Lepidops venusta: Kingsley, 1880: 410

BOYKO, CHRISTOPHER B., 2002, A Worldwide Revision Of The Recent And Fossil Sand Crabs Of The Albuneidae Stimpson And Blepharipodidae, New Family (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Hippoidea), Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2002 (272), pp. 1-396 : 115-134

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1206/0003-0090(2002)272<0001:AWROTR>2.0.CO;2

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/A23087F4-FF84-FF2C-F270-C518728F7881

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Felipe

scientific name

Lepidops venusta: Kingsley, 1880: 410
status

 

Lepidops venusta: Kingsley, 1880: 410 (not Lepidopa venusta Stimpson, 1859 ).

Lepidopa venusta: Ortmann, 1896: 226 (part) (not Lepidopa venusta Stimpson, 1859 ).

Lepidopa scutellata: Ortmann, 1896: 227 (part) (not Thia scutellata ( Fabricius, 1793)) .

Lepidopa websteri Benedict, 1903: 892 , fig. 3*. – Hay and Shore, 1918: 415, pl. 30, fig. 12. – Gordon, 1938: 188, figs. 1c, 2c*. – Pearse et al., 1942: 185, fig. 11*. – Garcia Mendes, 1945: 119 (list). – Williams, 1965: 138–139, fig. 114. – Howard, 1968: 256, fig. 4. – Kurata, 1970: 184–187, pls. 55, 56. – Efford, 1971: 91–92, figs. 1b, k, 2j, 3r, 4h, m, 5g, i, 6o*. – Van Engel and Sandifer, 1972: 158. – Young, 1978: 177. – Hill, 1979: 43–51, fig. 2. – Kaestner, 1980: 336. – Williams, 1984: 250–251, fig. 184. – Fox and Ruppert, 1985: 259 (list). – Coêlho and Calado, 1987: 42–43, table 1. – Manning, 1988: 626–627, 629–631, figs. 2, 3*. – Ruppert and Fox, 1988: 250, 404, fig. 227. – Williams et al., 1989: 35. – Calado, 1995: 209–211, pl. 39, fig. p, pl. 40, fig. o, pl. 41, fig. o, pl. 69, figs. a, b*.

Lepidopa ‘‘probably L. websteri ’’: Sandifer and Van Engel, 1972: 220–225, figs. 1–3.

Lepidopa cf. L. websteri: Sandifer, 1973: 244 .

MATERIAL EXAMINED: USA: North Carolina: Dare Co.: On beach, Southern Shores , Outer Banks , Aug. 12, 1997, coll. C. B. Boyko: 1 carapace, 6.4 mm ( CBB) ; Carteret Co.: Beaufort , coll. H. G. Webster: 1 ♀, 7.0 mm cl, holotype ( USNM 42214 View Materials ex Union Col­ lege Collection) ; Fort Macon, Beaufort , Dec. 1871, coll. H. C. Yarrow: 1 ♀, 12.8 mm cl ( YPM 21137 View Materials ) ; Macon Beach, Beaufort , July 5, 1939, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 Ƌ, 7.9 mm cl ( USNM 155242 View Materials ) ; Macon Beach, Beaufort , July 11, 1939, coll. A. S. Pearse: 2 Ƌ, 7.3– 8.4 mm cl ( USNM 155243 View Materials ) ; Macon Beach, Beaufort , 0.5 m, July 12, 1939, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 Ƌ, 8.4 mm cl, 1 oviger, 10.9 mm cl ( USNM 155244 View Materials ) ; Macon Beach, Beaufort , 0.5 m, July 14, 1939, coll. A. S. Pearse: 2 Ƌ, 7.8–8.2 mm cl, 1 oviger, 11.7 mm cl ( USNM 155245 View Materials ) ; ocean beach, Fort Macon , above low tide line, coll. unknown: 1 ♀, 8.8 mm cl ( USNM 267790 View Materials ) ; Fort Macon, Beaufort , June 1940, coll. O. Hartman: 1 Ƌ, 8.9 mm cl ( USNM 267791 View Materials ) ; bathing beach, Bogue Bank, Beaufort , June 27, 1929, coll. A. Shaftsbury: 1 Ƌ, 6.2 mm cl, 1 ♀, 8.4 mm cl ( USNM 62783 View Materials ) ; Bogue Banks, near Fort Macon , May 11, 1941, coll. K. D. McDougall: 1 Ƌ, 4.2 mm cl ( USNM 81968 View Materials ) ; Beaufort , Aug. 1, 1941, coll. A. S. Pearse: 2 Ƌ, 8.9–9.1 mm cl, 1 unmeasurable juvenile ( USNM 81969 View Materials ) ; Sta. 316, Fort Macon, Outside Beaufort , July 21, 1941, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 first stage crab, 2.1 mm cl ( USNM 81971 View Materials ) ; Bird Shoal, Beaufort , Aug. 16, 1941, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 ♀, 8.9 mm cl ( USNM 81972 View Materials ) ; Sta. 267, Bird Shoal, Beaufort , June 18, 1941, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 Ƌ, 6.7 mm cl ( USNM 81973 View Materials ) ; Sta. 299, Fort Macon Beach, outside Beaufort , July 10, 1941, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 ♀, 7.2 mm cl, 1 oviger, 8.9 mm cl ( USNM 81975 View Materials ) ; Sta. 303, Bird Shoal, Beaufort , July 12, 1941, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 Ƌ, 7.6 mm cl, 1 unsexable specimen, 9.9 mm cl ( USNM 81974 View Materials ), 1 Ƌ, 8.3 mm cl ( RMNH 14630 View Materials ex USNM 81974 View Materials ) ; Sta. 331, outer beach, Cape Lookout , Aug. 9, 1941, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 ♀, 4.8 mm cl, 8 juveniles, 2.6–4.4 mm cl ( USNM 81970 View Materials ) ; Cape Lookout , Aug. 9, 1941, coll. A. S. Pearse: 1 Ƌ, 9.2 mm cl ( USNM 82146 View Materials ) ; South Carolina: Charleston Co.: Edisto Beach at Mc­ Millan Cottage , April 14, 1979, coll. M. L. Jones: 1 Ƌ, 7.0 mm cl, 1 ♀, 5.8 mm cl ( USNM 285389 View Materials ) ; Charleston , coll. unknown: 15 Ƌ, 5.4–7.8 mm cl, 7 ♀, 6.5–8.3 mm cl ( MCZ 867 View Materials ) ; Sta. 2260, 32°51̍N, 79°25̍W’’, 12 m, May 20, 1965, coll. National Marine Fisheries Service ‘‘ Asterias 65–1’’: 1 Ƌ, 4.7 mm cl ( MCZ 19652 View Materials ) ; Georgia: Liberty Co.: North Beach, St. Catherines Island , May 17, 1995, coll. C. B. Boyko: 2 Ƌ, 6.9–7.8 mm cl ( AMNH 17183 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 2, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , Oct. 17, 1997, coll. C. B. Boyko, J. Slapcinsky, and R. Moyle: 2 Ƌ, 5.1–7.8 mm cl ( AMNH 17642 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 2, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , Oct. 12, 1999, coll. C. B. Boyko, A. Carson, M. Spector, and J. Williams: 1 Ƌ, 8.9 mm cl ( AMNH 18085 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 5, sandbar offshore, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , May 16, 1998, coll. C. B. Boyko, J. Slapcinsky, A. and D. Harvey, and J. Williams: 1 Ƌ, 5.8 mm cl, 1 ♀, 7.6 mm cl ( AMNH 17740 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 5, sandbar offshore, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , May 20, 1998, coll. C. B. Boyko, J. Slapcinsky, A. and D. Harvey, and J. Williams: 1 Ƌ, 6.8 mm cl, 1 unsexable and unmeasurable molt ( AMNH 17741 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 5, sandbar offshore, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , May 20, 1998, coll. C. B. Boyko, J. Slapcinsky, A. and D. Harvey, and J. Williams: 1 left maxilliped III (rest eaten by unidentified shorebird) ( AMNH 17739 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 5, sandbar offshore, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , Oct. 29–Nov. 4, 1998, coll. C. B. Boyko, A. Harvey, M. Spector, J. and J. Slapcinsky, and J. Williams: 1 Ƌ, 6.8 mm cl ( AMNH 17903 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 5, sandbar offshore, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , Oct. 31, 1998, coll. C. B. Boyko, A. Harvey, M. Spector, J. and J. Slapcinsky, and J. Williams: 2 Ƌ, 7.0– 7.5 mm cl ( AMNH 17892 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 5, sandbar offshore, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , Nov. 3, 1998, coll. C. B. Boyko, A. Harvey, M. Spector, J. and J. Slapcinsky, and J. Williams: 1 Ƌ, 5.5 mm cl, 1 ♀, 6.5 mm cl ( AMNH 17896 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 5, sandbar offshore, North Beach, St. Catherines Island , Oct. 13, 1999, coll. C. B. Boyko, A. Carson, M. Spector and J. Williams: 2 Ƌ, 4.9–8.2 mm cl, 3 ♀, 4.3–5.4 mm cl ( AMNH 18084 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 7, South Beach, St. Catherines Island , May 19, 1998, coll. C. B. Boyko, J. Slapcinsky, A. and D. Harvey, and J. Williams: 1 Ƌ, 5.8 mm cl ( AMNH 17738 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 21, between North Beach and Engineer’s Point, St. Catherines Island , May 22, 1998, coll. C. B. Boyko, J. Slapcinsky, A. and D. Harvey, and J. Williams: 4 unsexable molts, 7.3–9.9 mm cl ( AMNH 17742 View Materials ) ; Sta. M 22, west of Engineer’s Point, St. Catherines Island , Oct. 18, 1997, coll. C. B. Boyko, J. Slapcinsky, and R. Moyle: 1 ♀, 10.5 mm cl ( AMNH 17629 View Materials ) ; McIntosh Co.: Sapelo Island , intertidal, Feb. 24, 1963, coll. M. Gray: 2 Ƌ, 5.3–5.9 mm cl, 2 ♀, 6.1–7.2 mm cl ( USNM 150673 View Materials ) ; off Georgia, 31°45̍N, 80°28̍W, 16 m, Feb. 24, 1977, coll. Texas Instruments: 1 Ƌ, 12.6 mm cl ( USNM 174091 View Materials ) ; Florida: Martin Co.: ca. 1 mi north of St. Lucie Inlet , 27°10̍54̎N, 80°09̍30̎W, July 10, 1984, coll. R. B. Manning: 1 Ƌ, 8.7 mm cl ( USNM 221780 View Materials ) ; ca. 1 mi north of St. Lucie Inlet , 27°10̍54̎N, 80°09̍30̎W, July 8, 1984, coll. R. B. Manning: 1 ♀, 4.2 mm cl ( USNM 221781 View Materials ) ; ca. 1 mi north of St. Lucie Inlet , 27°10̍54̎N, 80°09̍30̎W, July 13, 1984, coll. R. B. Manning: 1 juvenile, 3.6 mm cl ( USNM 221783 View Materials ) ; ca. 1 mi north of St. Lucie Inlet , 27°10.9̍N, 80°09.5̍W, July 16, 1984, coll. R. B. Manning: 1 Ƌ, 7.5 mm cl ( HBOM 089 View Materials :06395) ; Pinellas Co.: Tampa Bay , coll. unknown: 1 ♀, 4.9 mm cl ( USNM 49117 View Materials ) ; Mississippi: Jackson Co.: south side, Petit Bois Island , Aug. 4, 1953, coll. S. L. Wallace: 1 ♀, 11.9 mm cl ( USNM 95752 View Materials ) ; Horn Island , 1 m, May 29, 1985, coll. C. J. Field: 1 oviger, 10.6 mm cl ( USNM 231290 View Materials ) ; Harrison Co.: Ship Island , north side near lighthouse, Aug. 21, 1951, coll. Allredge, Rosso, and Breland: 1 Ƌ, 6.5 mm cl ( USNM 92432 View Materials ) ; Louisiana: Jefferson Parish: Grand Terre Island , Oct. 11, 1975, coll. D. Clark: 1 Ƌ, 6.3 mm cl ( USLZ 437 ) ; Grande Terre Island, 0.5 mi east of Ft. Livingston , Oct. 11, 1975, coll. S. Williams: 1 Ƌ, 7.6 mm cl ( USLZ 499 ) ; Grand Terre Island , Oct. 10, 1975, coll. R. Spinello: 3 Ƌ, 8.0– 8.5 mm cl ( USLZ 501 ) ; Elmer’s Island, Cherniere Caminada , May 30, 1973, coll. D. L. Felder: 1 Ƌ, 7.8 mm cl, 1 ♀, 8.9 mm cl ( USLZ 2017 ) ; Texas: Nueces Co.: Mustang Island, south end, approximately 10 mi south of Port Aransas , Oct. 31, 1975, coll. C. Dugas: 1 Ƌ, 6.9 mm cl ( USLZ 528 ) ; Mustang Island, approximately 10 mi south of Port Aransas , Aug. 14, 1979, coll. D. L. Felder: 1 ♀, 7.3 mm cl ( USLZ 2037 ) .

No Data: 5 Ƌ, 5.0– 8.3 mm cl, 6 ♀, 6.9– 10.2 mm cl ( MCZ 13225 View Materials ), 1 ♀, 10.5 mm cl ( BMNH 1998.91 ex MCZ 13225 View Materials ).

DIAGNOSIS: Carapace wider than long, with lightly setose grooves. Anterior margin with two large spines lateral to ocular sinus. CG5 absent; CG8 absent; CG10 absent; posterior submarginal groove reaching slightly beyond posterior margin of posterior concavity. Rostrum present, rounded and armed with ventral acute spine. Distal peduncular segments dorsoventrally flattened, ovate, distal margin smooth; pigmented notch present. Antennal segment I unarmed. Dactylus of pereopod II with heel produced, tapering, and subacute. Dactylus of pereopod III with heel thin, projecting, acute. Dactylus of pereopod IV with produced acute heel and deep indent. Telson of male spatulate, proximal two­thirds laterally convex, distal third laterally concave, lateral expansions rounded, distal tip round­ ed; medioproximal third heavily calcified, lateral and distal regions decalcified.

DESCRIPTION: Carapace (fig. 38A) wider than long. Anterior margin concave on either side of ocular sinus, smooth. Rostrum as subacute projection reaching beyond median peduncular segments and with a submarginal, terminal acute spine. Ocular sinus smoothly concave; unarmed. Frontal region smooth; setal field reduced to narrow band anterior and paralleling CG1, concave medially. CG1 parallel to anterior margin of carapace, sinuous, slightly crenulate, medially concave, medial and lateral elements united. Mesogastric region smooth; CG2 absent; CG3 absent; CG4 with three or four very short elements and two longer oblique lateral elements. Hepatic region smooth with oblique lateral, setose groove and short, acute spine at median of lateral margin. Epibranchial region generally triangular, smooth; posterolateral margin with four short rows of setae. Metagastric region smooth; CG5 absent. CG6 crenulate, with separate oblique, long lateral fragments and short, sinuous median element united with CG7. CG7 straight relative to anterior margin of carapace and united with median fragment of CG6. Cardiac region smooth; CG8–11 absent. Branchial region with few punctae but without short, transverse rows of setae. Posterior margin deeply and irregularly concave medially and more or less straight laterally, with submarginal groove reaching slightly beyond posterior margin of posterior concavity. Branchiostegite without anterior submarginal spine; anterior region with anterodorsal transverse groove and granular surface; with many long plumose setae; posterior region membranous with numerous, ir­ regular fragments and sparsely covered with long plumose setae.

Ocular plate covered by carapace; median peduncular segments (fig. 38A) reduced to small rounded calcified area anterolateral to ocular plate. Distal peduncular segments (fig. 38B) irregularly ovate, angled distolaterally, flattened with convex lateral and mesial margins, margins smooth; pigmented area at notch on lateral margin one­third from proximal margin present; mesial margins separat­ ed along entire length; mesial, lateral and distal margins with long simple setae.

Antennule (fig. 38C) segment III narrow proximally, expanding distally to two times proximal width; with plumose setae on ventral margin; dorsal exopodal flagellum with 150–170 articles (n = 6), long plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins; ventral endopodal flagellum with two articles (n = 6), plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins. Segment II medially inflated in dorsal view, with plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins and in oblique row on mediodistal surface. Segment I wider than long, unarmed; dorsomedial third of lateral surface rugose, with long plumose setae; long plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins.

Antenna (fig. 38D) with segment V approximately 1.5 times longer than wide, with short plumose setae on dorsal and distal margins; flagellum with eight articles (n = 6), long plumose setae on dorsal, ventral, and distal margins. Segment IV almost cylindrical, overreaching segment III by one­third of its length, with long plumose setae on dorsal and distal margins, and row of setae on dorsolateral margin. Segment III with long plumose setae on ventral margin. Segment II widening distally, with plumose setae on dorsal margin and in short transverse mediodistal row; antennal acicle short, triangular, overreaching segment IV proximal margin by one­fourth of its length, with long plumose setae on dorsal margin. Segment I rounded proximally, flattened and truncated ventrolaterally, with long plumose setae on margins; lateral margin unarmed; segment with ventromesial antennal gland pore.

Mandible (fig. 38E) incisor process with two teeth; cutting edge with one tooth. Palp three­segmented, with plumose setae on mar­ gins and long, thick, simple setae arising from bend in second segment.

Maxillule (fig. 38F) distal endite proximally narrow, widening to inflated distal end, with thick simple setae on distal margin and plumose setae on dorsal margin. Proximal endite with thick simple setae on distal margin. Endopod external lobe truncate distally and curled under, with wide proximal projection; internal lobe reduced, with three thick setae at distolateral margin.

Maxilla (fig. 38G) exopod rounded with plumose setae along distal margin. Scaphognathite bluntly angled on posterior lobe with plumose setae.

Maxilliped I (fig. 38H) epipod with plumose setae on margins and on distolateral surface. Endite tapered distally and subequal to first segment of exopod. Exopod with two segments; proximal segment narrow, margins parallel, margins with plumose setae; distal segment spatulate, longer than wide, curved mesially, broadest medially, margins with long plumose setae. Endopod flattened and elongate, reaching to distal end of proximal exopodal segment, with plumose setae on margins.

Maxilliped II (fig. 38I) dactylus evenly rounded, longer than wide, with thick simple setae distally and thin simple setae in short row on lateral surface. Propodus slightly produced dorsodistally, two times wider than long, with plumose setae on dorsal margin and long simple setae on dorsodistal margin. Carpus not strongly produced dorsodistally, approximately two times longer than wide, with long simple setae on dorsal margin. Merus two times longer than wide, margins parallel but slightly inflated submedially, with simple setae on ventrolateral margin and plumose setae on dorsolateral margin. Basis­ischium incompletely fused, with plumose setae on margins. Exopod one­third longer than merus, flagellum with one elongate article.

Maxilliped III (fig. 38J) dactylus elongate and evenly rounded; long plumose setae on margins and lateral surface. Propodus with longitudinal median row of plumose setae on lateral surface; margins with plumose setae. Carpus strongly produced onto propodus, almost reaching distal margin of propodus; lateral surface with medial transverse row of plumose setae; plumose setae on margins. Merus unarmed, broadly inflated distolaterally, with plumose setae on distolateral margin. Basis­ischium incompletely fused, without crista dentata. Exopod two­segmented: proximal segment small; distal segment styliform, tapering, approximately one­third length of merus, with plumose setae on margins; without flagellum.

Pereopod I (fig. 39A) dactylus curved and tapering; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth; dorsal margin with small rugose area proxi­ mally, smooth distally; ventral margin with short simple setae. Propodal lateral surface with numerous short, transverse rows of setose rugae; dorsal margin with few small low ridges; ventral margin distally produced into acute spine; cutting edge lacking teeth, lined with long plumose setae; dorsal margin with short plumose setae, ventral margin with short simple setae. Carpus with dorsodistal angle rounded, dorsal margin smooth, with short plumose setae; lateral surface with few transverse setose ridges; mesial surface smooth, with medial transverse row of long plumose setae. Merus unarmed; lateral surface with scattered transverse rows of short plumose setae, margins with long plumose setae; mesial surface with few short rows of setae; proximal third of mesial surface with decalcified window. Basis­ischium incompletely fused, unarmed. Coxa with small posteromesial tubercle.

Pereopod II (fig. 39B) dactylus smooth; with base to heel concave, heel produced and narrowing to subacute tip, heel to tip with narrow, acute indent, tip acute, tip to base broadly convex; lateral surface smooth; mesial surface smooth, ventral margin with long plumose setae, dorsal margin with short simple setae, with patch of long plumose setae at base reaching across median of heel. Propodus with dorsal surface smooth, ventral margin inflated and rounded; distal and ventral margin with long plumose setae; dorsolateral surface as narrow, oblique, flattened shelf, with long plumose setae on ventral margin; short transverse row of long plumose setae on surface; mesial surface with subdistal row of long plumose setae. Carpus strongly produced dorsodistally, reaching threefourths length of propodus; lateral surface nearly smooth, with two irregular, interrupted rows of rugae and submarginal elevated ridge ventrally, rugae and ridge with long plumose setae; dorsal margin with long plumose setae; mesial surface smooth, with medial transverse row of long plumose setae. Merus lateral surface almost entirely decalcified, with long plumose setae on margins; mesial surface nearly smooth, with oblique median ridge, long plumose setae patches dorsal to ridge and in row ventrally, with decalcified area on proximal half of area dorsal to ridge. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed.

Pereopod III (fig. 39C) dactylus base to heel broadly indented, heel acute, thin, and produced, heel to tip with broad, evenly rounded indent, tip acute, tip to base smoothly convex; lateral surface smooth, with tufts of short setae at end of heel and tip, dorsodistal margin with tufts of short setae; ventral margin with long plumose setae, dorsal margin with short simple and plumose setae; mesial surface smooth, with plumose setae proximally at junction with propodus and in row across base of heel. Propodus not inflat­ ed dorsoventrally; lateral surface smooth, with simple setae subdorsally and long plumose setae on ventral margin; dorsolateral surface narrow, oblique, flattened; mesial surface with scattered long setae on and near distoventral margin. Carpus strongly produced dorsodistally and inflated, reaching distal margin of propodus, pointed and almost acute; dorsolateral margin unarmed; lateral surface with mat of short setae on dor­ sodistal third of segment, long transverse row of setae medially and scattered on proximal lateral surface; dorsal margin with long plumose setae; mesial surface smooth, dorsomesial third decalcified, with long plumose setae on margins and in median transverse row ventral to decalcified area. Merus smooth, lateral surface almost entirely decalcified; dorsal and ventral margins unarmed, with long plumose setae; laterodistal margin with long plumose setae; mesial surface smooth. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed. Female pereopod III with large mesioproximal gonopore (not opposing other gonopore); male with slightly smaller pore.

Pereopod IV (fig. 39D) dactylus with base to heel slightly concave, heel acute, heel to tip broadly rounded and concave, tip acute, tip to base convex; lateral surface smooth, ventral margin with long plumose setae, dorsal margin with short simple setae; mesial surface with dorsal decalcified region, demarcated ventrally by longitudinal elevated ridge across heel, with row of short plumose setae. Propodus expanded dorsally and ventrally; ventral expansion not reaching ventral margin of dactylus, margins with long plumose setae; dorsal expansion with row of long plumose setae medially and mat of short setae; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth. Carpus slightly produced dorsodistally; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth; dorsomedial two­thirds of lateral and mesial surfaces decalcified; dorsal margin with small mat of short setae at dorsodistal angle; ventral margin with short simple setae. Merus with large median decalcified area on lateral surface and few short transverse rows of setae, dorsal and ventrodistal margins with long plumose setae; mesial surface with large decalcified window proximoventrally. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed.

Abdomen (fig. 39E) with somite I wider than long, widest posteriorly; dorsal surface with anterior margin straight; posterior margin concave, with elevated submarginal curved row of short setae and narrow field of short simple setae anterior to submarginal row; with small, faint, transverse decalcified window laterad of segment median. Somite II anterior margin convex, posterior margin irregularly concave; pleura expanded and directed posterolaterally, angled anterolaterally, rounded posterolaterally, small patch of short simple setae at posteromesial margin; anterior and lateral margins with long plumose setae, posterior margin with short setae. Somite III similar to somite II, narrower and shorter; pleura thinner and shorter than on somite II, directed posterolaterally proximally and curving forward distally, with setae as in somite II; anterolateral angle acute; dorsal surface slightly obliquely flattened anterolaterally. Somite IV similar to somite III; pleura thinner and shorter than on somite III, directed laterally; dorsal surface slightly obliquely flattened anterolaterally; margin with long plumose setae. Somite V wider than somite IV, narrowing posteriorly; anterolateral margins with plumose setae, two rows of setae on posterior margin; pleura distinct from somite, shorter than in somite IV, thin, flattened, directed anterolaterally, and covered with plumose setae. Somite VI narrower than somite V; dorsal surface with two short transverse rows of setae laterad of midline anteriorly, posterior margin with long plumose setae; pleura absent.

Female with long uniramous pleopods on somites II–V; male with small pleopods.

Telson of male (fig. 39F) spatulate, proximal two­thirds laterally convex, distal third straight, tapering, lateral expansions rounded, distal tip rounded; medioproximal third heavily calcified, lateral and distal regions decalcified; median longitudinal groove running along calcified region; two distally converging rows of short simple setae in medial third; margin with long simple setae. Telson of female (fig. 39G) similar to male, with only slightly less tapering distolateral third.

DISTRIBUTION: From North Carolina south to Texas, USA, in up to 12 m depth. Larvae known from as far north as Virginia.

MAXIMUM SIZE: Males: 12.6 mm cl; females: 12.8 mm cl.

TYPE SPECIMEN: USNM 42214 (holotype).

TYPE LOCALITY: Fort Macon, North Carolina, USA.

REMARKS: The holotype was originally deposited in the collections of Union University in New York ( Benedict, 1903) and was later transferred to USNM.

The U­shaped burrowing pattern of this species was discussed by Howard (1968), who correctly suggested that this species was, at least in part, a detritus feeder. Hill (1979) indicated that this species was filterfeeding during the day and deposit­feeding at night, but he gave no data to support this. Hill’s (1979) supposed observations of filterfeeding at night were likely observations of water circulation.

This species is an excellent example of the relative scarcity of albuneids. As of 1918, only two specimens (one being the holotype) were known. Hay and Shore (1918) noted ‘‘a vast amount of digging close to shore has failed to produce any living specimen, nor has dredging at distances from the shore varying from 200 yards to 20 miles’’. This species is most common exactly at the edge of the low tide line in areas of low wave action (Boyko, personal obs.), where it is assured of minimal turbulence and maximum coverage by water during the tidal cycle, but appears never to occur in high densities in any location along this zone.

Ovigerous females are known from North Carolina in July ( Williams, 1984). Larvae of this species have been recorded off Virginia, as far as 36° north (Sandifer and Van Engel, 1972), and have been found in the North Carolina and Virginia plankton during July and August ( Williams, 1984). Zoeal stages I– III were recorded from the plankton off Virginia by Sandifer and Van Engel (1972). Kurata (1970) reported that this species had five or six zoeal stages, and he described stage I from larvae obtained from an ovigerous female and stages II, IV, and ‘‘?6’’ from the Georgia plankton. However, as pointed out by Stuck and Truesdale (1986), it is more likely that Kurata (1970: pl. 56, fig. e) had four sequential zoeal stages, and that stage IV molted into the so­called megalopa. Kurata’s ‘‘megalopa’’ was a curious hybrid of a zoeal anterior half and a megalopal posterior half. Kurata (1970) was apparently unaware of the aberrant nature of this specimen and made no comment on its unusual appearance. This illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating ‘‘normal’’ larval development from a single specimen (see also Gore and Van Dover, 1981).

The color of L. websteri is white, iridescent, with pink tinting on the anterior portion of carapace and blue along carapace grooves and branchiostegite and distal segments of pereopod V, abdominal somites pinkish, with blue­green margins (Boyko, personal obs., modified from Williams, 1984).

This species is a member of the ‘‘ venusta ­ group’’ and is closest to L. venusta and L. dexterae .

Lepidopa venusta Stimpson, 1859 Figures 40 View Fig , 41 View Fig

Lepidopa venusta Stimpson, 1858: 230 (nomen nudum). – Stimpson, 1859: 79. – Ortmann, 1896: 226 (part). – Garcia Mendes, 1945: 119 (list). – Holthuis, 1962: 125–128. – ICZN, 1964: 28–29. – Gomes, 1965: 97–102, figs. 1– 9*. – Castro, 1967: 2 *. – Efford, 1971: 87–89 (part)*. – Coêlho and Ramos, 1972: 176 (list). – Rodriguez, 1980: 237–238, fig. 53. – Calado, 1987: 143–149, pl. 20*. – Coêlho and Calado, 1987: 43, table 1. – Melville and Smith, 1987: 307. – Calado et al., 1990: 749–750, fig. 3b*. – Rosini et al., 1994: 103–106. – Calado, 1995: 203–206, pl. 39, fig. o, pl. 40, fig. n, pl. 41, fig. n, pl. 67, figs. a–c, pl. 68, figs. a–e*. – Calado, 1998: 408. – Nucci et al., 2001: 479.

Lepidops venusta: Miers, 1878: 332–333 (unjustified emendation).

Lepidopa sp. Gordon, 1938: 188, fig. 1a*.

not Lepidops venusta: Kingsley, 1880: 410 (= Lepidopa websteri Benedict, 1903 ).

not Lepidopa venusta: Ortmann, 1896: 226 (part) (= Lepidopa websteri Benedict, 1903 ).

not Lepidopa venusta: Boone, 1930: 61–63 , pl. 16, figs. a–c (= Lepidopa benedicti Schmitt, 1935 ).

not Lepidopa venusta: Benedict, 1903: 892 , fig. 2*. – Schmitt, 1935: 210, fig. 70*. – Gordon, 1938: 188, fig. 2b*. – Efford, 1971: 87–89 (part), figs. 3p, 4l, t, 5c, k, 6h, 7b*. – Manning, 1988: 626–627, 630–631, fig. 4* (= Lepidopa luciae , n. sp.).

MATERIAL EXAMINED: U.S. Virgin Islands: St. Thomas, coll. A. H. Riise: 1 ♀, 10.6 mm cl, neotype ( ZMUC 8557).

Panama: La Venta, March 11, 1937, coll. S. F. Hildebrand: 1 Ƌ, 11.1 mm cl ( USNM 304309).

Brazil: Ilha Do Pai , Rio de Janeiro, May 1, 1962, coll. B. Tursch: 1 Ƌ, 7.4 mm cl ( MNRJ 1554 View Materials ) ; Praia De Baraquecaba , Rio de Janeiro, Nov. 10, 1966, coll. A. S. F. Ditadi: 1 ♀, 5.1 mm cl ( MNRJ 3857 View Materials ) ; Praia de Domingo, Dominques, Ubatuba , São Paulo, Aug. 27, 1958, coll. F. C. Müller: 1 Ƌ, 7.9 mm cl, 1 ♀, 8.4 mm cl ( MNRJ 1553 View Materials ) .

DIAGNOSIS: Carapace wider than long, with lightly setose grooves. Anterior margin with two large spines lateral to ocular sinus. CG5 absent; CG8 present as punctae; CG10 present as punctae; posterior submarginal groove reaching to posterior margin of posterior concavity. Rostrum present, rounded and armed with ventral acute spine. Distal peduncular segments dorsoventrally flattened, ovate, distal margin smooth. Cornea absent. Antennal segment I unarmed. Dactylus of pereopod II with heel produced, tapering, and subacute. Dactylus of pereopod III with heel thin, projecting, acute. Dactylus of pereopod IV with produced acute heel and deep indent. Telson of male spatulate, proximal two­thirds laterally convex, distal third laterally concave with lateral expansions rounded, distal tip rounded; medioproximal third heavily calcified, lateral and distal regions decalcified.

DESCRIPTION: Carapace (fig. 40A) wider than long. Anterior margin straight to slightly convex on either side of ocular sinus, smooth. Rostrum as rounded projection reaching beyond median peduncular segments and with a submarginal, terminal acute spine. Ocular sinus smoothly concave; unarmed. Frontal region smooth; setal field reduced to narrow band anterior and paralleling CG1, concave medially. CG1 parallel to anterior margin of carapace, sinuous, slightly crenulate, medially concave, medial and lateral elements united. Mesogastric region smooth; CG2 absent; CG3 absent; CG4 with numerous (ca. 12–20) anteriorly and posteriorly displaced very short elements and two short, broken, oblique lateral elements connected to posterior margins of CG1 lateral elements. Hepatic region smooth with oblique lateral setose groove and very short, thin, acute spine at median of lateral margin. Epibranchial region roughly triangular, smooth; posterolateral margin with four short rows of setae. Metagastric region smooth; CG5 absent. CG6 crenulate, with separate oblique curved long lateral fragments and short, nearly straight, median element united with CG7. CG7 nearly straight relative to anterior margin of carapace and united with median fragment of CG6. Cardiac region smooth; CG8 present as four minute setose punctae. CG9 present as two minute setose punctae. CG10 present as few minute setose punctae in oblique rows. CG11 absent. Branchial region with few setose punctae but without short, transverse rows of setae. Posterior margin deeply and smoothly concave medially and more or less straight laterally, with submarginal groove reaching to posterior margin of posterior concavity. Branchiostegite without anterior submarginal spine; anterior region with anterodorsal transverse groove and granular surface; with many long plumose setae; posterior region membranous with numerous irregular fragments and sparsely covered with long plumose setae.

Ocular plate (fig. 40B) small, rounded; median peduncular segments laterally elongate, oblong, not covered by carapace, anterolaterally ventral to ocular plate. Distal peduncular segments irregularly ovate, angled distolaterally, flattened with convex lateral and mesial margins, margins smooth; mesial margins separated along entire length; mesial, lateral, and distal margins with long simple setae.

Antennule (fig. 40C) segment III narrow proximally, expanding distally to two times proximal width; with plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins; dorsal exopodal flagellum with 139–150 articles (n = 3) on broken flagella, 250 articles (n = 1) on intact flagellum, long plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins; ventral endopodal flagellum with 2 or 3 articles (n = 5), plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins. Segment II medially inflated in dorsal view, with plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins and scattered on distoventral third of lateral surface. Segment I width and length subequal, unarmed; lateral surface with submarginal dorsal row of long plumose setae and transverse rows of long plumose setae across segment median; long plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins.

Antenna (fig. 40D) with segment V approximately one­fifth times longer than wide, with short plumose setae on dorsal margin and in submarginal ventral row, long plumose setae on distoventral margin; flagellum with eight articles (n = 5), long plumose setae on dorsal, ventral, and distal margins. Segment IV almost cylindrical, overreaching segment III by two­fifths of its length, with long plumose setae on dorsal and distal margins, and two rows of short setae on lateral surface. Segment III with long plumose setae on ventral margin and short simple setae on dorsal margin. Segment II widening distally, with three rows of short plumose setae on lateral surface; antennal acicle short, triangular, overreaching segment IV proximal margin by one­third of its length, with long plumose setae on dorsal margin. Segment I rounded proximally, flattened and truncated ventrolaterally, with long plumose setae on margins, short simple setae scattered on dorsal quarter of lateral surface; lateral margin unarmed; segment with ventromesial antennal gland pore.

Mandible (fig. 40E) incisor process with two teeth; cutting edge with one tooth. Palp three­segmented, with plumose setae on margins and long, thick, simple setae arising from bend in second segment.

Maxillule (fig. 40F) distal endite proximally narrow, widening to inflated distal end, with thick simple setae on distal margin and plumose setae on dorsal margin. Proximal endite with thick simple setae on distal margin. Endopodal external lobe truncate distally and curled under, with wide proximal projection; internal lobe reduced, with six thick setae at distolateral margin.

Maxilla (fig. 40G) exopod rounded with plumose setae along distal margin. Scaphognathite bluntly angled on posterior lobe, with plumose setae.

Maxilliped I (fig. 40H) epipod with plumose setae on margins and on distolateral surface. Endite tapered distally and subequal to first segment of exopod. Exopod with two segments; proximal segment narrow, margins parallel, margins with plumose setae; distal segment spatulate, longer than wide, curved mesially, broadest medially, margins and distal three­fourths of lateral surface with long plumose setae. Endopod flattened and elongate, reaching to distal end of proximal exopodal segment, with plumose setae on margins.

Maxilliped II (fig. 40I) dactylus evenly rounded, longer than wide, with thick simple setae distally and thin simple setae in short row on lateral surface. Propodus slightly produced dorsodistally, one­half wider than long, with plumose setae on dorsal margin and long simple setae on dorsodistal and ventrodistal margins. Carpus not produced dorsodistally, approximately two times longer than wide, with long simple setae on dorsal margin and scattered on lateral surface. Merus one­half longer than wide, margins parallel but slightly inflated subproximally, with long simple setae on ventral margin, long plumose setae on dorsal margin and scattered on lateral surface. Basis­ischium incompletely fused, with plumose setae on margins. Exopod one­half longer than merus, flagellum with one elongate article.

Maxilliped III (fig. 40J) dactylus elongate and evenly rounded; long plumose setae on margins and in medial transverse row on lateral surface. Propodus with longitudinal median row of plumose setae on lateral surface; submarginal ventral row of short simple setae; distodorsal tuft of long plumose setae; dorsal and ventral margins with short plumose setae. Carpus strongly produced onto propodus, overreaching three­fourths of propodal length; lateral surface with medial transverse row of long plumose setae, submarginal ventral row of short simple setae; long plumose setae on margins. Merus unarmed, broadly inflated distolaterally, depressed and decalcified medially, with long plumose setae on dorsal margin and short plumose setae on medioventral margin. Basis­ischium incompletely fused, without crista dentata. Exopod two­segmented: proximal segment small; distal segment styliform, tapering, approximately one­half length of merus, with plumose setae on margins; without flagellum.

Pereopod I (fig. 41A) dactylus curved and tapering; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth; dorsal margin with small rugose area proximally, smooth distally, with long plumose setae; ventral margin with short simple setae. Propodal lateral surface with numerous short, transverse rows of setose rugae; dorsal margin with few small, low ridges; ventral margin distally produced into acute spine; cutting edge lacking teeth, lined with long plumose setae; dorsal margin with short plumose setae, ventral margin with short simple setae; mesial surface with few short, transverse rows of setose rugae. Carpus with dorsodistal angle rounded and surface rugose, with short simple setae, dorsal margin smooth, with short plumose setae; lateral surface with few scattered transverse, setose ridges; mesial surface smooth, with transverse row of long plumose setae halfway from dorsal margin and few scattered short plumose setae on surface. Merus unarmed; lateral surface with scattered transverse rows of short plumose setae, dorsal margin with long plumose setae; mesial surface with few short rows of setae; proximal third of mesial surface with decalcified window. Basis­ischium incompletely fused, unarmed. Coxa unarmed.

Pereopod II (fig. 41B) dactylus smooth; with base to heel concave, heel produced and narrowing to subacute tip, with tuft of short simple setae, heel to tip with narrow, acute indent, tip acute with tuft of short simple se­ tae, tip to base broadly convex; lateral surface smooth; mesial surface smooth, ventral margin with long plumose setae, dorsal margin with short simple setae, with patch of long plumose setae at base reaching across median of heel. Propodus with dorsal surface smooth, ventral margin inflated and rounded; distal and ventral margin with long plumose setae; dorsolateral surface as narrow, oblique, flattened shelf, with long plumose setae on ventral margin; short transverse row of long plumose setae on surface; mesial surface with oblique row of long plumose setae, distal and ventral margins with dense row of long plumose setae. Carpus strongly produced dorsodistally, reaching distal margin of propodus; lateral surface nearly smooth, with four irregular, interrupted rows of rugae and submarginal elevated ridge ventrally, rugae and ridge with long plumose setae; dor­ sal margin with short plumose setae, distoventral and ventral margins with long plumose setae; mesial surface smooth with medial oblique and subdistal rows of long plumose setae, few scattered short plumose setae on surface. Merus lateral surface almost entirely decalcified, with long plumose setae on dorsodistal and ventral margins; mesial surface nearly smooth, with oblique median ridge, patches of long plumose setae dorsal to ridge and in row ventrally, with decalcified area on proximal half of area ventral to ridge. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed.

Pereopod III (fig. 41C) dactylus base to heel broadly indented, heel acute, thin, and produced, heel to tip with broad, angled indent, tip acute, tip to base smoothly convex; lateral surface smooth, with tufts of short simple setae at end of heel and tip, lateral surface proximal to indent with few setose punctae; ventral margin with long plumose setae, dorsal margin with short simple and plumose setae; mesial surface smooth, with plumose setae proximally at junction with propodus and in row across base of heel. Propodus not inflated dorsoventrally; lateral surface smooth, with simple setae subdorsally and long plumose setae on ventral margin; dorsolateral surface narrow, oblique, flattened; mesial surface with scattered long setae on and near distoventral margin. Carpus strongly produced dorsodistally and inflated, overreaching distal margin of propodus, rounded; dorsolateral margin unarmed; lateral surface with mat of short setae on dorsodistal third of segment, two long transverse rows of setae medially and scattered on proximal lateral surface; dorsal margin with long plumose setae; mesial surface smooth, dorsomesial third decalcified, with long plumose setae on margins and in median oblique row ventral to decalcified area. Merus smooth, lateral surface almost entirely decalcified; dorsal and ventral margins unarmed, with long plumose setae; mesial surface smooth with patch of long plumose setae on proximomesial margin. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed. Female pereopod III with large mesioproximal gonopore (not opposing other gonopore); male with slightly smaller pore.

Pereopod IV (fig. 41D) dactylus with base to heel slightly concave, heel acute with distal tuft of short simple setae, heel to tip broadly rounded and concave, tip acute with distal tuft of short simple setae, tip to base convex; lateral surface smooth, ventral margin with long plumose setae, dorsal margin with short simple setae; mesial surface with dorsal decalcified region, demarcated ventrally by longitudinal elevated ridge across heel, with row of short plumose setae. Propodus expanded dorsally and ventrally; ventral expansion not reaching ventral margin of dactylus, margins with long plumose setae; dorsal expansion with row of long plumose setae medially and mat of short setae; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth. Carpus slightly produced dorsodistally; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth; dorsomedial two­thirds of lateral and mesial surfaces decalcified, with medial patch of long plumose setae subdistally and long plumose setae on distoventral margin of mesial surface; dorsal margin with small mat of short setae at dorsodistal angle; dorsal margin with long plumose setae, ventral margin with short simple setae. Merus lateral surface large median decalcified area, with few short transverse rows of setae, dorsal and distoventral margins with long plumose setae; mesial surface with large decalcified window proximoventrally. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed.

Abdomen (fig. 41E) with somite I wider than long, widest posteriorly; dorsal surface with anterior margin straight; posterior margin concave, with elevated submarginal curved row of short setae and narrow field of short simple setae anterior to submarginal row; with small faint transverse decalcified window laterad of segment median. Somite II anterior margin convex, posterior margin irregularly concave; pleura expanded and directed posterolaterally, angled anterolaterally, rounded posterolaterally, small patch of short simple setae at posteromesial margin; anterior and lateral margins with long plumose setae, posterior margin with short setae. Somite III similar to somite II, narrower and shorter; pleura thinner and shorter than on somite II, directed posterolaterally proximally and curving laterally distally, with setae as in somite II; anterolateral angle subacute; dorsal surface obliquely flattened anterolat­ erally, with posterior row of short simple setae. Somite IV similar to somite III, posterior margin with two short rows of long simple setae on either side of median; pleura thinner and shorter than on somite III, directed laterally; dorsal surface slightly obliquely flattened anterolaterally with ventral row of short simple setae; margins with long plumose setae. Somite V wider than somite IV, narrowing posteriorly; anterolateral margins with plumose setae, two lateral rows of setae on posterior margin; pleura distinct from somite, shorter than in somite IV, thin, flattened, directed anterolaterally, and covered with plumose setae. Somite VI narrower than somite V; dorsal surface with four short transverse rows of setae laterad of midline anteriorly, posterior margin with long plumose setae; pleura absent.

Female with long uniramous pleopods on somites II–V; male with small pleopods.

Telson of male (fig. 41F) spatulate, proximal two­thirds laterally convex, distal third laterally straight and tapering with lateral expansions rounded, distal tip rounded; medioproximal third heavily calcified, lateral and distal regions decalcified; median longitudinal groove running along calcified region; two parallel rows of short simple setae in medial third; margins with long simple setae. Telson of female (fig. 41G) similar to male, with more strongly angled lateral expansions and less tapering distolateral third.

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the U.S. Virgin Islands, Atlantic Panama, and Brazil. The exact distribution of this species is unknown, but it may well occur throughout the southern Caribbean and Central and South Americas.

MAXIMUM SIZE: Males: 11.1 mm cl; females: 10.6 mm cl.

TYPE SPECIMEN: ZMUC 8557 (neotype).

TYPE LOCALITY: St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

REMARKS: Although Efford (1971) designated ZMUC 8557 as neotype in order to stabilize the identity of the species, this specimen may well be an original syntype. Other Stimpson type material is known to have been sent to ZMUC (Deiss and Manning, 1981), and this specimen is from the type locality and was collected by the same person as the type material. If ZMUC 8557 is indeed a syntype of L. venusta , then its existence would invalidate Efford’s (1971) neotype designation, and it would become the sole extant syntype.

This species was designated as the type of the genus Lepidopa under the plenary powers of the ICZN ( ICZN, 1964) and is no. 1958 on the ‘‘Official list of specific names in zoology’’ ( ICZN, 1964).

This species has been confused with L. luciae , n. sp., although it is most similar to L. dexterae and L. websteri .

Lepidopa dexterae Abele and Efford, 1972 Figures 42 View Fig , 43 View Fig

Lepidopa dexterae Abele and Efford, 1972: 503– 506 , figs. 1, 2*. – Dexter, 1972: 455 *. – Abele, 1976: 266–267 *. – Coêlho and Calado, 1987: table 1. – Manning, 1988: 626–627 (list). – Calado, 1995: 153–156, pl. 39, fig. e, pl. 40, fig. e, pl. 42, fig. d, pl. 48, figs. a–e, pl. 49, figs. a– d*. – Fransen et al., 1997: 79 (list).

MATERIAL EXAMINED: Belize: Hotel Pier, Pelican Beach, Stann Creek Town , Belize, 1 m, May 29, 1976, coll. A. Cohen: 1 Ƌ, 4.5 mm cl ( USNM 221758 View Materials ) ; south of Stann Creek, Belize, May 17, 1977, coll. M. L. Jones: 1 Ƌ, 4.8 mm cl, 2 juveniles, 1.9–2.1 mm cl ( USNM 304303 View Materials ) .

Panama (Atlantic): Shimmey Beach , Ft. Sherman, Aug. 10, 1969, coll. D. Dexter: 2 Ƌ, 3.7–4.8 mm cl, 2 ♀, 3.8–4.9 mm cl, paratypes ( USNM 135402 View Materials ) ; Shimmey Beach , Ft. Sherman, Aug. 15, 1969, coll. D. Dexter: 1 ♀, 3.3 mm cl, paratype ( LACM­AHF 696 ) ; Shimmey Beach , Ft. Sherman, Jan. 23, 1971, coll. L. G. Abele: 2 Ƌ, 4.7–4.8 mm cl, paratypes ( RMNH 28572 View Materials ) .

DIAGNOSIS: Carapace wider than long, with lightly setose grooves. Anterior margin with two large spines lateral to ocular sinus. CG5 absent; CG8 absent; CG10 absent; posterior submarginal groove reaching to posterior margin of posterior concavity. Rostrum present, rounded and armed with ventral acute spine. Distal peduncular segments dorsoventrally flattened, irregularly ovate and distolaterally expanded, distal margin faintly toothed. Diffuse pigment present on peducle. Antennal segment I unarmed. Dactylus of pereopod II with heel produced, tapering, and subacute. Dactylus of pereopod III with heel thin, projecting, acute. Dactylus of pereopod IV with produced acute heel and deep indent. Telson of male spatulate, proximal two­thirds laterally convex, distal third laterally concave with lateral expansions rounded, distal tip rounded; medioproximal third heavily calcified, lateral and distal regions decalcified.

DESCRIPTION: Carapace (fig. 42A) wider than long. Anterior margin slightly convex on either side of ocular sinus, weakly dentate. Rostrum as rounded projection reaching to midpoint of median peduncular segments and with submarginal, terminal acute spine reaching beyond proximal margin of distal peduncular segments. Ocular sinus smoothly concave; unarmed. Frontal region smooth; setal field reduced to narrow band anterior to and paralleling CG1, concave medially. CG1 parallel to anterior margin of carapace, sinuous, slightly crenulate, medially concave, medial and lateral elements united. Mesogastric region smooth; CG2 absent; CG3 absent; CG4 with two very short medial and two long, oblique lateral elements connected to posterior margins of CG1 lateral elements. Hepatic region smooth with oblique lateral setose groove and short, stout, acute spine at median of lateral margin. Epibranchial region generally triangular, smooth; posterolateral margin with two short rows of setae. Metagastric region smooth; CG5 absent. CG6 crenulate, with separate oblique, curved, long, lateral fragments and short, concave, median element united with CG7. CG7 nearly straight relative to anterior margin of carapace, but sinuous, and united with median fragment of CG6. Cardiac region smooth; CG8–11 absent. Branchial region with few setose punctae but without short, transverse rows of setae. Posterior margin deeply and irregularly concave medially and more or less straight laterally, with submarginal groove reaching to posterior margin of posterior concavity. Branchiostegite without anterior submarginal spine; anterior region with anterodorsal transverse groove and granular surface, and many long plumose setae; posterior region membranous with numerous, irregular fragments and sparsely covered with long plumose setae.

Ocular plate (fig. 42B) small, rounded; median peduncular segments laterally elongate, oblong, not covered by carapace, anterolaterally ventral to ocular plate. Distal peduncular segments anterolaterally ventral to ocular plate segments subquadrate, expanded distolaterally, flattened, with convex lateral and nearly straight mesial margins, shallow notch present one­fourth from base on mesial margins, lateral margins smooth, distal margins weakly dentate; diffuse ventral field of pigment present, visible in partially decalcified specimens through dorsal surface; mesial margins separated along entire length; mesial, lateral, and distal margins with long simple setae. Distal peduncular segment of megalopa not distolaterally expanded, smooth, with broad area of pigment.

Antennule (fig. 42C) segment III narrow proximally, expanding distally to three times proximal width; with plumose setae on dor­ sal and ventral margins; dorsal exopodal flagellum with 114–136 articles (n = 4) [110 in megalopa], long plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins; ventral endopodal flagellum with three articles (n = 5), plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins. Segment II medially inflated in dorsal view, with plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins. Segment I slightly longer than wide, unarmed; lateral surface with submarginal dorsal row of long plumose setae and transverse row of long plumose setae across segment median; long plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins.

Antenna (fig. 42D) with segment V approximately two times longer than wide, with long plumose setae on dorsal margin and short plumose setae in submarginal ventral row, long plumose setae on distoventral margin; flagellum with eight articles (n = 4), long plumose setae on dorsal, ventral, and distal margins. Segment IV almost cylindrical, overreaching segment III by two­fifths its length, with long plumose setae on dorsal and distal margins, and two rows of short setae on lateral surface. Segment III with long plumose setae on dorsal margin, short simple setae on dorsal margin. Segment II widening distally, with long plumose setae on dorsal margin, row of short plumose setae on lateral surface; antennal acicle short, triangular, not overreaching segment IV proximal margin, with long plumose setae on dorsal margin. Segment I rounded proximally, flattened and truncated ventrolaterally with long plumose setae on margins; lateral margin unarmed; segment with ventromesial antennal gland pore.

Mandible (fig. 42E) incisor process with two teeth; cutting edge with one tooth. Palp three­segmented, with plumose setae on margins and long, thick, simple setae arising from bend in second segment.

Maxillule (fig. 42F) distal endite proximally narrow, widening to inflated distal end, with thick simple setae on distal margin and plumose setae on dorsal margin. Proximal endite with thick simple setae on distal margin. Endopodal external lobe truncate distally and curled under, with wide proximal projection; internal lobe reduced with three thick setae at distolateral margin.

Maxilla (fig. 42G) exopod rounded, with plumose setae along distal margin. Scaphognathite bluntly angled on posterior lobe, with plumose setae.

Maxilliped I (fig. 42H) epipod with plumose setae on margins and on distolateral surface. Endite tapered distally and subequal to first segment of exopod. Exopod with two segments; proximal segment narrow, margins parallel, with plumose setae; distal segment spatulate, longer than wide, curved mesially, broadest medially, margins and lateral surface with long plumose setae. Endopod flattened and elongate, reaching to distal end of proximal exopodal segment, with plumose setae on margins.

Maxilliped II (fig. 42I) dactylus evenly rounded, longer than wide, with thick simple setae distally and thin simple setae in short row on lateral surface. Propodus slightly produced dorsodistally, as wide as long, with plumose setae on dorsal margin and long simple setae on dorsodistal and ventrodistal margins. Carpus not produced dorsodistally, approximately two times longer than wide, with long simple setae on dorsal margin and dorodistal and ventrodistal margins. Merus two times longer than wide, margins parallel but slightly inflated subproximally, with long simple setae on ventral margin, long plumose setae on dorsal margin and scattered on lateral surface. Basis­ischium incompletely fused, with plumose setae on margins. Exopod one­half longer than merus, flagellum with one short article.

Maxilliped III (fig. 42J) dactylus elongate and evenly rounded; long plumose setae on margins and in medial transverse row on lateral surface. Propodus with longitudinal median row of plumose setae on lateral surface; submarginal ventral row of short simple setae; distodorsal tuft of long plumose setae; dorsal margin with short plumose setae. Carpus strongly produced onto propodus, almost reaching distal margin of propodus; lateral surface with medial transverse row of long plumose setae; submarginal ventral row of short simple setae; long plumose setae on margins. Merus unarmed, inflated distolaterally, depressed and decalcified medially, with long plumose setae on dorsal margin and short plumose setae on ventral margin. Basisischium incompletely fused, without crista dentata. Exopod two­segmented: proximal segment small; distal segment styliform, tapering, approximately one­half length of merus, with plumose setae on margins; without flagellum.

Pereopod I (fig. 43A) dactylus curved and tapering; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth; dorsal margin with small rugose area proximally, smooth distally, with long plumose setae; ventral margin with short simple setae. Propodus lateral surface with few short, transverse rows of setose rugae; dorsal margin with few small low ridges; ventral margin distally produced into acute spine; cutting edge lacking teeth, lined with long plumose setae; dorsal margin with short plumose setae, ventral margin with short simple setae; mesial surface with few short, transverse rows of setose rugae. Carpus with dorsodistal angle rounded and surface rugose, with short simple setae, dorsal margin smooth, with short plumose setae; lateral surface with few scattered, transverse setose ridges; mesial surface smooth, with transverse row of long plumose setae halfway from dorsal margin and few scattered short plumose setae on surface. Merus unarmed; lateral surface with scattered transverse rows of short plumose setae, dorsal margin with long plumose setae; mesial side with few short rows of setae; proximal two­thirds of mesial surface with decalcified window. Basis­ischium incompletely fused, unarmed. Coxa unarmed.

Pereopod II (fig. 43B) dactylus smooth; with base to heel concave, heel produced and narrowing to subacute tip with apical tuft of short simple setae, heel to tip with narrow, acute indent, tip acute with apical tuft of short simple setae, tip to base broadly convex; lateral surface smooth; mesial surface smooth, ventral margin with long plumose setae, dorsal margin with short simple setae, with patch of long plumose setae at base reaching across median of heel. Propodus with dorsal surface smooth, ventral margin inflated and rounded; distal and ventral margin with long plumose setae; dorsolateral surface as narrow, oblique, flattened shelf, with long plumose setae on ventral margin; short transverse row of long plumose setae on surface; mesial surface with oblique row of long plumose setae, distal and ventral margins with dense row of long plumose se­ tae. Carpus strongly produced dorsodistally, reaching three­fourths of distance to distal margin of propodus; lateral surface nearly smooth, with irregular, interrupted row of rugae and submarginal elevated ridge ventrally, rugae and ridge with long plumose setae; dorsal margin with short plumose setae, distoventral and ventral margins with long plumose setae; mesial surface smooth, with medial oblique and subdistal rows of long plumose setae, few scattered short plumose setae on surface; lateral and mesial surfaces medially decalcified. Merus with lateral surface almost entirely decalcified, long plumose setae on dorsal and ventral margins; mesial surface nearly smooth, with oblique median ridge, patches of long plumose setae dorsal to ridge and in row ventrally, with decalcified area on proximal half of area ventral to ridge; lateral and mesial surfaces medially decalcified. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed.

Pereopod III (fig. 43C) dactylus base to heel broadly indented, heel acute, thin, and produced, heel to tip with broad, subquadrate indent, tip acute, tip to base smoothly convex; lateral surface smooth, with apical tufts of short simple setae at end of heel and tip, lateral surface proximal to indent with few setose punctae; ventral margin with long plu­ mose setae, dorsal margin with short simple and plumose setae; mesial surface smooth, with plumose setae proximally at junction with propodus and in row across base of heel. Propodus not inflated dorsoventrally; lateral surface smooth, with simple setae subdorsally and long plumose setae on ventral margin; dorsolateral surface narrow, oblique, flattened; mesial surface with scattered long setae on and near distoventral margin. Carpus strongly produced dorsodistally and inflated, reaching distal margin of propodus, rounded; dorsolateral margin unarmed; lateral surface medially decalcified, with mat of short setae on dorsodistal third of segment and two long transverse rows of setae medially; dorsal margin with long plumose setae; mesial surface smooth, dorsomesial half decalcified, with long plumose setae on margins and in median oblique row ventral to decalcified area. Merus smooth, lateral surface almost entirely decalcified; dorsal and ventral margins unarmed, with long plumose setae; mesial surface medially decalcified, smooth, with patch of long plumose setae on proximomesial margin. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed. Female pereopod III with large mesioproximal gonopore (not opposing other gonopore); male with slightly smaller pore.

Pereopod IV (fig. 43D) dactylus with base to heel slightly concave, heel acute with apical tuft of short simple setae, heel to tip broadly rounded and concave, tip acute with apical tuft of short simple setae, tip to base convex; lateral surface smooth, ventral margin with long plumose setae, dorsal margin with short simple setae; mesial surface with dorsal decalcified region, demarcated ventrally by longitudinal elevated ridge across heel with row of short plumose setae. Propodus expanded dorsally and ventrally; ventral expansion not reaching ventral margin of dactylus, margins with long plumose setae; dorsal expansion with row of long plumose setae medially and mat of short setae; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth and decalcified. Carpus slightly produced dorsodistally; lateral and mesial surfaces smooth, decalcified; dorsomedial two­thirds of lateral and mesial surfaces decalcified, with medial patch of long plumose setae subdistally and long plumose setae on distoventral margin of mesial surface; dorsolateral margin with small mat of short setae at distal angle; dorsal margin with long plumose setae, ventral margin with short simple setae. Merus with large median decalcified area on lateral surface, dorsal and distoventral margins with long plumose setae; mesial surface with large decalcified window proximoventrally. Basis­ischium incompletely fused and unarmed. Coxa unarmed.

Abdomen (fig. 43E) with somite I wider than long, widest posteriorly; dorsal surface with anterior margin straight; posterior margin straight, with elevated, submarginal, curved row of short setae and broad field of short simple setae anterior to submarginal row; with small faint transverse decalcified window laterad of segment median. Somite II anterior margin straight, posterior margin irregularly concave; pleura expanded and directed posterolaterally, angled anterolaterally, rounded posterolaterally, small patch of short simple setae at posteromesial margin; anterior and lateral margins with long plumose setae, posterior margin with short setae. Somite III similar to somite II, narrower and shorter; pleura thinner and shorter than on somite II, directed posterolaterally proximally and curving laterally distally, with setae as in somite II; anterolateral angle subacute; dorsal surface obliquely flattened anterolaterally, with posterior row of short simple setae. Somite IV similar to somite III, posterior margin with two short rows of long simple setae on either side of median; pleura thinner and shorter than on somite III, directed laterally; dorsal surface slightly obliquely flattened anterolaterally, with ventral row of short simple setae; margins with long plumose setae. Somite V wider than somite IV, narrowing posteriorly; lateral margins with plumose setae, two short anteromedial rows of setae on dorsal surface; pleura distinct from somite, shorter than in somite IV, thin, flattened, directed anterolaterally, and covered with plumose setae. Somite VI narrower than somite V; dorsal surface with four short transverse rows of setae laterad of midline anteriorly, posterior margin with long plumose setae; pleura absent.

Female with long uniramous pleopods on somites II–V; male with small pleopods.

Telson of male (fig. 43F) spatulate, prox­ imal two­thirds laterally convex, distal third laterally straight and tapering with lateral expansions rounded, distal tip rounded; medioproximal third heavily calcified, lateral and distal regions decalcified; median longitudinal groove running along calcified region; two parallel rows of short simple setae in medial third; margins with long simple setae. Telson of female (fig. 43G) similar to male, with more inflated lateral expansions and broader distal tip.

DISTRIBUTION: From Belize to Panama, in up to 1 m depth.

MAXIMUM SIZE: Males: 4.8 mm cl; females: 4.9 mm cl.

TYPE SPECIMENS: USNM 135401 (holotype;? lost), USNM 135402 (4 paratypes), UPRC 89 (2 paratypes), LACM­AHF 696 (1 paratype), RMNH 28572 (2 paratypes).

TYPE LOCALITY: Shimmey Beach, Ft. Sherman, Panama Canal Zone, Panama.

REMARKS: This species has the smallest maximum size of any in the genus (4.9 mm cl), and this may account for its being known from so few specimens. The holotype was examined by Calado (1995), but cannot now be located in the USNM and may be lost.

Abele and Efford (1972) placed this species into Efford’s (1971) ‘‘ benedicti ­group’’ due, in part, to its subtly dentate distal peduncular segment margins, long carpal dorsodistal projection on maxilliped III, antennal flagellum with eight articles, and subrostral spine. However, as Efford (1971) noted, L. benedicti lacks a submarginal rostral spine, and the group can hardly be characterized by that feature. In fact, many more characters (absence of dorsodistal spine on antennal segment I, thin heel on pereopod IV, telson shape) unite this species with Efford’s (1971) ‘‘ venusta ­group’’ of species. Except for the shape of the distal peduncular segments, Lepidopa dexterae closely resembles both L. venusta and L. websteri . The color is typical of Lepidopa species : off­white with scattered iridescence (Abele and Efford, 1972).

Lepidopa chilensis Lenz, 1902 Figures 44 View Fig , 45 View Fig

YPM

Peabody Museum of Natural History

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Malacostraca

Order

Decapoda

Family

Albuneidae

Genus

Lepidops

Loc

Lepidops venusta: Kingsley, 1880: 410

BOYKO, CHRISTOPHER B. 2002
2002
Loc

Lepidopa

Sandifer, P. A. 1973: 244
1973
Loc

Lepidopa

Van Engel, W. A. & P. A. Sandifer 1972: 220
1972
Loc

Lepidopa sp.

Gordon, I. 1938: 188
1938
Loc

Lepidopa venusta: Boone, 1930: 61–63

Boone, L. 1930: 63
1930
Loc

Lepidopa websteri

Calado, T. C. dos 1995: 209
Williams, A. B. & L. G. Abele & D. L. Felder & H. H. Hobbs, Jr. & R. B. Manning & P. A. McLauglin & I. P. Farfante 1989: 35
Manning, R. B. 1988: 626
Calado, T. C. dos 1987: 42
Williams, A. B. 1984: 250
Kaestner, A. 1980: 336
Hill, G. W. 1979: 43
Young, A. M. 1978: 177
Sandifer, P. A. & W. A. Van Engel 1972: 158
Efford, I. E. 1971: 91
Kurata, H. 1970: 184
Howard, J. D. 1968: 256
Williams, A. B. 1965: 138
Garcia Mendes, E. 1945: 119
Pearse, A. S. & H. J. Humm & G. W. Wharton 1942: 185
Gordon, I. 1938: 188
Benedict, J. E. 1903: 892
1903
Loc

Lepidopa venusta: Benedict, 1903: 892

Manning, R. B. 1988: 626
Efford, I. E. 1971: 87
Gordon, I. 1938: 188
Schmitt, W. L. 1935: 210
Benedict, J. E. 1903: 892
1903
Loc

Lepidopa venusta: Ortmann, 1896: 226

Ortmann, A. E. 1896: 226
1896
Loc

Lepidopa scutellata: Ortmann, 1896: 227

Ortmann, A. E. 1896: 227
1896
Loc

Lepidopa venusta: Ortmann, 1896: 226

Ortmann, A. E. 1896: 226
1896
Loc

Lepidops venusta: Kingsley, 1880: 410

Kingsley, J. S. 1880: 410
1880
Loc

Lepidops venusta: Kingsley, 1880: 410

Kingsley, J. S. 1880: 410
1880
Loc

Lepidops venusta:

Miers, E. J. 1878: 333
1878
Loc

Lepidopa venusta

Nucci, P. R. & A. Turra & E. H. Morgado 2001: 479
Calado, T. C. dos 1998: 408
Calado, T. C. dos 1995: 203
Rosini, A. & E. Severino Rodrigues & R. J. A. Fuentes Rosini 1994: 103
Calado, T. C. dos & P. A. Coelho 1990: 749
Calado, T. C. dos 1987: 143
Calado, T. C. dos 1987: 43
Rodriguez, G. 1980: 237
Efford, I. E. 1971: 87
Castro, A. L. de 1967: 2
Gomes, M. M. de 1965: 97
ICZN & International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1964: 28
Holthuis, L. B. 1962: 125
Garcia Mendes, E. 1945: 119
Ortmann, A. E. 1896: 226
Stimpson, W. 1859: 79
Stimpson, W. 1858: 230
1858