Aphonopelma vorhiesi (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939)

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 245-254

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A2FBE50D-8084-8FFE-DEFB-FD89C551B120

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Aphonopelma vorhiesi (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939)
status

 

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma vorhiesi (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939)  Figures 142, 143, 144, 145, 146; Suppl. material 4

Delopelma vorhiesi  Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939: 7; male holotype and male paratype from Tucson, Pima Co., Arizona, 32.221743 -110.926479 6, elev. 2473ft., no collecting date, coll. Prof. C.T. Vorhies; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica vorhiesi  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma vorhiesi  Smith, 1995: 155.

Aphonopelma jungi  Smith, 1995: 116; male holotype from Portal Rd., Portal, Cochise Co., Arizona, 31.914142 -109.141676 5, elev. 4761ft., viii.1992, coll. A. Smith and Michael Sullivan; deposited in BMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Aphonopelma punzoi  Smith, 1995: 131; male holotype from Swift Trail (Jct), 5 miles S of Safford, Graham Co., Arizona, 32.729897 -109.713921 5, elev. 3161ft., mid-August, coll. A. Smith and Michael Sullivan; deposited in BMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (Fig. 142) belongs to the Marxi  species group and can be identified by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear DNA identifies Aphonopelma vorhiesi  as a strongly supported monophyletic lineage (Fig. 8). It can easily be distinguished from syntopic populations of Aphonopelma parvum  sp. n., Aphonopelma paloma  , and Aphonopelma saguaro  sp. n. by its larger size. The most significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma vorhiesi  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are PTl and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus III. Male Aphonopelma vorhiesi  can be distinguished by possessing a smaller PTl/M1 (≤0.90; 0.76-0.90) than Aphonopelma catalina  sp. n. (≥0.90; 0.90-1.03), Aphonopelma chiricahua  sp. n. (≥0.96; 0.96-1.18), and Aphonopelma madera  sp. n. (≥0.98; 0.98-1.12), and larger than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤0.75; 0.67-0.75) and Aphonopelma gabeli  (≤0.68; 0.61-0.68); and a smaller L3 scopulation extent (44%-62%) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (76%-86%) and Aphonopelma hentzi  (69%-86%). There are no significant measurements that separate male Aphonopelma vorhiesi  from Aphonopelma peloncillo  sp. n. Significant measurements that distinguish female Aphonopelma vorhiesi  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are Cl and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma vorhiesi  can be distinguished by possessing a larger Cl/Cw (≥1.11; 1.11-1.21) than Aphonopelma catalina  (≤1.09; 1.07-1.09) and Aphonopelma chiricahua  (1.02 ± (only 1 specimen)); and by possessing a smaller L4 scopulation extent (26%-37%) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (63%-81%), Aphonopelma gabeli  (39%-53%) and Aphonopelma hentzi  (42%-72%). There are no significant measurements that separate female Aphonopelma vorhiesi  from Aphonopelma peloncillo  and Aphonopelma madera  .

Description.

Male originally described by Chamberlin and Ivie (1939).

Redescription of male exemplar

(APH_0177; Fig. 143). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live crossing road, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Black and faded brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 13.61 mm long, 12.95 mm wide; Hirsute; densely clothed with black, slightly iridescent, pubescence mostly appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove medium deep and slightly recurved; pars cephalica region rises gradually from foveal groove, gently arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER slightly procurved, PER slightly recurved; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus extends forward on a curve; LBl 1.48, LBw 1.88; sternum hirsute, clothed with short black, densely packed setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black pubescence with numerous longer red/orange setae interspersed; possessing a dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972). Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in a mix of short and medium length black or faded black pubescence, slightly longer ventrally. Metatarsus I mostly straight. F1 13.70; F1w 3.62; P1 5.85; T1 11.31; M1 10.20; A1 6.65; F3 11.52; F3w 4.09; P3 4.41; T3 9.25; M3 10.89; A3 6.97; F4 13.94; F4w 3.64; P4 4.56; T4 11.74; M4 14.66; A4 7.83; femur III is swollen. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 55.9%; leg IV (SC4) = 28.2%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; seven ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV; one large ventral spinose seta at the base of the tibia I near the patella; one large megaspine is present on the retrolateral tibia at the apex of the mating clasper - this can be seen when viewing the prolateral face of the mating clasper. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and thin tapered setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur; one spinose seta on the prolateral patella; four spinose setae on the prolateral tibia; PTl 7.791, PTw 2.61. When extended, embolus tapers and gently curves to the retrolateral side; bulb is shorter and more stout than chalcodes  .

Variation (11).Cl 10.018-13.98 (11.663 ± 0.4), Cw 9.18-12.95 (10.722 ± 0.4), LBl 1.11-1.658 (1.404 ± 0.06), LBw 1.24-1.921 (1.62 ± 0.07), F1 10.15-14.51 (11.867 ± 0.42), F1w 2.51-3.62 (2.917 ± 0.1), P1 4.1-5.88 (4.885 ± 0.18), T1 8.69-12.39 (10.09 ± 0.36), M1 6.877-10.20 (8.296 ± 0.3), A1 4.74-6.70 (5.584 ± 0.21), L1 length 35.23-49.06 (40.541 ± 1.51), F3 8.37-11.57 (9.858 ± 0.34), F3w 2.65-4.09 (3.18 ± 0.14), P3 3.3-4.47 (3.794 ± 0.12), T3 6.49-9.25 (7.619 ± 0.28), M3 7.717-10.89 (8.927 ± 0.34), A3 5.35-6.97 (6.075 ± 0.17), L3 length 31.4-43.04 (36.647 ± 1.26), F4 10.09-13.94 (11.696 ± 0.41), F4w 2.32-3.64 (2.831 ± 0.13), P4 3.46-4.56 (4.129 ± 0.11), T4 8.996-11.74 (10.128 ± 0.31), M4 10.33-14.66 (12.131 ± 0.44), A4 5.43-7.83 (6.606 ± 0.25), L4 length 38.39-52.73 (44.469 ± 1.57), PTl 6.167-8.125 (6.983 ± 0.18), PTw 1.919-2.611 (2.334 ± 0.06), SC3 ratio 0.45-0.619 (0.554 ± 0.01), SC4 ratio 0.201-0.358 (0.3 ± 0.01), Coxa 1 setae = tapered/thin tapered, F3 condition = slightly swollen.

Description of female exemplar

(APH_1488; Figs 144-145). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Black/faded black. Cephalothorax: Carapace 16.38 mm long, 14.63 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with black/faded black, slightly iridescent, pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER procurved, PER recurved; robust chelicerae, clypeus extends forward on a curve; LBl 1.99, LBw 2.10; sternum hirsute, clothed with shorter black/faded black setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short black setae with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972); ventral side with shorter black setae. Spermathecae: Paired and separate, tapering and slightly curving medially towards capitate bulbs, with wide bases that are not fused. Legs: Hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in short and medium black pubescence, with longer setae colored similarly as the long abdominal setae; F1 12.61; F1w 4.06; P1 6.22; T1 9.97; M1 8.17; A1 6.37; F3 10.52; F3w 3.79; P3 4.53; T3 7.70; M3 8.13; A3 6.72; F4 12.91; F4w 3.81; P4 5.19; T4 10.69; M4 11.47; A4 7.32. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 69.0%; leg IV (SC4) = 33.9%. One ventral spinose seta on metatarsus III; six ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur, one spinose seta on the prolateral patella, and four spinose setae on the prolateral tibia.

Variation (8).Cl 11.23-16.38 (13.636 ± 0.64), Cw 9.77-14.63 (11.819 ± 0.59), LBl 1.48-1.99 (1.778 ± 0.08), LBw 1.77-2.42 (2.06 ± 0.09), F1 8.86-12.61 (10.74 ± 0.52), F1w 2.86-4.06 (3.401 ± 0.16), P1 4.17-6.22 (5.001 ± 0.24), T1 7.09-9.97 (8.447 ± 0.38), M1 5.08-8.17 (6.301 ± 0.38), A1 4.46-6.37 (5.274 ± 0.23), L1 length 29.66-43.34 (35.763 ± 1.72), F3 7.54-10.52 (8.761 ± 0.42), F3w 2.45-3.79 (2.978 ± 0.15), P3 3.26-4.93 (3.99 ± 0.22), T3 4.87-7.70 (6.312 ± 0.38), M3 5.24-8.13 (6.611 ± 0.39), A3 4.65-6.72 (5.367 ± 0.25), L3 length 25.56-37.60 (31.041 ± 1.6), F4 8.93-12.91 (10.773 ± 0.56), F4w 2.67-3.81 (3.076 ± 0.14), P4 3.39-5.35 (4.438 ± 0.22), T4 7.54-10.69 (8.885 ± 0.4), M4 7.87-11.47 (9.504 ± 0.46), A4 5.44-7.32 (6.122 ± 0.25), L4 length 33.76-47.58 (39.721 ± 1.85), SC3 ratio 0.495-0.69 (0.604 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.269-0.369 (0.332 ± 0.01), Coxa I setae = tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 145.

Material examined.

United States: Arizona: Cochise: 0.45 miles NNE Cazador Trl on Hwy 80, 31.4724344 -109.4502641 2, 4554ft., [APH_0720-0721, 17/8/2009, 2♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 1 mile west of Portal, 31.914744 -109.162506 5, 5026ft., [APH_2130, 24/9/1963, 1♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; [APH_2135, 30/10/1963, 1♀, V. Roth, AMNH]; 10 miles south of Apache, 31.572141 -109.17493 5, 4669ft., [APH_2132, 10/9/1965, 1♂, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; 10 miles west of Douglas, 31.363766 -109.696872 5, 4150ft., [APH_2108, 8/9/1964, 1♂, R. Hastings and M. Hastings, AMNH]; 10-20 mile south of Apache, 31.494756 -109.166548 5, 4459ft., [APH_2123, 11/10/1963, 1♀, V. Roth, AMNH]; 12 miles south of Apache, 31.55928 -109.183506 5, 4590ft., [APH_2106, 8/10/1964, 3♂, V. Roth , AMNH]; 12-16 miles south of Apache, 31.42937 -109.152669 5, 4383ft., [APH_2125, 23/7/1963, 3♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; 2 miles northeast of Portal, 31.938743 -109.172137 5, 5938ft., [APH_2140, 10/2/1962, 1♀, Cazier and Mortenson, AMNH]; 2 miles south of Rodeo, 31.921206 -109.050959 5, 4209ft., [APH_2141, 20/6/1962, 1♀, N.M. , AMNH]; 2 miles south of Southwestern Research Station, 31.862638 -109.228246 5, 6499ft., [APH_2137, 20/7/1959, 1♀, G.M. Happ and F.A. McKittrick, AMNH]; Deer Creek Ranch, 32.252852 -109.832012 5, 4173ft., [APH_2126, 19/7/1956, 1♀, J. Anderson, AMNH]; Galeyville, 31.943827 -109.213586 5, 5469ft., [APH_2124, 28/8/unknown, 1♂, Scotty Anderson, AMNH]; Portal, 31.913703 -109.14145 5, 4770ft., [APH_2110, 23/10/1972, 1♂, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; [APH_2112, 24/8/1964, 2♂, R. Hastings and M. Hastings, AMNH]; [APH_2116, 15/11/1962, 1♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; [APH_2118, 1965, 1♂, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; [APH_2129, 15/7/1963, 1♀, V. Roth, AMNH]; [APH_2136, 8/1965, 1♀, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; Sierra Vista, just outside city limits, near and around residential areas near Ft. Huachuca Military Base, 31.47973 -110.24666 1, 4643ft., [APH_0187, 24/8/2007, 1♂, Dean Pittman, AUMNH]; [APH_0188, 3/8/2007, 1♀, Dean Pittman, AUMNH]; Graham: 0.25 miles E Hwy-191 on Tanque Rd, 32.605235 -109.682418 1, 3873ft., [APH_1331-1335, 1/8/2011, 1♀, 4 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; [APH_1346, 5/8/2011, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; [APH_1348, 5/8/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; [APH_1480, 1/8/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Austin Deskewies, AUMNH]; [APH_1490-1491, 4/9/2012, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_1506-1508, 7/9/2012, 1♀, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 0.4 miles E Hwy-191 on Tanque Rd, 32.606204 -109.681524 1, 3891ft., [APH_1185-1187, 25/7/2010, 1♀, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; dirt road S of US-70, 32.744869 -109.344099 1, 4088ft., [APH_0639-0640, 12/7/2009, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Klondyke Rd, SW of Hwy-70, 32.914146 -109.975734 1, 3110ft., [APH_0700, 18/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Swift Trail, along Hwy-366, 32.67433 -109.78367 2, 4885ft., [APH_1361-1364, 3/9/2011, 4♂, Brandon La Forest, AUMNH]; Tanque Rd, near Hwy-191, 32.604126 -109.681695 1, 3887ft., [APH_0624-0625, 11/7/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Pima: 4405 W Speedway Blvd, Tucson, 32.236347 -111.059977 2, 2600ft., [APH_1359, 4/9/2011, 1♂, Lee and Denise Roberts, AUMNH]; 6928 N. Northpoint Dr, Tucson, 32.33242 -111.03403 2, 2320ft., [APH_0400, 7/9/2008, 1♂, Linda Lanan, AUMNH]; 9095 E. Arbab Ct., Tucson, 32.11585 -110.79889 2, 2907ft., [APH_0177, 29/8/2007, 1♂, Sandi Sowers, AUMNH]; Arivaca Creek (AZ-289/Ruby Rd), 31.59577 -111.36337 4, 3560ft., [APH_0294-0295, 3/10/2007, 2♂, Manny Rubio, AUMNH]; Catalina State Park, Romero Canyon Trail, 32.4253 -110.8994 2, 2850ft., [APH_1488, 22/7/2011, 1♀, Ken Macneil, AUMNH]; jct. I-10 and Hwy 83, 32.004689 -110.689365 5, 3448ft., [AUMS_2212, 19/8/1995, 1♂, Jeremy Huff, AUMNH]; Santa Catalina Mountains, Mt. Lemmon Highway, Gordon Hirabayashi Recreation Area, 32.339509 -110.717456 2, 4845ft., [APH_3217, 1/7/14, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Mt. Lemmon Hwy, 0.3 miles S of Molino Basin, S of Catalina Mtns, 32.326961 -110.702536 4, 4101ft., [AUMS_3278, 16/9/1974, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; SE of Tucson, 3.5 miles N I-10 on Houghton Rd, 32.1125 -110.77611 2, 2950ft., [APH_0791, unknown, 1♀, Jon Camp, AUMNH]; SE of Tucson, just N of I-10 and Hwy 83 jct., 32.012461 -110.690131 5, 3433ft., [AUMS_2205, 19/8/1995, 2♂, J. Huff and Thomas R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2213, 19/8/1995, 1♂, R. Portillo and Thomas R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2225, 19/8/1995, 1♂, Thomas Mason, AUMNH]; Tucson, 32.221743 -110.926479 6, 2470ft., [APH_2318, 1♂, T. Vorhies, AMNH]; off Hwy 79, N of Tucson just past Hwy 77 split, E side of road, 32.57446 -110.94732 1, 3445ft., [APH_3188, 14/11/2013, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Santa Cruz: 0.1 miles SE FS-184 on Mt. Hopkins Rd, 31.69358253 -110.9889079 2, 3684ft., [APH_0732, 20/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 0.13 miles NW FS-184 on Mt. Hopkins Rd, 31.69571757 -110.9927435 2, 3630ft., [APH_0731, 20/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 0.37 miles NE FR-4099 on Mt. Hopkins Rd, 31.67437255 -110.9370608 2, 4406ft., [APH_0734, 20/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 1.6 miles E I-19 Frontage Rd along Amado-Mentosa Rd (FS Rd 184), 31.70242578 -111.0435914 2, 3156ft., [APH_0382, 28/7/2008, 1 juv, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Patagonia Mtns, Harshaw Road, 31.528093 -110.711410 4, 4215ft., [APH_0185, 9/9/2007, 1♂, Manny Rubio, AUMNH]; Patagonia Mtns, Harshaw Road, 31.531246 -110.718179 4, 4231ft., [APH_0186, late/8/2007, 1♂, Manny Rubio, AUMNH]; New Mexico: Dona Ana: Aguirre Springs Rd, 32.399191 -106.548438 1, 4905ft., [APH_0656-0658, 13/7/2009, 3♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; [APH_0660-0661, 13/7/2009, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Just outside Las Cruces, on Aguirre Spring Road, 32.431202 -106.54921 5, 5306ft., [APH_0001, 8/2003, 1♂, Roy Thibodeau, AUMNH]; Organ Mtns, Aguirre Springs Rec Area, 32.387276 - 106.551429 1, 5061ft., [APH_1176, 22/7/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Hidalgo: 1 mile west of Animas, 31.948038 -108.828004 5, 4403ft., [APH_2119, 26/8/1960, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; 11 miles south of Road Forks, 32.208574 -108.798363 5, 4341ft., [APH_2128, 26/8/1960, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; 3 miles W of Animas on Hwy-9, 31.942609 -108.856771 1, 4400ft., [APH_0292, 10/2007, 1♂, Kari McWest, AUMNH]; 3.1 miles E Hwy-80 on Hwy-9, 31.93239033 -108.9869393 2, 4135ft., [APH_0725, 18/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 4.1 miles E Hwy-80 on Hwy-9, 31.936704 -108.970448 1, 4187ft., [APH_0679, 16/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-338, 32.0242 -108.866316 1, 4297ft., [APH_1512, 8/9/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_1517, 8/9/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; along Hwy-80 at Granite Gap, 32.088477 -108.973445 1, 4450ft., [APH_1484, 1/8/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Austin Deskewies, AUMNH]; along Hwy-80, 2.3 miles S I-10, 32.204378 -108.949722 1, 4227ft., [APH_0674-0675, 15/7/2009, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Hwy-9, W of Animas, 31.94331229 -108.8738359 2, 4386ft., [APH_0727, 18/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Clanton Draw, Geronimo Gap - Peloncillo Mtns, 31.517505 -108.984343 4, 5441ft., [APH_0886, 2006, 1♀, Dave Moellendorf, AUMNH]; Luna: Cookes Canyon Rd, A019, 0.7 miles NW NM-26, 32.424 -107.583806 1, 4545ft., [APH_0394, 28/7/2008, 1 juv, Kari, Hunter McWest, AUMNH]; Little Florida Mtns, 1 miles SE on Bonita Rd from turnoff on Gap Rd, 32.15817 -107.58858 1, 4480ft., [APH_0195-0196, 3/9/2007, 2♂, Lorenzo Prendini, Jeremy Huff, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma vorhiesi  is widely distributed across southeastern Arizona and southern New Mexico (Fig. 146) and can be found in the following Level III Ecoregions: Madrean Archipelago, Sonoran Basin and Range, Chihuahuan Deserts, and Arizona/New Mexico Mountains. Aphonopelma vorhiesi  can be found in syntopy with a large number of different species across its distribution including Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma madera  , Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma parvum  , Aphonopelma peloncillo  , and Aphonopelma saguaro  . The breeding season, when mature males abandon their burrows in search of females, occurs during the summer and fall ( July–October).

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma vorhiesi  is very common throughout its distribution in southeastern Arizona and southern New Mexico. The species is secure.

Remarks.

Mitochondrial DNA identifies Aphonopelma vorhiesi  as a paraphyletic group with respect to Aphonopelma chalcodes  (Fig. 7). The secondary lineages outside of the Aphonopelma vorhiesi  clade were previously identified as putative cryptic species by Hamilton et al. (2014), due to deep mitochondrial divergence. Results from the AE analysis demonstrate that CO1 is not effective at accurately delimiting species boundaries within this group. Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma vorhiesi  possess a smaller L4 scopulation extent (20%-36%) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (66%-76%) and Aphonopelma gabeli  (36%-47%). Other important ratios that distinguish females: Aphonopelma vorhiesi  possess a larger T1/M3 (≥1.22; 1.22-1.39) than Aphonopelma gabeli  (≤1.20; 1.13-1.20) and smaller than Aphonopelma chiricahua  (1.53 ± (only 1 specimen)). For both males and females, certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no others are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of PCA morphospace, males of Aphonopelma vorhiesi  separate from their syntopic species Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma madera  , and members of the miniature tarantulas ( Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma parvum  , and Aphonopelma saguaro  ), but do not separate from Aphonopelma hentzi  or Aphonopelma peloncillo  . Female Aphonopelma vorhiesi  separate in two-dimensional morphological space from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , and members of the miniature tarantulas, but do not separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma madera  , or Aphonopelma peloncillo  . Interestingly, Aphonopelma vorhiesi  males separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma madera  , Aphonopelma parvum  , Aphonopelma paloma  , and Aphonopelma saguaro  in three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), but do not separate from Aphonopelma peloncillo  . Aphonopelma vorhiesi  females separate from Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma parvum  , Aphonopelma paloma  , and Aphonopelma saguaro  , but do not separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma madera  , and Aphonopelma peloncillo  . PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥98% of the variation in all analyses.

We examined the holotypes and freshly collected topotypic material of Aphonopelma jungi  and Aphonopelma punzoi  . Our morphological and molecular analyses fail to recognize these two species as separate, independently evolving lineages. As a consequence, we consider Aphonopelma jungi  and Aphonopelma punzoi  junior synonyms of Aphonopelma vorhiesi  .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Aphonopelma

Loc

Aphonopelma vorhiesi (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939)

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E. 2016

2016
Loc

Delopelma vorhiesi

Petrunkevitch 1939

1939
Loc

Rhechostica vorhiesi

Simon 1892

1892