Biston betularia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Jiang, Nan, Xue, Dayong & Han, Hongxiang, 2011, A review of Biston Leach, 1815 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae) from China, with description of one new species, ZooKeys 139, pp. 45-96: 54-56

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.139.1308

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F505D74E-1098-473D-B7DE-0ED283297B4F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/A6882156-05D5-1FE5-BDCF-7BE256DE52ED

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Biston betularia (Linnaeus, 1758)
status

 

Biston betularia (Linnaeus, 1758)  Figs 13-1873, 74100, 101119, 120

Phalaena(Geometra) betularia  Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., (Ed. 10) 1: 521. Syntype(s), Europe. (LSL)

Phalaena (Noctua) p-graecum  Poda, 1761, Insecta Musei Graecensis: 90. Syntype(s). (Synonymized by Wehrli (1941))

? marmoraria  Sepp, 1792, Nederlandsche Insecten, 2: pl. 10, pl. 11, Syntype(s), Netherlands. (Treated as a synonym of Biston betularia betularia by Parsons et al. (1999))

Phalaena (Geometra) ulmaria  Borkhausen, 1794, Natur. eur. Schmett., 5: 181. Syntype(s), Europe. (Treated as a synonym of Biston betularia betularia  by Parsons et al. (1999))

Eubyja betularia  : Hübner, 1825, Verz. bekannter Schmett.: 318.

Amphidasis huberaria  Ballion, 1866, Horae Soc. ent. ross., 4: 29, pl. 1, fig. 1. Syntype(s), Russia: Western Siberia, near Omsk. (ZISP) (Synonymized by Vijdalepp, (1979))

Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria  Millière, 1870, Iconogr. Descr. Chenilles Lépid. inédits, 3: 117, pl. 111, fig. 1. Syntypes, including at least 3♂, 4♀, England. (Synonymized by Wehrli (1941))

Eurbyjodonta concinna  Warren, 1899, Novit. zool., 6: 50. Holotype ♂, Kazakhstan?: Ili district. (BMNH) (Synonymized by Wehrli (1941))

Biston betularia  : Prout, 1915, in Seitz, Macrolepid. World, 4: 358, pl. 19: g.

Biston cognataria alexandrina  Wehrli, 1941, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde, 4 (Suppl.): 432, pl. 36: a. Syntypes 4♂, Kirghizstan: Alexander Mountains. (ZFMK) (Treated as a synonym of Biston betularia betularia  by Parsons et al. (1999))

Biston (Eubyjodonta) huberaria tienschana  Wehrli, 1941, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde, 4 (Suppl.): 435, pl. 36: d, g. Holotype ♂, China: Xinjiang, Ürümqi, Tian-shan. (ZFMK) (Treated as a synonym of Biston huberaria  by Parsons et al. (1999))

Biston cognataria sinitibetica  Wehrli, 1941, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde, 4 (Suppl.): 433, pl. 36: a. Syntypes ♂, ♀, China (west): Kangding. (ZFMK) (Treated as a synonym of Biston betularia parva  Leech, 1897 by Parsons et al. (1999))

Diagnosis.

See the previous species.

Material examineds.

CHINA, Xinjiang (ZFMK): Urumtschi, Tian-schan, 1♂ (Holotype of Biston huberaria tienschana  ). Szetschwan [Sichuan] (ZFMK): Tachien-lu [Kangding], 1♂ (Holotype of Biston cognataria sinitibetica  Wehrli, 1941). Heilongjiang (IZCAS): Dailing, 390 m, 3-9.VII.1962, coll. Bai Jiuwei, 3♂; Jiamusi, 23.VIII.1970, coll. Song Shimei, 1♂; Wuchang, 8-10.VII.1970, 2♂2♀. Jilin (IZCAS): Changbaishan, 2-13.VII.1982, coll. Zhang Baolin, 10♂2♀; Beipiao, 1984, coll. Liu Jin, 1♂. Inner Mongolia (IZCAS): Wuchagou, 21.VII.1981, 1♂; Jiwen, 15-27.VII.1982, 1♂1♀; Genhe, 4.VII.1983, 1♂1♀; Xilin Gol, 1100 m, 21.VII.1985, coll. Liu Dajun, 2♂; Oragxan, 4.VII.1983, 1♀; Oragxan, 27.VI.1985, coll. Xue Dayong, 1♂; Chen Barag, Bayan Hure, 2-3.VII.1986, 1♂1♀; Oroqen, Alihe, 31.VII.1986, coll. Gong Yushan, 1♂; Dayangshu, 20-23.VI.1983, coll. Xue Dayong, 2♂1♀. Beijing (IZCAS): Sanpu, 16.VII.1965, 1♂; Baihuashan, 16. VII– 1.VIII.1972, coll. Han Yinheng and Zhang Baolin, 8♂; Mentougou, Xiaolongmen, 1100 m, 23.VI.2001, coll. Xue Dayong, 1♂; Mentougou, Liyuanling, 1100 m, 11-12.VIII.2004, coll. Li Hongmei, 1♂. Hebei (IZCAS): Chengde, 11.VI.1980, 2♂; Chicheng, Longmensuo, Liuzhuangzi, 10-11.VIII.2006, coll. Yang Chao, 1♂1♀. Shanxi (IZCAS):Yuncheng, Zhongtiaoshan, coll. Cao Tianwen, 4♂. Henan (IZCAS): Linxian, 1981, 1♂; Lingbao, Chuankou, 20.VII.1981, 1♂. Shaanxi (IZCAS): Huangbaiyuan, 13.VII.1980, coll. Zhang Baolin, 1♂; Yan’an, 5.VI.1981, 3♂2♀; Taibai, 3.VII.1981, 1♀; Liuba, 1020 m, 18.VII.1998, coll. Zhang Xuezhong, 2♂. Ningxia (IZCAS): Jingyuan, 1998-2295 m, 25.VI.-10.VII.2008, coll. Song Wenhui, 32♂1♀; Longde, 2165-2330 m, 3-5.VII.2008, coll. Song Wenhui, 11♂2♀. Gansu (IZCAS): Yongdeng, Liancheng Linchang, 20. VII– 15.VIII.1985, coll. Meng Feng, 2♂; Yongdeng, Tulugou, 2280 m, 25-29.VII.1991, coll. Xue Dayong, 1♂3♀; Yongdeng, Liancheng Linchang, Tulugou, 2600 m, 8.VIII.2005, coll. Li Jing and Han Hongxiang, 2♂; Zhuoni, 2500 m, 4.IX.1990, coll. Xue Dayong, 1♂; Kangxian, Baiyunshan, 1250-1750 m, 12.VII.1998, coll. Yao Jian, 1♂; Zhouqu, Shatan Linchang, 2350 m, 4-5.VII.1998, coll. Wang Hongjian and Wang Shuyong, 18♂2♀; Zhouqu, Shatan Linchang, 2357 m, 22.VIII.2001, coll. Cao Xiuwen, 1♂; Diebu, Anzigou, 20. VI– 20.VII.2000, 4♂; Dangchang, 1800 m, 7.VII.1998, coll. Yao Jian, 3♂; Wenxian, Qiujiaba, 2350 m, 7-22.VII.1999, coll. Yao Jian, 3♂1♀; Wenxian, Tielou, 1450 m, 24.VII.1999, coll. Zhu Chaodong, 8♂. Qinghai (IZCAS): Menyuan, Xianmi, 2800 m, 23-24.VII.1992, coll. Xue Dayong, 1♂5♀; Huanglin, 17.VII.1977, coll. Zhang Baolin, 1♂; Huzhu, Beishan, 2300 m, 30.VII.1991, coll. Xue Dayong, 1♂; Huzhu, Beishan Linchang, Langshidang, 2600 m, 6-7.VIII.2005, coll. Xue Dayong, 4♂3♀; Tongren, Maixiu, 2950 m, 30. VII– 1.VIII.1992, coll. Xue Dayong, 14♂2♀; Xining, 6.VII.1981, 1♀. Xinjiang (IZCAS): Ürümqi, 21.VI.1965, 2♂; Ürümqi, 1974.VI.22, coll. Chen Yixin, 1♂; Aksu, 19.VII.1982, 1♂. Fujian (IZCAS): Mt. Wuyi, Sangang, 5-9.VI.1983, coll. Wang Linyao, 4♂. Sichuan (IZCAS): Batang, 1974, 8♂; Mt. Emei, Qingyinge, 800-1000 m, 1.V.1957, coll. Huang Keren, 1♂; Kangding, 30. VI– 6.VII.1979, coll. Chen Tailu, 8♂1♀. Yunnan (IZCAS): Deqin, 3250 m, 15.VII.1982, coll. Wang Shuyong, 2♂; Xiaozhongdian, 3100 m, 31.VII.1984, coll. Chen Yixin, 1♀; Lijiang, Shiyan Linchang, 2460 m, V.1979, 1♂; Lijiang, Yulongshan, 2700-2850 m, 17-27.VII.1984, coll. Chen Yixin and Liu Dayun, 4♂1♀; Lijiang, Yuhu, 2700 m, 27.VII.1984, coll. Liu Dayun, 1♂; Lijiang, Gaoshan Zhiwuyuan, 3260 m, 15-18.VI.2009, coll. Qi Feng, 1♂; Cuishan, Shatanshao, 2300 m, 13.VIII.1980, 1♂; Kunming, Jinzhusi, 1880 m, 15.VIII.1980, 1♂; Yongping, Beidou, Qianmatang, 2200 m, 10.VIII.1980, 1♂. Tibet (IZCAS): Qamdo, 19.VIII.1984, coll. Jiang Basang, 1♀; Markam, Pula, 23.VII.1984, coll. Jiang Basang, 2♂; Nyingchi, Shang Zayü, 1960 m, 21-23.VIII.2005, coll. Wang Xuejian, 6♂; Nyingchi, Bayi, 2999 m, 1-3.VIII.2006, coll. Lang Songyun, 2♀; Mainling, Pai, Zhuanyunzhan, 2883 m, 4-6.VIII.2006, coll. Lang Songyun, 1♀; Yadong, 2800 m, 8.VI.1961, coll. Wang Linyao, 1♂; Yadong, 14.VI.1983, coll. Wangjia Tsering, 1♀. MONGOLIA (IZCAS): Batshireet, Hentiy, 1108 m, 29.VI.2009, coll. Chen Fuqiang, 20♂; Binder, Henity, 1032 m, 29. VI– 1.VII.2009, coll. Chen Fuqiang, 20♂5♀; Dadal, Hentiy, 944 m, 2.VII.2009, coll. Chen Fuqiang, 10♂; Choybalsan, Dornod, 733 m, 6.VII.2009, coll. Chen Fuqiang, 2♂. More material from Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan in coll. ZFMK.

Distribution.

China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Fujian, Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet), Russia, Mongolia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Nepal, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Europe, North America.

Remarks.

There are two subspecies of Biston betularia  distributed in China, they are Biston betularia parva  Leech, 1897 ( Biston robustum  var. parva Leech, 1897, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (6) 19: 323. Syntypes 1♂, 2♀, China: Kangding. (BMNH)) (Figs 13-16, 73, 100, 119) and Biston betularia nepalensis  Inoue, 1982 ( Biston betularia nepalensis  Inoue, 1982, Bull. Fac. domest. Sci. Otsuma Wom. Univ., 18: 175, figs 40a, b. Holotype ♂, Nepal: Tukcha, near Daulagiri. (BMNH)) (Figs 17-18, 74, 101, 120). In China, the former is widely distributed in the greater part of the country, the latter is distributed in Yunnan and Tibet, and can be distinguished from the former by the weaker transverse lines and the blunter projections of the postmedian lines on both wings.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Geometridae

Genus

Biston

Loc

Biston betularia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Jiang, Nan, Xue, Dayong & Han, Hongxiang 2011
2011
Loc

Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria

Wiegmann & Ruthe 1832
1832
Loc

Eubyja betularia

Hübner 1825
1825
Loc

Amphidasis huberaria

Treitschke 1825
1825