Minibiotus diversus, Roszkowska, Daniel Adrian Ciobanu Milena & Kaczmarek, Łukasz, 2015

Roszkowska, Daniel Adrian Ciobanu Milena & Kaczmarek, Łukasz, 2015, Two new tardigrade species from Romania (Eutardigrada: Milnesiidae, Macrobiotidae), with some remarks on secondary sex characters in Milnesium dornensis sp. nov., Zootaxa 3941 (4), pp. 542-564: 550-558

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3941.4.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:66179A2D-14A6-4C5F-91F7-331E7922D1B0

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A12287B0-FFC0-FFB2-E6B3-FBD026BA0898

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Minibiotus diversus
status

sp. nov.

Minibiotus diversus   sp. nov.

http://www.tardigrada.net/register/0019.htm ( Figs 15 – 31 View FIGURES 15 – 16 View FIGURES 17 – 18 View FIGURES 19 – 24 View FIGURES 25 – 29 View FIGURES 30 – 31 , Tables 3 – 4)

Material examined: Holotype, 100 paratypes, three exuvia and five eggs.

Description of the adults ( Figs 15 – 16 View FIGURES 15 – 16 ) (measurements in µm, pt ratios and statistics in Table 3): Body white/yellowish (in live specimens) or transparent (after fixation in Hoyer’s medium). Eyes present. Entire cuticle covered by numerous round or oval pores (0.6 – 4.8 Μm in diameter). Pores are distributed randomly on dorsal side of the body or arranged in more or less regular rows (lines) on ventral side ( Figs 15 – 16 View FIGURES 15 – 16 and 19 – 20 View FIGURES 19 – 24 ). Large, circular dorsal pores include: 3 – 6 pores (2.2 – 3.2 Μm in diameter) on head region ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 19 – 24 ) and 3 – 5 pores (2.2 – 3.2 Μm in diameter) caudally, just above IV pair of legs ( Figs 23 – 24 View FIGURES 19 – 24 ). Large pores (3.1 – 4.8 Μm in diameter) also present on external side of legs I –III (one on each leg) ( Fig. 29 View FIGURES 25 – 29 ). Pores on ventral side less densely distributed and arranged in loose bands of 4 – 5 larger pores with smaller pores between ( Fig. 19 View FIGURES 19 – 24 ). On ventral side of head a triangular shape is formed by two rows of pores (three pores in first row and two or single pore in second) ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 19 – 24 ). Overall, pores are larger on caudal end, head segment and on external side of legs I – III. A ring of pores around the mouth opening absent. Cribriform areas not visible. A fine granulation on all legs present ( Figs 25 – 28 View FIGURES 25 – 29 ).

Mouth antero-ventral. Bucco-pharyngeal apparatus of the Minibiotus   type ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 17 – 18 ). Oral cavity armature absent or not visible under PCM. Buccal tube with poorly visible ventral lamina and with an anterior and a posterior bend (both visible in lateral view only). Buccal tube walls just below stylet attachments thickened ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 17 – 18 ). Pharyngeal apophyses triangular or round; close to the first macroplacoid. Three granular macroplacoids and a minute microplacoid present in the round pharyngeal bulb. Septulum absent. All macroplacoids similar, almost identical in size and the macroplacoid length sequence: 1 = 2 ≅ 3 ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 17 – 18 ).

Claws of the Macrobiotus   type ( Figs 18 View FIGURES 17 – 18 and 25 – 28 View FIGURES 25 – 29 ). Primary branches of claws with thin accessory points. Smooth lunules present on all legs. Bars and other cuticular thickenings on legs absent.

Eggs (all measurements in Table 4): White, laid free, spherical and without areolation ( Figs 30 – 31 View FIGURES 30 – 31 ). Processes screw-like, each surrounded by a separate membrane ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 30 – 31 ). On the egg circumference 21–22 processes present. Surface between processes smooth under PCM ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 30 – 31 ).

Locus typicus: 47 ° 41 ' 19.6 ''N, 26 ° 57 ' 36.6 ''E; 147 m asl: Romania, Botoşani County, Suliţa village, Cozancea Monastery, deciduous forest ( Fagus sylvatica   L., Quercus robur   L. and Q. petraea   L.), moss from tree.

Etymology: In Latin ‘ diversus’ means ‘diverse’ referring to the fact that this species has several different types of pores in the cuticle.

Type depositories: Holotype (slide: MC 1 - 1), 54 paratypes (slides MC 1-2, MC 1-3, MC 1-5, MC 1-6, MC 1-7, MC 1-8, MC 1-13) and three eggs (slide MC 1-4, MC 1-13) are preserved at the Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89, 61– 614 Poznań, Poland. Additionally, 17 paratypes (slides: MC 1-11, MC 1-14) and one egg (slide MC 1-16) are deposited at Natural History Museum of “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University from Iaşi, Romania (Bd. Independenţei No.16, 700101), 29 paratypes (slides: MC 1-9, MC 1-10, MC 1-12, MC 1-17) and one egg (slide MC 1-15) are deposited at collection of Peter Degma, the Department of Zoology, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Differential diagnosis. The new species, in the arrangements of cuticle pores, are most similar to M. gumersindoi Guil & Guidetti, 2005   and in adults and eggs morphology to M. weglarskae Michalczyk et al., 2005   , but it differs from:

M. gumersindoi   by: different arrangement of pores on the dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in an undefined number of transverse bands in M. gumersindoi   ), the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, the absence of triangle/ pentagonal-like formation of pores on legs I – III, presence of granulation on legs, presence of eyes and by slightly longer macroplacoids (mI/mII: 1.1–1.7 Μm; mIII: 1.2–1.7 Μm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs all 1.0 Μm in M. gumersindoi   ).

M. weglarskae   by: arrangement of pores on the dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in 10 transversal bands in M. weglarskae   ), absence of bi-, trilobed and starshaped pores, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, the presence of large pores on the frontal and caudal end, the presence of large pores on the external side of legs I – III, stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [54.5–59.6] in M. weglarskae   ), a smaller pt of buccal tube internal width ([2.1 –3.0] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [4.0– 4.7] in M. weglarskae   ), slightly larger diameter of eggs without processes (44.9 – 47.8 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 40 µm in M. weglarskae   ), slightly larger diameter of eggs with processes (51.5 – 53.9 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 50 µm in M. weglarskae   ), slightly smaller number of processes on the egg circumference (21 – 22 in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 24 in M. weglarskae   ), shorter egg processes (3.1 – 3.6 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. v.s 5.0 – 5.5 µm in M. weglarskae   ), smaller diameter of the distal disc of the processes (3.0 – 3.8 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 5.0 – 5.5 µm in M. weglarskae   ) and slightly larger distances between processes (3.6–4.8 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 3.0 µm in M. weglarskae   ).

M. diversus   sp. nov. is also very similar in some aspects of the adult and/ or egg morphology to: M. bisoctus ( Horning et al. 1978)   , M. eichhorni Michalczyk & Kaczmarek, 2004   , M. formosus Zawierucha et al. 2014   , M. furcatus ( Ehrenberg, 1859)   , M. harrylewisi Meyer & Hinton, 2009   , M. jonesorum Meyer et al., 2011   , M. keppelensis Claxton, 1998   , M. orthofasciatus Fontoura et al., 2009 a   , M. poricinctus Claxton, 1998   , M. pustulatus ( Ramazzotti, 1959)   , M. ramazzottii Binda & Pilato, 1992   , M. vinciguerrae Binda & Pilato, 1992   and M. xavieri Fontoura et al., 2009 b   , but it differs from:

M. bisoctus   by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in undefined number of transverse bands in M. bisoctus   ), absence of bi-, trilobed and starshaped pores, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, the presence of large pores on the frontal and caudal end, the presence of large pores on the external side of legs I – III, stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in the new species vs ca. [60.3] in M. bisoctus   ) smaller pt of macroplacoid row ([22.3–25.8] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. [31.0] in M. bisoctus   (according to Claxton 1998)).

M. eichhorni   by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in six transverse bands in M. eichhorni   ), absence of star-shaped pores and four pores around the mouth opening, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, the presence of large pores on the external side of legs I – III, a different macroplacoid sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in the new species vs 2 <3 <1 Μm in M. eichhorni   ), slightly smaller body size (147 – 200 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 204.3–389.5 µm in M. eichhorni   ), shorter buccal tube (19.8 – 23.9 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 24.7 – 34.2 µm in M. eichhorni   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [65.4–70.6] in M. eichhorni   ), smaller external width of buccal tube (1.3 – 1.7 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 1.9 – 3.3 µm in M. eichhorni   ), shorter placoids (mI/mII: 1.1–1.7 Μm [5.5–7.2]; mIII: 1.2–1.7 Μm [6.0– 7.1]; mi: 0.4 – 0.7 µm [2.0–3.0] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs mI: 2.9–4.3 µm [10.3–12.5]; mII: 1.9–3.1 µm [6.9–9.2]; mIII: 2.4–3.4 µm [9.3–10.6]; mi: 1.1–1.9 µm [4.6–6.1] in M. eichhorni   ) and shorter external claws I –IV (I: 4.6 –6.0µm; II: 4.7–6.6 µm; III: 4.5–6.2 µm; IV: 4.8 –7.0 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs I: 6.7 – 10.5 µm; II: 6.7 – 11.4 µm; III: 7.6 – 11.4 µm; IV: 8.6 – 14.3 µm in M. eichhorni   ).

M. formosus   by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in 9 – 10 transverse bands in M. formosus   ), the presence of large pores on the frontal and caudal end, the presence of triangular formation of pores on ventral side of the head, the presence rows of pores between the legs, a different macroplacoid length sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in M. diversus   vs 2 <1 <3 in M. formosus   ), larger single pores on legs I –III (3.1 – 4.8 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 2.1 – 2.9 µm in M. formosus   ) and different shape of egg processes (screw-like processes within a membrane in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs single tip cones without a membrane in M. formosus   ).

M. furcatus   (according to the re –description, Binda & Pilato 1992) by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in undefined number of transverse bands in M. furcatus   ), absence of tri- and quadrilobed cuticular pores, the presence of large pores on the frontal and caudal end, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, present of large pores on the external side of the legs I –III, presence of granulation on legs, absence of the oral cavity armature, a different macroplacoid length sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in M. diversus   vs 2 <3 <1 in M. furcatus   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   vs ca. [68.4] in M. furcatus   ) and a different shape of egg processes (screw-like processes within a membrane in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs single tip cones without a membrane in M. furcatus   ).

M. harrylewisi   by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in 10 transverse bands in M. harrylewisi   ), absence of tri- and quadrilobed cuticular pores, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, a different macroplacoid length sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 2 ≤ 3 <1 in M. harrylewisi   ), slightly smaller body size (147 – 200 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 200.3 – 386.6 µm in M. harrylewisi   ), narrower external buccal tube (1.3 – 1.7 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 1.9 – 3.4 µm in M. harrylewisi   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [61.4–67.6] in M. harrylewisi   ), shorter placoid row (5.3 – 6.9 µm [25.3–29.3] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 10.4 – 34.7 µm [34.6 –46.0]) in M. harrylewisi   ) and a different shape of egg processes (screwlike processes within a membrane in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs single tip cones without a membrane in M. harrylewisi   ).

M. jonesorum   by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in 10 transverse bands in M. jonesorum   ), absence of tri- and quadrilobed cuticular pores, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, a different macroplacoid length sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in the new species vs 1 <2 <3 Μm in M. jonesorum   ), the presence of eyes, smaller body size (147–200 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 205.9–276.7 µm in M. jonesorum   ), slightly shorter buccal tube (19.8 – 23.9 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 24.4 – 29.6 µm in M. jonesorum   ), smaller buccal tube external width (1.3 – 1.7 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 2.1 – 2.6 µm in M. jonesorum   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [63.0– 65.6] in M. jonesorum   ), shorter macroplacoids II and III (mII: 1.1 – 1.7 µm [5.5–7.2]; mIII: 1.2 – 1.7 µm [6.0– 7.1] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs mII: 1.9 – 2.3 µm [7.1–8.8]; mIII: 2.4 – 2.6 µm [8.4–9.9] in M. jonesorum   ), shorter macroplacoid row (4.5 – 6.0 µm [22.3–25.8] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 7.0 – 8.4 µm [27.0– 34.4] in M. jonesorum   ), the presence of a microplacoid and slightly shorter primary and secondary branches of external claws I –IV (see Table 2 below and Table 2 in Meyer et al. 2011 for the exact differences in dimensions of claws).

M. keppelensis   by: lack of red pigmented granules, arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in 10 transverse bands in M. keppelensis   ), presence of a few larger pores on dorsal side of the head segment and caudal end, presence of triangular formation of pores on ventral side of the head segment, the presence of rows of pores between the legs, a different macroplacoid length sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 2 = 3 <1 in M. keppelensis   ), slightly shorter buccal tube (19.8 – 23.9 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 24.9 – 28.4 µm in M. keppelensis   ) slightly larger pt of buccal tube external width ([6.3–7.6] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. [5.8] in M. keppelensis   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. [60.6] in M. keppelensis   ), shorter macroplacoid row (4.5 – 6.0 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 7.0 – 7.6 µm in M. keppelensis   ), and different shape of egg processes (screw-like processes within a membrane in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs short cones with pointed apices in M. keppelensis   ).

M. orthofasciatus   by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in 11 transverse bands in M. orthofasciatus   ), absence of tri- and quadrilobed cuticular pores, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, the presence of large pores on the external side of legs I – III, the presence of rows of pores between the legs, the presence of granulation on all the legs, stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [66.5–67.8] in M. orthofasciatus   ), shorter macroplacoids I and III (mI: 1.1 – 1.7 µm [5.5–7.1]; mIII: 1.2 – 1.7 µm [6.0– 7.1] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs mI: 1.9 – 3.1 µm [9.5–13.7]; mIII: 1.9 – 2.4 µm [9.5–10.7] in M. orthofasciatus   ), slightly shorter macroplacoid row (4.5 – 6.0µm [22.3–25.8] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 6.1 – 7.4 µm [30.7–34.1] in M. orthofasciatus   ), slightly lower number of processes on egg circumference (21–22 in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 24 in M. orthofasciatus   ), shorter egg processes (3.1 – 3.6 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 4.2 – 4.5 µm in M. orthofasciatus   ) narrower process bases (1.2 – 1.8 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 2.3 – 2.7 µm in M. orthofasciatus   ).

M. poricinctus   by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in eight transverse bands in M. poricinctus   ), the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, the presence of large pores on the frontal and caudal end, the presence of rows of pores between the legs, a different macroplacoid length sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 2 = 3 <1 in M. poricinctus   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. [59.5] in M. poricinctus   ), slightly shorter macroplacoid row (4.5 – 6.0 µm [22.3–25.8] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 6.0 – 8.9 µm [ca. 30.9] in M. poricinctus   ), smaller diameter of eggs with processes (51.5 – 53.9 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. ca. 60.0 µm in M. poricinctus   ), shorter egg processes (3.1 – 3.6 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 6.5 – 7.0 µm in M. poricinctus   ) and smaller diameter of the distal discs of the processes (3.0– 3.8 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 5.5 µm in M. poricinctus   ).

M. pustulatus   by: absence of triangular and polygonal pores, smaller pores on dorsal side (2.2 – 3.2 Μm in diameter on frontal and caudal end in M. diversus   vs 4 – 5 Μm in diameter on frontal side and 6 – 7 Μm in diameter on caudal end in M. pustulatus   ), the presence of triangular formation of pores on ventral side of the head, the presence of rows of pores between the legs and a different shape of the egg processes (screw-like processes within a membrane in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs single tip cones without a membrane in M. pustulatus   ).

M. ramazzottii   by: arrangement of pores on dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in undefined number of transverse bands in M. ramazzottii   ), the presence of large pores on the frontal and caudal end, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, the presence of large pores on legs I – III, the presence of rows of pores between the legs, absence of the oral cavity armature, a different macroplacoid length sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in the new species vs 3 <2 <1 Μm in M. ramazzottii   ), shorter buccal tube (19.8 – 23.9 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 35.5 µm in M. ramazzottii   ), smaller total buccal tube width (0.5 – 1.7 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 4.1 µm in M. ramazzottii   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [68.2–68.3] in M. ramazzottii   ), shorter placoids (mI/mII: 1.1–1.7 µm [5.5–7.1]; mIII: 1.2–1.7 µm [6.0– 7.1] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs mI: ca. 5.0 µm [14.0]; mII: ca. 4.7 µm [13.1]; mIII: 4.6 µm [12.8] in M. ramazzottii   ), smaller microplacoid (0.4–0.7 µm [2.0–3.0] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 2.3 µm [ca. 6.4] in M ramazzottii   ) and shorter external primary branches of claws I, II, (I: 4.6 –6.0 µm [20.3–26.6]; II: 4.7–6.6 µm [23.5–28.4] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs I: 10.7 µm [30.0]; II: 12.5 µm [35.2], in M. ramazzottii   ).

M. vinciguerrae   by: the presence of large pores on the frontal and caudal end, the presence of triangular formation of pores on ventral side of the head, the presence of large pores on the external side of legs I – III, the presence of rows of pores between the legs, absence of the oral cavity armature, a different macroplacoid length sequence (1 = 2 ≅ 3 in the new species vs 2 <3 <1 Μm in M. vinciguerrae   ), smaller body size (147 – 200 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 380 – 520 µm in M. vinciguerrae   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [66.1–68.18] in M. vinciguerrae   ), shorter macroplacoids (mI/mII: 1.1–1.7 µm [5.5–7.1]; mIII: 1.2–1.7 µm [6.0– 7.1] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs mI: ca. 4.4 µm [ca. 12.4]; mII: ca. 3.6 µm [ca. 10.13]; mIII: ca. 3.6 µm [ca. 10.33] in M. vinciguerrae   ), shorter microplacoid (0.4–0.7 µm [2.0–3.0] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs mi: ca. 1.9 µm [ca. 5.4] in M. vinciguerrae   ), shorter placoid row (5.3 – 6.9 µm [25.3–29.3] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs ca. 15.4 µm [ca. 43.8] in M. vinciguerrae   ), shorter primary branches of external/anterior claws II, III, IV (II: 4.7 – 6.6 µm [23.5–28.4]; III: 4.5 – 6.2 µm [22.5–27.8]; IV: 4.8 – 7.0 µm [24.0– 30.2] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs II: ca. 12.3 µm [ca. 35.1]; III: ca. 12.6 µm [ca. 36.0]; IV: 14.6 µm [ca. 41.6] in M. vinciguerrae   ) and a different shape of egg processes (screw-like processes within a membrane in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs cones without a membrane in M. vinciguerrae   ).

M. xavieri   by: arrangement of pores on the dorsal side of the body (randomly arranged pores in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs pores arranged in nine wide transverse bands in M. xavieri   ), the absence of trilobed pores, the presence of differently sized pores (all pores of similar size in M. xavieri   ), the presence of large pores on the frontal and caudal end, the presence of triangular formation of pores on the ventral side of the head, the presence of rows of pores between the legs, the presence of granulation on legs, a different macroplacoid sequence (1 = 2 ⊋ ≅ 3 in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 2 <3 <1 Μm in M. xavieri   ), smaller body size (147–200 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 275–410 µm in M. xavieri   ), a shorter buccal tube (19.8–23.9 µm in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 27.5–32.7 µm in M. xavieri   ), a narrower buccal tube (1.3 – 1.7 µm [6.3–7.6] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 2.4 – 3.1 µm [8.3–9.8] in M. xavieri   ), stylet supports inserted in a more anterior position ([50.5–52.9] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs [66.1–67.9] in M. xavieri   ), shorter macroplacoids (mI/mII: 1.1–1.7 µm [5.5–7.1]; mIII: 1.2–1.7 µm [6.0– 7.1] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs mI: 3.6 – 4.5 µm [12.7–13.8]; mII: 2.9 – 3.6 µm[10.3–11.1]; mIII: 3.0 – 3.9 µm [10.9–11.9] in M. xavieri   ), a shorter macroplacoid row (4.5 – 6.0 µm [22.3–25.8] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 9.8 – 12.6 µm [35.6–38.5] in M. xavieri   ), smaller microplacoid (0.4 – 0.7 µm [2.0–3.0] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 1.5 – 2.0 µm [5.0– 6.2] in M. xavieri   ), shorter placoid row (5.3 – 6.9 µm [25.3–29.3] in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs 10.9 – 13.9 µm [39.6–43.3] in M. xavieri   ), different lengths of external/anterior and internal/posterior claws II – IV (see Table 3 below and Table 2 in Fontoura et al. (2009 b) for the exact differences in dimensions of claws) and different shape of egg processes (screw-like processes within a membrane in M. diversus   sp. nov. vs long cones with bi- or multi-tipped tips and without a membrane in M. xavieri   ).

TABLE 3. Measurements and pt values of selected morphological structures of fifteen specimens from the type population of Minibiotus diversus sp. nov. mounted in Hoyer’s medium (N—number of specimens / structures measured, RANGE refers to the smallest and the largest structure among all measured specimens; SD—standard deviation).

    10.0–12.4 50.5–52.9     12.0 51.7

TABLE 4. Measurements of Minibiotus diversus sp. nov. eggs mounted in Hoyer’s medium (N—number of specimens / structures measured, RANGE refers to the smallest and the largest structure among all measured specimens; SD—standard deviation).

    39%–51%   5%
Number of processes on the egg circumference        
PCM

Polish Collection of Microorganisms

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Tardigrada

Class

Eutardigrada

Order

Parachela

Family

Macrobiotidae

Genus

Minibiotus

Loc

Minibiotus diversus

Roszkowska, Daniel Adrian Ciobanu Milena & Kaczmarek, Łukasz 2015
2015
Loc

M. formosus

Zawierucha et al. 2014
2014
Loc

M. jonesorum

Meyer et al. 2011
2011
Loc

M. harrylewisi

Meyer & Hinton 2009
2009
Loc

M. orthofasciatus

Fontoura et al. 2009
2009
Loc

M. xavieri

Fontoura et al. 2009
2009
Loc

M. eichhorni

Michalczyk & Kaczmarek 2004
2004
Loc

M. keppelensis

Claxton 1998
1998
Loc

M. poricinctus

Claxton 1998
1998
Loc

M. ramazzottii

Binda & Pilato 1992
1992
Loc

M. vinciguerrae

Binda & Pilato 1992
1992
Loc

M. bisoctus (

Horning et al. 1978
1978
Loc

M. pustulatus (

Ramazzotti 1959
1959
Loc

M. furcatus (

Ehrenberg 1859
1859