/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Oriflamme Canyon, 2 miles W of S2, W of Anza-Borrego state park boundary, 33.004274 -116.460837 5, 2246ft., [AUMS_2612, 5/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; San Diego, 32.71533 -117.157253 6, 62ft., [APH_2148, 1935, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2149, 7/1962, 1♂, Chris Parrish, AMNH]; [APH_2159-2160, unknown, 1♀, 2♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2161, 20/8/1925, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; San Diego, Mission Trails Regional Park, 32.8402 -117.04561 1, 349ft., [APH_1031, 20/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; San Diego, Mission Trails Regional Park, Oak Canyon Trail and Grassland Trail intersect, 32.84467 -117.0437 1, 324ft., [APH_1009-1010, 11/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, Kyle Dickerson, AUMNH]; Santa Ysabel, on Hwy 79, next to Santa Ysabel Open Space Preserve, 33.12607 -116.67841 1, 2938ft., [APH_1018-1019, 15/5/2010, 2♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, AUMNH]; Santee, in hills N of where Carlton Hills Blvd ends, 32.86146 -116.99485 4, 780ft., [APH_0144, 5/2007, 1 juv, Gilbert Quintana, AUMNH]; Sweetwater Reserve near San Diego, 32.602142 -116.879255 5, 1345ft., [APH_2473, 21/9/1935, 2♀, W.J. Baerg, AMNH]; Wruck Canyon, San Ysidro, off Cactus Rd, 32.5519 -116.99642 1, 351ft., [APH_1025, 16/5/2010, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Xavier Atkinson, Jordan Satler, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma eutylenum  has a distribution that stretches from the western part of the Transverse Ranges, south down the length of the California coast along the Peninsular Ranges, and west of the Mojave Desert (Fig. 44). Aphonopelma eutylenum  inhabits the following Level III Ecoregions in California: Southern California/Northern Baja Coast, Sonoran Basin and Range, and Southern California Mountains. This species can be found in syntopy with a number of species across its distribution including Aphonopelma iodius  , Aphonopelma steindachneri  , and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  . The breeding season, when mature males abandon their burrows in search of females, occurs during the fall (generally September–November).

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma eutylenum  is widely distributed across Southern California and is very common. The species is likely secure although some localized populations in urbanized areas (e.g., Los Angeles and San Diego) are likely threatened by human encroachment and development.

Remarks.

Aphonopelma eutylenum  can easily be differentiated from Aphonopelma steindachneri  and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  by the extent of scopulation on legs III and IV, and from Aphonopelma xwalxwal  a larger body size. Female and immature male Aphonopelma eutylenum  can be distinguished from Aphonopelma steindachneri  and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  by body color as well. Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma eutylenum  possess a smaller T1/F3 (≤1.00; 0.93-1.00) than Aphonopelma steindachneri  (≥1.01; 1.01-1.11) and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  (≥1.10; 1.10-1.17); by possessing a larger T3/A3 (≥1.30; 1.30-1.35) than Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (≤1.27; 1.18-1.27), but smaller than Aphonopelma xwalxwal  (≥1.41; 1.41-1.64). Other important ratios that distinguish females: Aphonopelma eutylenum  possess a larger M1/M4 (≥0.67; 0.67-0.78) than Aphonopelma steindachneri  (≤0.67; 0.62-0.67). For both males and females, certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no others are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional two-dimensional PCA morphospace, male Aphonopelma eutylenum  separate from their syntopic species Aphonopelma steindachneri  and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  , but do not separate from the other species in the iodius  species group. Interestingly, when evaluating three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), male Aphonopelma eutylenum  separates from Aphonopelma johnnycashi  , as well as Aphonopelma steindachneri  and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  . Female Aphonopelma eutylenum  separate in two-dimensional and three-dimensional morphospace from their syntopic species Aphonopelma steindachneri  and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  , but do not separate from the other species in the iodius  species group. PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥95% of the variation in all analyses. We examined the holotypes and freshly collected topotypic material of Aphonopelma chambersi  , Aphonopelma clarum  , Aphonopelma cryptethum  , Aphonopelma sandersoni  , and Aphonopelma sullivani  . Our morphological and molecular analyses fail to recognize these five species as separate, independently evolving lineages. As a consequence, we consider Aphonopelma chambersi  , Aphonopelma clarum  , Aphonopelma cryptethum  , Aphonopelma sandersoni  , and Aphonopelma sullivani  junior synonyms of Aphonopelma eutylenum  .

Mitochondrial DNA (CO1) is problematic in the iodius  species group. While this locus identifies Aphonopelma eutylenum  as a monophyletic group, sister relationships are unclear. Nuclear DNA reveals the true evolutionary history of the Aphonopelma eutylenum  lineage and highlights the ineffectiveness of CO1 for accurately delimiting species boundaries within this group.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Aphonopelma

Loc

Aphonopelma eutylenum Chamberlin, 1940

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E. 2016

2016
Loc

Aphonopelma eutylenum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma eutylenum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma chambersi

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma clarum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma clarum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma cryptethus

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma cryptethum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma sandersoni

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma sullivani

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Rhechostica eutylenum

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Rhechostica clarum

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Rhechostica cryptethus

Simon 1892

1892