Oceanapia cordia

Neto, Carlos Santos, Nascimento, Elielton, Cavalcanti, Thaynã & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2018, Taxonomy of Oceanapia Norman, 1869 (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida: Phloeodictyidae) from the Brazilian coast, Zootaxa 4455 (2), pp. 363-376: 368-369

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Oceanapia cordia

sp. nov.

Oceanapia cordia  sp. nov.

Figures 3–4View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4, Tables 1–2

Type locality: Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte State: Potiguar Basin. 

Type specimens: Holotype. UFPEPOR 2199, Potiguar Basin (04°34’19.2’’S 36°54’29.2’’W), Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, depth 211 m, trawl, coll. Petrobrás 6, December 2009GoogleMaps  . Paratype. UFPEPOR 2200, collected at the type locality.

Diagnosis. Oceanapia  with ovate body and oxeas with lobes in varied arrangements (258–312 / 6–9 µm).

External morphology ( Fig. 3A–B View Figure ). Ovate body, 7 cm in diameter. Rough and hispid surface, easily detachable; hard consistency. Detachable cortex (8–10 mm, thickness). Cylindrical fistulae in the upper part, 1 x 0.2 cm (length x width). Colour when preserved in ethanol 80% beige, unknown in life.

Skeleton ( Fig. 3C–D View Figure ). Ectosomal skeleton as criss-crossed and anastomosed fibers forming elongated meshes (534– 753.2 –876 µm, diameter). Within these meshes there are small unispicular triangles (146– 269.2 –303 µm, diameter). Choanosomal skeleton of multispicular bundles (125– 239.1 –375 µm, thickness), forming circular meshes (366– 553.2 –733 µm, diameter), filled by an irregular uni to paucispicular network.

Spicules ( Fig. 4 View Figure ). Oxeas (258– 284.9 –312 / 6– 7.7 –9 µm): smooth, thin and slightly curved; many tips present anomalous shapes with different projections in various directions.

Distribution and ecology. The specimens were collected in trawls in the slope area of the Potiguar Basin at a depth of 211 meters ( Fig. 1 View Figure ).

Etymology Adjective derived from Latin cordia  and refers to the heart-like shape of the holotype.

Remarks. Oceanapia cordia  sp. nov. differs from the other species of Oceanapia  by the lobes in varied formats on the ends of oxeas and its dimensions ( Table 1). The most similar species is O. peltata  , which shares overlapping-sized oxeas. However, O. peltata  has cylindrical fistulae with lateral lamellae in its oscules openings. Compared to other species from the Atlantic Ocean, Oceanapia cordia  sp. nov. differs from O. bartschi  , O. hondurasensis ( Carter, 1882)  and O. niduliformis ( Carter, 1882)  because they have strongyles as megascleres. The new species is distinguished from O. topsenti  nom. nov. O. hetcheli  nom. nov., O. atlantica Lévi, 1969  , O. cancap De Weerdt & Van Soest, 1986  , O. carotta ( Schmidt, 1870)  , O. oleracea ( Schmidt, 1870)  and O. stalagmitica  because they have megascleres and microscleres, different from Oceanapia cordia  sp. nov. which has only megascleres (oxeas). Oceanapia aerea ( Topsent, 1904)  , O. coriacea ( Topsent, 1904)  , O. elongata ( Topsent, 1892)  , O. nodosa  , O. nodulosa  and O. reticulata ( Topsent, 1904)  have smaller oxeas than Oceanapia cordia  sp. nov. Oceanapia penicilliformis ( Van Soest & Sass, 1981)  has larger oxeas than the new species (see Table 1). Oceanapia ascidia  has two size categories of oxeas with telescopic tips. Oceanapia fibulata ( Schmidt, 1880)  has a tubular and robust shape, O. isodictyiformis ( Carter, 1882)  has an irregular shape with cylindrical fistulae, and Oceanapia robusta ( Bowerbank, 1866)  is a yellow fan-shaped sponge, different from the external morphology of Oceanapia cordia  sp. nov., which has an ovate body and small fistulae only at the top.