Rosapha Walker

Kovac, Damir & Rozkošný, Rudolf, 2012, A revision of the genus Rosapha Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Zootaxa 3333, pp. 1-23: 2-3

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.210456

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Rosapha Walker


Rosapha Walker 

Rosapha Walker, 1859: 100  . Type species: Rosapha habilis Walker  (by monotypy).

Rosaphula Frey, 1934: 303  , syn. nov. Type species: Rosaphula handschini Frey, 1934  (by monotypy).

Redescription and taxonomic remarks. Most species treated here possess four scutellar spines, the same type of wing venation, and usually an elongated and fairly flattened abdomen (except R. obscurata  and R. stigmatica  sp. nov.). In this respect they resemble the genus Evaza Walker. However  , the shape of the antenna is rather different since the last flagellomere in Evaza  is arista-like.

Eyes in male are contiguous for nearly entire distance between ocellar triangle and frons ( Figs 2View FIGURES 1 – 11, 13View FIGURES 12 – 21). The ocellar triangle is distinctly prominent, placed close to the posterior margin of the head ( Fig. 42View FIGURES 33 – 46), but conspicuously shifted toward the middle of frons in R. obscurata  ( Figs 40–41View FIGURES 33 – 46). The ommatidia on the lower third of the male eye are much smaller than in upper two-thirds. The upper frons is narrow and short, almost indistinct in some species. The lower frons is mostly subtriangular, with or without whitish tomentose frontal spots. The antenna always has rather short basal segments and an oval or subconical, more or less swollen, basal part of flagellum, consisting of 5–6 visible flagellomeres. The penultimate flagellomere is usually short and narrow, and the last flagellomere is usually long, densely haired, or flattened ( Figs 1View FIGURES 1 – 11, 12View FIGURES 12 – 21, 32View FIGURES 22 – 32).

In R. handschini  comb. nov. the arista is relatively thin and densely covered by short black hairs leaving only apical 1 / 5 bare ( Fig. 32View FIGURES 22 – 32). The last flagellomere, including pilosity, is thus transformed into an apparently rod-like apical style with relatively long apical seta. In R. bimaculata  , R. flagellicornis  , R. habilis  , R. stigmatica  sp. nov., and R. umbripennis  , the last flagellomere is somewhat thicker and the black dense hairs are longer. The apical style (including pilosity) is thus more robust, cylindrical, pointed apically, and, at most, with a short apical seta (cf. Fig.View FIGURES 1 – 11

1). In the five remaining species the apical style is laterally flattened, band-shaped, with a more or less distinct median rib (probably the remainder of the original arista). The entire surface of this type of apical style is covered by short pubescence which is more distinct at the margins ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12 – 21).

The face below antennae is short, continuing as a concave part of the lower head. Whitish tomentose frontal spots above the antennae may be present or absent in both sexes ( Figs 33–39View FIGURES 33 – 46). The facial part of the eye margin is bordered by a relatively narrow, whitish tomentose band on each side, although the facial bands are indistinct in R. handschini  . The labellum of the proboscis is darkened or bright yellow; the two-segmented palpus is usually yellowish at its base but with a darkened and oval apical segment.

The thorax is elongated, slightly widened toward the postalar calli, the scutum may be predominantly reddish yellow or black. The four scutellar spines show a characteristic configuration (strong medial pair and usually much shorter outer pair), but this difference is less pronounced in some species (e.g. in R. brevispinosa  sp. nov.). The wing pattern may be confined only to the dark brown stigma ( R. stigmatica  sp. nov.) and even the stigma may be only pale yellow ( R. flavistigmatica  sp. nov., R. obscurata  ). In the legs only some colour differences are speciesspecific.

The abdomen is usually elongated and distictly longer than wide but the abdomen of R. stigmatica  sp. nov. and R. obscurata  is unusually short, clavate or almost round. The male terminalia correspond with the groundplan of the Pachygastrinae  . The epandrium seems to be relatively large in most species, the gonostylus usually has a distinct inner spine and the compact aedeagal complex appears as apomorphic, with a distinct phallus and parameres and a rod-like or proximally dilated aedeagal apodeme.

The female differs externally by the shape of the head (cf. Figs 3View FIGURES 1 – 11, 14View FIGURES 12 – 21) and partly also of the abdomen. The head is dichoptic, the eyes are separated by a frons which is broadest at the level of the anterior ocellus and narrowed to the upper boundary of the lower third. From this level the frons widens again to the level of the antennae. Considering the well developed frons, the female head is usually broader than in the associate male. The whitish tomentose frontal spots are absent in larger species and in R. stigmatica  but distinctly developed in all other species. The postocular area is band-shaped, usually somewhat narrowed laterally, at most as broad as the scape is long at the posterior inner angle of the eye. The basal part of the flagellum is usually larger than in males and the apical style sometimes shorter. The shape of the abdomen is also somewhat different, generally broader and the maximum width is shifted closer to the middle. The female terminalia are characterised by the relatively long, two-segmented cerci. Tergite 9 is well developed, narrow but complete. Tergite 8 and sternite 8 (subgenital plate) are long as in many other Pachygastrinae  , the genital furca is elongate subtriangular, with a narrow frame, which is very fine, hyaline and similar between species.

Rosapha handschini  was described in the monotypic genus Rosaphula  by Frey (1934), who supposed that the unusual shape of the apical stylus was sufficient for the recognition of a new genus. Actually, we think that this form of the apical stylus is only a plesiomorphic state of the densely and long haired arista, which developed into the flattened, band-shaped structure in some species. All other characters (shape of head, wing venation, configuration of four scutellar spines and terminalia of both sexes) correspond with the groundplan of Rosapha  . Rosaphula  is thus proposed here as a new synonym of Rosapha  .












Rosapha Walker

Kovac, Damir & Rozkošný, Rudolf 2012


Walker 1859: 100


Frey 1934: 303