Rosapha habilis Walker

Kovac, Damir & Rozkošný, Rudolf, 2012, A revision of the genus Rosapha Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Zootaxa 3333, pp. 1-23: 10-12

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.210456

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Rosapha habilis Walker


Rosapha habilis Walker 

( Figs 22 –26, 30View FIGURES 22 – 32, 63 –65View FIGURES 63 – 70, 79View FIGURE 79)

Rosapha habilis Walker, 1859: 100 

Calochaetis bicolor Bigot, 1877: 102 

Rosapha bicolor  var. philippinensis Brunetti, 1923: 72  Diagnosis. A moderately long species (6.8–8.5 mm), last flagellomere including dense hairs cylindrical, tomentose frontal spots missing, labellum of proboscis yellow, scutum reddish yellow with black keel-like medial spot anteriorly, scutellum including spines reddish yellow, wing with dark brown pattern. Legs yellow, only hind tibia entirely or predominantly, fore tarsi and 3–4 apical tarsomeres of mid and hind legs darkened. Hind basitarsi whitish.

Description. Male ( Figs 22 –24, 30View FIGURES 22 – 32, 63–65View FIGURES 63 – 70). Length: body 7.5–8.2 mm, wing 6.3–7.6 mm. Similar to R. bimaculata  , but head usually slightly broader, about 1.7 times broader than long. Upper frons very narrow and shorter than ocellar triangle, vertex virtually absent. Subtriangular lower frons small, shining dark brown to black, without any tomentose spots ( Fig. 65View FIGURES 63 – 70). Antenna as in R. bimaculata  (cf. Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 11), reddish yellow with black apical style, basal part of flagellum elongate subconical, last flagellomere 2.3–2.5 times as long as rest of antenna. Labellum of proboscis bright yellow, apical segment of palpus almost completely dark brown to black.

Thorax predominantly reddish yellow, only keel-shaped spot at anterior margin of scutum and horizontally oriented lower katepisternum blackish ( Figs 63–64View FIGURES 63 – 70). Postpronotal callus and sometimes also narrow subnotopleural line pale yellow. Medial scutellar spines almost twice as long as lateral ones. Wing pattern as in R. bimaculata  , darkening of legs different. Only hind tibia (except for basal third), fore tarsus, 2 apical tarsomeres of mid leg and 3 apical tarsomeres of hind leg brownish. Mid and hind basitarsus sometimes almost white.

Abdomen predominantly reddish yellow, lateral margin of tergites with broad yellowish band. Distal tergites often darkened to a certain extent. Male terminalia ( Figs 22 –24, 30View FIGURES 22 – 32): Dorsal part similar to that of R. bimaculata  but epandrium in middle somewhat longer ( Fig. 22View FIGURES 22 – 32), medial process of genital capsule lower, gonostylus with more pointed inner spine and gonocoxite with somewhat more slender inner posterior projection ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 22 – 32), aedeagal complex with dilated proximal part and rod-like aedeagal apodeme ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 22 – 32).

Female ( Figs 25–26View FIGURES 22 – 32). Length: body 6.8–8.5 mm, wing 5.1–6.8 mm. Head transversely broadened, almost twice as broad as long in dorsal view. Frons shining black, without any tomentose spots above antennae, slightly broader than width of ocellar triangle at the narrowest point. Antenna with brown scape, reddish yellow pedicel and basal part of flagellum, and black apical style. Basal part of flagellum stouter than in male, oval, last flagellomere shorter than in male, only about 1.7 as long as rest of antenna. Labellum of proboscis and basal segment of palpus bright yellow. Thorax, wing and legs as in male, abdomen sometimes extensively darkened on both sides. Female terminalia ( Figs 25–26View FIGURES 22 – 32): Cercus slender, two-segmented, proctiger subtriangular, tergite 9 complete, contrastingly dark. Genital furca elongate subtriangular, open posteriorly, lateral arms rather narrow and posterolateral projections long and slender.

Variation. Brunetti ´s "variety" is exclusively based on variable colour characters. The specimens from the Philippines often have the scutal wedge-shaped blackish anterior spot linear, extended almost to the transverse suture. The difference between medial and lateral scutellar spines is sometimes less conspicuous. Also darkening of the wing may be more developed in some populations. In extreme cases the abdomen is extensively dark brown to black with a broad yellowish lateral margin on the dorsal side and brownish along the lateral part of sternites.

Remarks. The synonymy of R. habilis  and R. bicolor  was already proposed by Osten Sacken (1881), although he later (1882) doubted this conclusion. Kertész (1909) tried to separate R. habilis  from R. bicolor  and R. bimaculata  by the predominantly darkened cell r 2 + 3 but Brunetti (1923), who redescribed the holotype, did not confirm such difference. According to Kertész (l 909) the females of R. habilis  and R. bicolor  should differ by the width of the frons but we found that this fairly variable character is not significant. Rosapha habilis  and R. bimaculata  may be reliably distinguished by the colour of the labellum, the hind femur and hind tibia and structures of the male terminalia.

Material examined. Type material: Rosapha habilis  . The male syntype from Sulawesi deposited in BMNH was examined. It is labelled " / SYNTYPE / [round label with blue margin], / Type / [round label with green margin], /Celebes [=Sulawesi], Macassar [=Ujung Pandang], A. R. Wallace/. /This is a syntype (3) since the Ƥ syntype is in Oxford, det. K. G. V. Smith, 1963 /, /" habilis  "/, /# 819308 /". Condition: perfect, only apical 2 / 3 of the last flagellomere missing.

Calochaetis bicolor  . The male holotype is deposited in BMNH and labelled "/ Holotype / [round label with red margin], / Holotype Rosapha bicolor Bigot  , det. J. E. Chainey/, / Rosapha habilis Walker ex Bigot  coll., BM 1960 - 539 /, / Calochaetis bicolor Bigot  , Manila/, / BMNH # 240198 /". Condition: both fore tarsi, the right mid leg and the apical half of the hind tibia and tarsi missing.

Rosapha bicolor  var. philippinensis  . The type specimens recorded by Woodley (2001) from the Philippines and India were not found in BMNH (pers. comm. by Erica McAlister).

Other material: Indonesia: Java: Djampang Tengah, Tjimerang, x. 1936, 1 3, in IRSNB. South East Sulawesi: North Kolaka, Wawo, Tinukari, 03° 38 ’01.8"E, 121 ° 04’ 27.1 "S, 98 m, Malaise trap, 23–30. vi.2010, 2 Ƥ, 03° 63 ’ 85.6 " S, 121 ° 09’ 52.4 "E, 545 m, Malaise trap, 24–29. vi.2010, 1 Ƥ, R. Ubaidillah, L. Kimsey & N. H. Darmawan, in UCDC. Philippines: Eastern Samar: Calicoan, 8. x.1945, 1 3, F. F. Bibby; Leyte: Tacloban, 1 Ƥ, Baker; Luzon: Albay Province, Libon, Caguscos, 200 m, light trap, 9. v.1965, 1 Ƥ, 18–19. v.1965, 2 3, 2 Ƥ, H. M. Torrevillas; Camarines Sur, Mt. Isarog, Pili, 600 m, 5. iv.1965, 1 3, H. M. Torrevillas; Laguna, 26. iii.1955, 1 Ƥ, E. Baisas; Laguna, Liliw, 14 ° 7 ´N, 121 ° 26 ´E, xi. 1980 – i. 1981, Malaise trap, 2 3, 1 Ƥ, T. J. Perfect; Los Banos, 1 Ƥ, Baker; Manila, 8 3 8 Ƥ; xii.1924, 3 3, 2 Ƥ, viii. 1926, 1 3, R.C. McGregor, 1 Ƥ, W. A. Stanton, 2 f, R. Brown; Mindoro, Panaytayan, 300 m, vii.1971, 1 Ƥ, R. Zimmerman; Mt. Makiling, 1 Ƥ, Baker; all in USNM. St. Cruz, Scyte, 7. x.1915, 1 3, in FSMU. Mindanao: Carriedo Resthauswe, 20 km SW Davao, 1–7. xi. 1965, 1 Ƥ, 1000 m, D. Davis; Davao, 2 3, 5 Ƥ, Baker; Kolambugan, 1 f, Baker; Surigao, 1 Ƥ, Baker; Mt. Apo School, 15 km SW Davao, 500 m, 22–31. x.1965, 1 Ƥ, D. Davis, all in USNM. Zamboanga, xii.1914, 2 3, in FSMU. Negros: Mts Cuernos, 1 3, 2 Ƥ Baker; Rizal, Montanbal, Wa-wa Dam, 150–200 m, 27. ii.1965, 1 Ƥ, L. M. Torrevillas, all in USNM. Negros Oriental, Cuernos de Negros, 7km W Valencia, 700 m, forest edge, 9 ° 17 ’N, 123 ° 15 ´E, Malaise trap with pans, 6–15. x.1987, 1 3, 15– 23. x.1987, 2 Ƥ, D. C. Darling & E. Mayordo, in CNC. Thailand: Chumphon, Pha To, 27.iii.– 14. iv.1996, 1 3, K. Majer, in FSMU. Mariana Islands: Guam, reared from rotten banana roots, 21. x.1938, 1 Ƥ, 26. x.1938, 2 Ƥ, R. G. Oakley, in USNM.

Distribution. ( Fig. 79View FIGURE 79). Described from Ujung Pandang in Sulawesi ( Walker 1859) and later recorded from Kandari [=Kendari] on the same island ( Osten Sacken 1881) and the Philippines ( Walker 1866, Bigot 1877, 1879, Osten Sacken 1882 as R. bicolor  and Brunetti 1923 as R. bicolor  var. philippinensis  ). Brunetti (1923) mentioned two specimens from Darjeeling, West Bengal, India (localities Pashok and Gopaldhara; as R bicolor  ). James (1962, as R. bicolor  ) recorded this species from Guam ( Mariana Islands) for the first time and supported the synonymy of Brunetti ´s variety. Regarding the known distribution and the development of larvae in banana roots, this species was probably introduced to Guam. Woodley (2001) mentioned also India, Indonesia (Kalimantan), Philippines and Thailand (as R. bicolor  ).

Habitat. Larvae of R. habilis  were found in banana roots (R. G. Oakley).


Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes














Rosapha habilis Walker

Kovac, Damir & Rozkošný, Rudolf 2012

Calochaetis bicolor

Bigot 1877: 102

Rosapha habilis

Walker 1859: 100