Leptopulvinaria sapinda , He, Xiaoying, Han, Yangyang & Wu, Sanan, 2018

He, Xiaoying, Han, Yangyang & Wu, Sanan, 2018, A new species of Leptopulvinaria Kanda from China, with a key to species (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Coccidae), ZooKeys 781, pp. 59-66: 59

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Leptopulvinaria sapinda

sp. n.

Leptopulvinaria sapinda  sp. n.

Material examined.

Holotype: Adult female. CHINA, Shanghai City, Qingpu District, 7.vi.2017, on Sapindus saponaria  L. ( Sapindaceae  ), coll. Yangyang Han, 1♀( BFUC). Paratypes: Same data as holotype, 18♀( BFUC); CHINA, Jiangsu Province, Kunshan City, 11.X.2016, on same host as holotype, coll. Lei Gao, 11♀♀( BFUC).


Adult female. Unmounted material: (Figure 1 A–C). Adult female more or less pointed anteriorly, usually somewhat asymmetrical, the young one whitish or light yellowish (Figure 1A), changing to with dark brown reticulations on dorsum except midline, the mature one black, with a longitudinal yellowish stripe along middle line of dorsum (Figure 1C). After oviposition (Figure 1B), the dorsum with wax filaments mainly on the marginal and submarginal area; wax secreted forming a short white ovisac.

Mounted material

(Figure 2 A–R). Body (Figure 2A) elongate oval, 2.2-5.3 mm long, 1.2-3.0 mm wide. Margin with a slight indentation at each stigmatic cleft and sometimes also near each eyespot. Anal cleft 400-770 μm, approximately 1/6-1/7 body length.


Derm membranous. Dermal areolations (Figure 2R) well developed. Dorsal tubercles (Figure 2M) convex, each 11-13 μm in diameter, present on submarginal area, 12-14 between anterior spiracular clefts, 3-5 between each anterior and posterior spiracular clefts, and 10-15 between each posterior spiracular clefts and anal cleft. Preopercular pores (Figure 2L) circular, obvious, each with a diameter of 6-8 µm, present in a small group of 36 to 56 in front of anal plates, extending to prothorax. Tubular ducts (Figure 2P) of one type, outer ductule 8-10 μm long, 2-3 μm wide, inner ductule 12-17 μm long, 1 μm wide, arranged in a reticulate pattern with microducts (Figure 2N). Dorsal setae (Figure 2Q) 6-7 μm long, spiniform, arranged like tubular ducts and microducts. Anal plates (Figure 2K1) each triangular, 150-158 μm long, 63-75 μm wide, anterolateral margin slightly concave, 78-100 μm long; posterolateral margin slightly convex, 115-138 μm long. Each plate with four apical setae. Ano-genital fold (Figure 2K2) with two pair of setae along anterior margin and two pairs laterally. Anal ring subcircular, with one or two rows of translucent pores and six or eight anal ring setae. Eyespots present near margin.


Marginal setae (Figure 2O) 14-29 μm long, straight, or slightly curved, rather bluntly pointed; distributed as follow: 60-69 between anterior stigmatic cleft, 21-27 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic cleft, and 52-64 between each posterior stigmatic cleft and anal cleft. Stigmatic clefts (Figure 2C) not deep but distinct; with three (except one with four) stigmatic spines in each cleft; median spine 32-56 μm long, 1.5-2.3 times as long as lateral spines, slightly curved, bluntly pointed; lateral spines slightly curved, bluntly pointed, 14-34 μm long. Eyespots present on margin.


Derm membranous. Ventral setae: one or two pairs of long setae, 125-238 μm long, present medially on all abdominal and thoracic segments, and also near each coxa (a few pairs of setae occasionally absent on thoracic segments); three pairs of long setae present between antennae, 225-258 μm long; short setae (Figure 2E) 11-14 μm long, slender, acute, mostly straight, and distributed evenly. Antennae (Figure 2B) well developed, 8-segmented, 493-678 μm long, third segment longest; length of segments I to VIII (μm): 60-75, 75-113, 90-150, 78-125, 65-93, 48-83, 38-68, 43-53, respectively; segment VI; VII; VIII each with 1, 1, 4 fleshy setae. Clypeolabral shield 128-168 μm long, 125-168 μm wide. Labium 68-80 μm long, 80-113 μm wide. Legs (Figure 2H) well developed, with a tibio-tarsal articulation and an articulatory sclerosis; claw without denticle; tarsal digitules slender, knobbed; claw digitules broad, and expanded at apex; hind trochanter + femur 275-370 μm long, hind tibia + tarsus 385-558 μm long; claw 35-45 μm long. Ratio of lengths of hind tibia + tarsus to hind trochanter + femur 1.4-1.8. Ratio of lengths of hind tarsus to tibia 1.9-2.3. Anterior spiracles each 68-88 μm long, 45-60 μm wide; posterior spiracles (Figure 2F) each 75-100 μm long, 55-75 μm wide. Spiracular pores (Figure 2D) present in narrow bands one to three pores wide between margin and each spiracle; each mainly with five loculi, 5 μm in diameter, 22-43 in anterior spiracular pore band, 33-56 in posterior spiracular pore band. Multilocular pores (Figure 2J) 7-8 μm in diameter, mainly ten loculi, frequent around anal area, in transverse bands on abdomen, and also scattered in head and thorax. Ventral microducts (Figure 2G) scattered. Ventral tubular ducts (Figure 2I) of two types present: I) a duct (Figure 2I1) with a narrow inner ductule and a well-developed terminal gland; outer ductule 10-15 μm long, 3-4 μm wide, inner ductule 16-20 μm long, 1-2 μm wide, 5 μm wide for terminal gland; present submarginally on posterior segments, where they are mixed with type II ducts, a few ducts also present medially on abdominal segments (occasionally present on submarginal head and thorax). II) a duct (Figure 2I2) with a slender inner filament; outer ductule 14-16 μm long, 2-3 μm wide, inner ductule 13-18 μm long, 1 μm wide; numerous in submarginal area and mixed with ducts of type I, but becoming sparse on thorax and head, a few present medially on abdominal segments.


China (Jiangsu and Shanghai)

Host plant.

Sapindus saponaria  L. ( Sapindaceae  )


The specific epithet is taken from the genus name of host plant.


The new species is easily distinguished from the two other Leptopulvinaria  species by having dorsal tubular ducts, microducts, and setae arranged in a reticulate pattern, and numerous multilocular pores on head and thorax. Moreover, L. sapinda  sp. n. has a group of preopercular pores extending from anterior anal plates to prothorax, and has 10-15 dorsal tubercles between each posterior stigmatic cleft and the anal cleft, whereas L. elaeocarpi  has a small group of preopercular pores restricted to anterior anal plates, and 1-4 dorsal tubercles between each posterior stigmatic cleft and the anal cleft. In L. kawaii  , preopercular pores are absent (or if there are any, then they are difficult to see) and there are only 0-7 dorsal tubercles between each posterior stigmatic cleft and the anal cleft.

During the pre-oviposition period, the adult females of this new species suck plant juices mainly along the main and lateral veins of leaves (Figure 1C). When ovipositing, they usually climb to the trunk and branches (although occasionally they stay on the leaves) to lay eggs (Figure 1B, 1D). Similar behavior, namely changing infesting place on the host trees before ovipositon is also reported in L. kawaii  ( Kawai 1980). This fact may indicate that L. sapinda  sp. n. is probably close to L. kawaii  and supports the placement of the new species in this genus.