Beroe ovata ( Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821 )

Oliveira, Otto M. P. & Migotto, Alvaro E., 2006, Pelagic ctenophores from the São Sebastião Channel, southeastern Brazil, Zootaxa 1183, pp. 1-26: 17-26

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http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.2645951

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/AA3CDB3C-7118-A815-1006-FB4EB2A1FE3B

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scientific name

Beroe ovata ( Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821 )
status

 

Beroe ovata ( Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) 

( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6, Table 3)

? Beroe albens Forskål, 1775  .

? Beroe ovata Bosc, 1802  .

Beroe ovata Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821  .

Beroe capensis Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821  .

Beroe punctata Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821  .

Not Beroe ovata Eschscholtz, 1829  .

Beroe punctata  — Eschscholtz, 1829; McCrady, 1859.

Idya mertensii Mertens, 1833  .

Idyiopsis clarkii L. Agassiz, 1860  .

Idyiopsis clarkii  — L. Agassiz, 1865.

Idyiopsis affinis L. Agassiz, 1860  .

Beroe ovata  — Moser, 1903, 1910; Mayer, 1912 [see for complete synonyms until 1912]; Pratt, 1935; Kremer et al., 1986a; Sterrer, 1986; Mianzan, 1999; Shiganova et al., 2001b.

Beroe capensis  — Chun, 1880.

Beroe clarkii Mayer, 1900  .

Not Beroe ovata  — Chun, 1880.

Not Beroe  ovata  ” — Mills et al., 1996.

Examined material

22.ix.2003, Near Farol dos Moleques, Canal de São Sebastião , 23°49'27"S 45°24'42"W, A.A.S.Moura coll., one juvenile (ca. 3 mm), reared toGoogleMaps  13.x.2003, Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 J–K, and one adult (ca. 70 mm), fixed in 2% formalin, Fig. 6EView FIGURE 6 ( MZUSP00001View Materials)  ;

06.iv.2004, Baía do Saco Grande, Canal de São Sebastião , 23°49'35"S 45°25'26"W, bloom of adults (up to 70 mm in length), observed during snorkelling; O.M.P.Oliveira coll., three adults (37–68 mm in length), one specimen preserved in 95% ethanol, other two preserved in 2% formalin ( MZUSP00002View Materials)GoogleMaps  ;

05.v.2004, Off Praia do Segredo , Canal de São Sebastião, 23°49'27"S 45°25'19"W, V. Radashevsky coll., two juveniles (ca. 2 mm in length), reared toGoogleMaps  11.v.2004, preserved in 2% formalin ( MZUSP00003View Materials)  ;

21.v.2004, Near Farol dos Moleques, Canal de São Sebastião , 23°49'27"S 45°24'42"W, O.M.P.Oliveira coll., ten adult (10–50 mm in length), reared toGoogleMaps  24.v.2004, seven specimens preserved in 2% formalin ( MZUSP00004View Materials)  ;

18.viii.2004, Off Vila , Ilhabela, Canal de São Sebastião, 23°45'27"S 45°21'49"W, bloom of adults (up to 70 mm in length), observed during snorkellingGoogleMaps  ;

31.viii.2004, Baía do Saco Grande, Canal de São Sebastião , 23°49'35"S 45°25'26"W, O.M.P.Oliveira coll., one adult (ca. 60 mm in length), reared toGoogleMaps  01.ix.2004, preserved in 95% ethanol and two larvae released from reared specimen at 01.ix.2004 (ca. 0.5 mm in length), reared to 02.ix.2004;

27.xi.2004, Baía do Segredo, Canal de São Sebastião , 23°49'27"S 45°25'19"W, O.M.P.Oliveira coll., one adult (ca. 59 mm in length), preserved in 95% ethanolGoogleMaps  ;

01.iv.2005, Off Praia do Curral , Ilhabela, Canal de São Sebastião, 23°50'54"S 45°25'59"W, one juvenile (ca. 7 mm in length), preserved in 95% ethanolGoogleMaps  ;

05.iv.2005, Off Praia do Curral , Ilhabela, Canal de São Sebastião, 23°50'54"S 45°25'59"W, ten juveniles (3–12 mm in length), seven specimen preserved in 95% ethanolGoogleMaps  ;

07.iv.2005, Near Ilha das Cabras , Canal de São Sebastião, 23°49'25"S 45°23'33"W, one juvenile (ca. 8 mm in length), preserved in 95% ethanolGoogleMaps  ;

17.v.2005, Off Praia do Curral , Ilhabela, Canal de São Sebastião, 23°50'54"S 45°25'59"W, bloom of adults (up to 70 mm in length), observed during snorkelling; O.M.P. Oliveira coll., 39 adults (34–66 mm in length), one specimen measured atGoogleMaps  19.v.2005 and reared to 20.v.2005 (table 3, Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B–D, MZUSP00005View Materials), four specimens reared to  07.vi.2005 ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 F–I), 5 specimens preserved in 2% formalin ( MZUSP00006View Materials), 23 specimens preserved in 95% ethanol  .

Description

Flattened body with widened oral extremity, compressed along tentacular plane, reaching about 7.0 cm in length ( Fig. 6A,BView FIGURE 6). Body surface covered by small red spots. Eight meridional canals extending from aboral region to a circular canal around mouth. Canals with lateral diverticula, mostly with blind ends, extending to inner gelatinous portion of body ( Fig. 6CView FIGURE 6). A variable number of diverticula from one meridional canal con­ necting with those of adjacent meridional canal, sometimes forming anastomoses ( Fig. 6EView FIGURE 6). Some diverticula connected with paragastric canals. Rows of ctene plates located above meridional canals, arising at aboral region, extending ca. 3/4 length of meridional canals to oral region. Mouth wide, occupying entire oral region, opening into a large pharynx that occupies most of central inner part of animal. Two opposing paragastric canals extending from aboral pole of pharynx to radial canal around mouth, penetrating jelly beneath diverticula at tentacular plane. Apical organ comprising statolith at centre of polar fields ( Fig. 6DView FIGURE 6). Aboral papillae projecting from margins of polar fields, forming a figure 8 orientated in stomodeal plane. Gonads formed at sides of meridional canals and diverticula ( Fig. 6FView FIGURE 6), testes at distal side and ova at proximal side of canals from tentacular plane in subtentaclar canals and opposite in substomodeal canals. Formation of temporary gonopores through rupture of epidermis near polar fields ( Fig. 6GView FIGURE 6). Gonopore at end of short cone; closing of gonopores leaving no scar on animal surface.

Larva similar to adult, but less compressed along tentacular plane and with no lateral diverticula along meridional canals ( Fig. 6KView FIGURE 6). Body surface covered by conspicuous small red spots ( Fig. 6JView FIGURE 6).

Biological notes

Beroe ovata  preys on gelatinous zooplankton, being frequently associated with blooms of Mnemiopsis leidyi  and Bolinopsis vitrea  . Some authors (e.g. GESAMP 1997, Volovik & Korpakova 2004) believed that this species can be used as a biological­control agent in areas where gelatinous plankton blooms are not desirable, as in the case of the Black and the Caspian Seas ( Shiganova et al. 2001b).

The species is supposed to be oviparous, fertilization occurring outside the parental bodies ( Carré & Sardet 1984). Indeed, we observed spawning through the temporary gonopores, formed laterally to the apical organ. Male and female gametes were not released at the same time in reared specimens, what would be a way of avoiding self­fertilization outside the parental body. However, we also observed the presence of larvae inside the connected diverticula ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 H–I), a strong indication that these larvae were the product of self­fertilization.

We collected and reared in the laboratory for several days specimens in several ontogenetic stages, from 3.0 mm larvae to adults. The smallest specimens were observed eating hydromedusae of about their size.

Remarks

The genus name “ Beroe  ” was initially used in the descriptions of ctenophores in general, referring to species that are now within distinct families and genera (e.g. Hormiphora cucumis  , Callianira compressa  , Euplokamis octoptera  , and Dryodora glandiformis  , described in Mertens 1833, plates 8–11, as Beroe cucumis  , B. compressa  , B. octoptera  , and B. glandiformis  ). This wide use of a genus name led to a great confusion around the concept of some species, as “ Beroe ovata  ” (cf. Mills et al., 1996, p.161). This species name, with two distinctive origins, currently refers to two biological species ( Mills et al. 1996) — “ Beroe ovata  ”, described by Chun (1880) and Mayer (1912, as B. cucumis  ) as having a cylindrical body, and “ Beroe ovata ” ( Mayer 1912)  , with a body compressed along the tentacular axis. Mayer (1912) used other characters, such as the connection between diverticula, to distinguish the species. Recently, in a biomolecular study, Bayha et al. (2004) distinguished two genetic pools of B. ovata  : one from the Mediterranean Sea, involving specimens morphologically similar to the ones described by Chun (1880) (= B. cucumis sensu Mayer, 1912  ), and the other from the North American Atlantic coast and invasive in the Black Sea (= B. ovata  as described by Mayer, 1912). Our specimens are closer to those described as B. ovata  by Mayer (1912) and Mianzan (1999), except for the patterns of diverticula connections. The range from unconnected to anastomosed diverticula observed by us in specimens of the same population indicates that the anastomosis pattern is not an adequate character to distinguish species of the genus Beroe  . Furthermore, an extensive morphological revision, supported by molecular data and including specimens from South Atlantic and Caribbean, should be done to confirm the identity of these nominal species.

Distribution

Species found on coastal waters of the western Atlantic, from USA to Argentina ( Mayer 1912, Mianzan 1999). Recently Shiganova et al. (2001b) and Volovik & Korpakova (2004) reported its occurrence in Black and Caspian Seas, as an invader species (cf. Bayha et al. 2004).

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to CEBIMar­USP for logistics; to Dr. Hermez Mianzan (INIDEP­ Argentina) and Dr. G. Richard Harbison (WHOI­USA) for providing literature; to Dr. Keith M. Bayha (Dauphin Island Sea Lab­USA) for important suggestions; to Dr. George Matsumoto (MBARI­USA), Dr. Hermez Mianzan (INIDEP­Argentina), and Dr. Steven Haddock (MBARI­USA) for manuscript revisions. License for collecting specimens yielded by IBAMA/MMA (092/2004). Funding was provided by CAPES and FAPESP (Proc. 2004/15300­0) to Otto M. P. Oliveira and CNPq (Proc. 300194 /1994–3) to A. E. Migotto.

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TABLE 3.—Measurements of a Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) specimen (MZUSP00005) with 33.2 mm in length, in stomodeal plane.

Total length of body 33.2 mm
Maximum width of body 29.3 mm
Length of subtentacular ctene rows 31.0 mm
Length of substomodeal ctene rows 30.9 mm
Maximum width between substomodeal and subtentacular ctene rows up to 8.0 mm
Maximum width between subtentacular ctene rows up to 9.0 mm
Width of mouth 24.5 mm
Number of ctene plates in subtentacular ctene rows 118–121
Number of ctene plates in substomodeal ctene rows 95–108
Number of connections between substomodeal and subtentacular meridi­ onal canals 0–7
Number of connections between subtentacular meridional canals 4–7
Length of polar field 2920 µm
Number of papillae 42
Length of papillae up to 220 µm
Diameter of genital pore 360 µm
Diameter of meridional canals up to 740 µm
Diameter of diverticula up to 240 µm
Diameter of paragastric canals up to 380 µm
Diameter of radial canal up to 875 µm
Width of ctene plates 180–725 µm
Distance between ctene plates 80–240 µm
Diameter of statocyst 40 µm

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Ctenophora

Class

Nuda

Order

Beroida

Family

Beroidae

Genus

Beroe

Loc

Beroe ovata ( Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821 )

Oliveira, Otto M. P. & Migotto, Alvaro E. 2006
2006
Loc

Mnemiopsis leidyi

A. Agassiz 1865
1865
Loc

Idyiopsis clarkii

L. Agassiz 1860
1860
Loc

Idyiopsis clarkii

L. Agassiz 1860
1860
Loc

Idyiopsis affinis

L. Agassiz 1860
1860
Loc

Idya mertensii

Mertens 1833
1833
Loc

Beroe ovata

Eschscholtz 1829
1829
Loc

Beroe ovata

Eschscholtz 1829
1829
Loc

Beroe ovata

Chamisso & Eysenhardt 1821
1821
Loc

Beroe capensis

Chamisso & Eysenhardt 1821
1821
Loc

Beroe punctata

Chamisso & Eysenhardt 1821
1821
Loc

Beroe punctata

Chamisso & Eysenhardt 1821
1821
Loc

Beroe ovata

Bosc 1802
1802
Loc

Beroe albens Forskål, 1775

Forskal 1775
1775